Indicators of Sustainable Development Principles and Practices

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1 Indicators of Sustainable Development Principles and Practices Division for Sustainable Development United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

2 Policy demand for SD indicators (UNCED) Chapter 40: Information for Decision-Making Par. 40.6: Development of Indicators of Sustainable Development Countries at the national level and international governmental and non-governmental organizations at the international level should develop the concept of indicators of sustainable development in order to identify such indicators Par. 40.7: Promotion of the Global Use of Indicators.The organs and organizations of the UN system could provide recommendations for harmonized development of indicators at the national, regional and global levels, and for incorporation of a suitable set of these indicators in common, regularly updated, and widely accessible reports and databases, for use at the international level, subject to national sovereignty considerations

3 Policy demand for SD indicators (CSD 3) The CSD 3 rd Session (1995) approved a 5 year Programme of Work on Indicators of Sustainable Development Main Objective: A core list of indicators of sustainable development accessible to decision-makers at the national level by the year Achieved by defining them, elucidating their methodologies and providing training and other capacity-building activities, as relevant.

4 CSD Work Programme on Indicators Adopted in 1995 with the following key elements: Enhancing information exchange Developing methodology sheets Training and capacity building Testing of indicators and monitoring of experiences Evaluation and adjustment

5 Phase I ( 95-96) Main Phases of implementing the CSD Work Programme - Development of Indicator Methodology Sheets and detailed programme of indicators; - Establishment of two working groups a) expert group of 45 members from UN agencies and NGOs; b) group of government experts/representatives

6 Main Phases of implementing the CSD Work Programme con t Phase 2 ( 96-98) - Training and capacity-building with regional workshops; - Voluntary national testing Phase 3 ( ) lessons learned - Evaluation of the testing results and indicator set; - Working List of Indicators (core set of 58 indicators)

7 Methodology Sheets Consistent format given, including definition of the indicator and unit of measurement Purpose and usefulness of the SD indicator Conceptual underpinnings associated with the indicator, including the policy context List of the agencies (lead and cooperating) involved in the preparation of the methodology sheet

8 Policy demand for statistics and indicators (WSSD) Strengthen national and regional information and statistical and analytical services relevant to sustainable development polices and programmes (WSSD: X,129); Encourage and promote further work on indicators for sustainable development by countries at the national level (WSSD: X,130,131); Develop information systems that make the sharing of valuable data possible (WSSD:X,132 (b)); Support countries, particularly developing countries in their national efforts to collect data that are accurate, long-term, consistent and reliable (WSSD:X,133 (a)).

9 Policy demand for statistics and indicators (CSD ) Encourages further work on indicators for sustainable development by countries at the national level, including integration of gender aspects, on a voluntary basis, in line with national conditions and priorities (CSD 11 par.13) Underscores that reporting to the CSD be guided by.effective use of indicators.. (CSD 11 par. 14d)

10 Criteria for indicator selection Policy-relevant Specific Valid Reliable/high quality Accessible Measurable User-friendly Cost-effective

11 Sustainable Development - frameworks and indicators Frameworks and approaches Lists of indicators Focus of this presentation is on the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) list of indicators and the Millennium Development Indicators

12 CSD Indicators of Sustainable Development Guidelines and Methodologies Core set of 58 indicators with flexible adaptation at the national level Description of themes and sub-themes Methodology sheet for each indicator by lead agency Guidelines for national implementation (http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm)

13 Indicators of Sustainable Development

14 Framework Dimension Theme Sub-Theme Indicators Social Environmental Economic Institutional

15 Theme Equity Health (6) Education (36) Housing (7) Security Population (5) Sub-theme Poverty Gender Equality Nutritional Status Mortality Sanitation Drinking Water Healthcare Delivery Education Level Literacy Living Conditions Crime (36, 24) Population Change SOCIAL Percent of Population Living below Poverty Line Gini Index of Income Inequality Unemployment Rate Ratio of Average Female Wage to Male Wage Nutritional Status of Children Mortality Rate Under 5 Years Old Life Expectancy at Birth Percent of Population with Adequate Sewage Disposal Facilities Population with Access to Safe Drinking Water Percent of Population with Access to Primary Health Care Facilities Immunization against Infectious Childhood Diseases Contraceptive Prevalence Rate Children Reaching Grade 5 of Primary Education Adult Adult Secondary Education Achievement Level Adult Literacy Rate Floor Area per Person Number of Recorded Crimes per 100,000 Population Population Growth Rate Indicator Population of Urban Formal and Informal Settlements

16 Theme Atmosphere Land (10) Oceans, Seas and Coasts (17) Fresh Water (18) Biodiversity (15) Sub-theme Climate Change Ozone Layer Depletion Air Quality Agriculture (14) Forest (11) Desertification (12) Urbanization (7) Coastal Zone Fisheries Water Quality Water Quality Ecosystem Species ENVIRONMENTAL Emission of Greenhouse Gases Consumption of Ozone Depleting Substances Ambient Concentration of Air Pollutants in Urban Areas Arable and Permanent Crop Land Area Use of Fertilizers Use of Agriculture Pesticides Forest Area as a Percent of Land Area Wood Harvesting Intensity Land Affected by Desertification Area of Urban Formal and Informal Settlements Algae Concentration in Coastal Waters Percent of Total Population Living in Coastal Areas Annual Catch by Major Species Annual Withdrawal of Ground and Surface Water as a Percent of Total Available Water BOD in Water Bodies Indicator Concentration of Faecal Coliform in Freshwater Areas of Selected Key Ecosystems Protected Area as a % of Total Area Abundance of Selected Key Species

17 ECONOMIC Theme Economic Structure (2) Consumption and Production Patterns (4) Sub-theme Economic Performance Trade Financial Status (33) Material Consumption Energy Use Waste Generation and Management (19-22) Transportation Indicator GDP per Capita Investment Share in GDP Balance of Trade in Goods and Services Debt to GNP Ratio Total ODA Given or Received as a Percent of GNP Intensity of Material Use Annual Energy Consumption per Capita Share of Consumption of Renewable Energy Resources Intensity of Energy Use Generation of Industrial and Municipal Solid Waste Generation of Hazardous Waste Generation of Radioactive Waste Waste Recycling and Reuse Distance Traveled per Capita by Mode of Transport

18 Theme Institutional Framework (38, 39) Sub-theme Strategic Implementation Of SD (8) International Cooperation Information Access (40) INSTITUTIONAL Indicator National Sustainable Development Strategy Implementation of Ratified Global Agreements Number of Internet Subscribers per 1000 Inhabitants Institutional Capacity (37) Communication Infrastructure (40) Science and Technology (35) Disaster Preparedness and Response Main Telephone Lines per 1000 Inhabitants Expenditure on Research and Development as a Percent GDP Economic and Human Loss Due to Natural Disasters

19 Millennium Declaration Adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2000 by 189 nations Commitment to a set of values and principles 8 Millennium Development Goals 18 Targets and 48 Indicators to be reported on by member states (http://millenniumindicators.un.org/unsd/mi/mi_goals.asp)

20 Challenges Lack of data and development capacity International harmonization efforts Further indicator development in less advanced substantive areas Training in integrated information management

21 DSD Focus DSD responding to challenges by: Support for national, sub-regional and regional indicator networks Technical cooperation projects Sustainable Development Information Management for SIDS in the Caribbean Region

22 Guidelines for Testing & Follow-up National Coordinating Mechanism & Focal Point Gap analysis including a baseline assessment and priority selection through a consultative process Assessment of capacity-building needs Action Plan Dissemination strategy Periodic evaluation and re-assessment

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