PROTEIN. What is protein?

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1 PROTEIN What is protein? Protein is the basic building block for the human body. It is made up of amino acids and helps build muscles, blood, hair, skin, nails and internal organs. Next to water, protein is the most plentiful substance in the body. Most of the body s protein is located in the skeletal muscles. Protein provides 4 calories per gram and is found in foods like meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, beans, nuts and tofu. What does protein do? Regulates bodily functions Produces collagen to build connective tissue for the skin, hair, and nails Helps build muscle and maintain lean body tissue Transport nutrients, oxygen and waste throughout the body How does protein aid in weight loss? Protein aids weight loss because it helps improve satiety. It takes longer for the stomach to digest protein so it helps you feel full. The body also uses more energy to digest protein than it does for fat or carbohydrates so it aids weight loss. Protein also helps to steady blood sugars so sugar highs and sugar crashes are less intense.

2 How much protein is needed after weight loss surgery? Most experts agree that grams per day are a minimum, with others recommending closer to 100 grams of protein per day. Initially after surgery, it will be very difficult or impossible to get this amount from diet alone. Adding protein supplementation to the diet (in liquid/powder form) will greatly assist you in reaching your daily protein goal. As your dietary intake increases during the post-operative period, more of your protein intake will come from your diet, but there may still be a role for protein supplementation for weight loss maintenance. What are indicators of insufficient protein intake? Delayed healing, weakness and fatigue are signs of insufficient protein intake. Not consuming enough protein may also cause a weight loss plateau. Additionally, hair loss, thinning of the hair and dry, brittle nails may be related to poor protein intake. With time, and proper intake, hair loss is generally reversible. Which foods are the best sources of protein? Meats and meat alternatives o Meat, poultry, fish, and eggs are of high biological value. These are complete proteins as they contain all the essential amino acids that your body needs. Soy, tofu and legumes are also excellent sources of protein Dairy products o Dairy products also contain a lot of high quality protein, but beware of the fat content of many of these foods! Vegetables, Grains, Seeds and Nuts o These foods contain protein, but are typically not complete sources. Be sure to eat these foods in combination to get the most variety of amino acids!

3 Protein Drinks & Supplements Protein powders are concentrated sources of protein. They can be sprinkled on food or mixed with water to make a shake. Both whey and soy powders are considered complete proteins. Whey protein is digested quickly by the body and absorbed well therefore, always choose whey protein first. Here is an example of a Nutrition Facts label from a protein powder supplement: Make note of: Serving size (1 rounded scoop) Calories (look for less than 150) Fat per serving (only 1 g) this should be low to avoid extra calories! Total carbohydrates (3 g) again, this should be low to avoid calories. Protein per serving (24 grams!!) Ingredient list shows the source of protein in this case it is a whey protein powder. See Protein Drinks & Supplements handout for recommended protein supplements for after surgery.

4 Your daily protein goal is: grams PROTEIN Tips to increase PROTEIN: Add non-fat powdered milk or soy/whey powder to hot cereal, pudding, milk, yogurt and cottage cheese Mix hot cereal, mashed potatoes, sugar free-hot chocolate with MILK (1% or skim) Use a protein powder and mix in any foods (soup, pudding, yogurt, hot cereal) Try mixing an unflavored protein powder to foods To avoid extra calories, choose lean meats that are baked, broiled, grilled, or poached. Allow extra fat to drip off or drain away. Examples of lean protein choices: Lean Salmon, tuna (bluefin steak), farmed catfish, mackerel, herring, sirloin steak, roast, lamb, pork chops or tenderloin, 85-94% lean ground meats, chicken and turkey (dark meat), firm or soft tofu, whole eggs (limit to 3/week) Leaner Swordfish, trout, halibut, skinless chicken breast or white meat, 95-97% lean ground meats, light turkey meat, extra-firm tofu, combination of whole eggs and egg whites Leanest Cod, flounder, haddock, orange roughy, grouper, tilapia, mahi mahi, tuna (yellowfin steak or canned in water), wild catfish, crab, scallops, shrimp, lobster, deer, buffalo, elk, 98% lean ground meats, egg whites, eggbeaters, veggie burgers with less than 6 grams of carbohydrate/patty

5 Good Sources of Protein Meat, fish and poultry are all high biological sources of protein however, legumes nuts and seeds also add additional protein to the diet. This table lists good sources of protein for increasing your daily protein intake. Food Portion Protein Calories Poultry Perdue Fit & Easy Ground 1 oz 8 grams 28 Chicken Perdue Fit & Easy Ground Turkey Breast 1 oz. 8 grams 38 Turkey Breast, no skin 1 oz. 8 grams 47 Chicken Breast, no skin 1 oz. 9 grams 47 Chicken Drumstick, no skin 1 oz. 7 grams 50 Perdue Lean Ground Turkey, 1 oz. 7 grams 47 7% fat Turkey Leg, no skin 1 oz. 7 grams 50 Beef Chuck eye steak, choice, 0 trim 1 oz. 6 grams 45 Ground hamburger, 90% lean 1 oz. 8 grams 61 Pork Tenderloin, 0 trim 1 oz. 8 grams 50 Veal Cutlet 1 oz. 6 grams 45 Game & Other Meat Buffalo 1 oz. 9 grams 41 Deer 1 oz. 8 grams 44 Venison 1 oz. 10 grams 59 Fish Flounder 1 oz. 7 grams 33 Crab meat 1 oz. 6 grams 33 Wild Coho Salmon 1oz. 7 grams 40 Lobster 1 oz. 5 grams 28 Snapper 1 oz. 7 grams 36 Shrimp, boiled 1 oz. (5 large) 6 grams 28 Tuna, in water 1 oz. 7 grams 36 Perch 1 oz. 8 grams 33 Flounder 1 oz. 7 grams 33 Haddock 1 oz. 6 grams 32 Nuts & Nut Butters Better n Peanut Butter 2 Tbsp 4 grams 100 PB2 2 Tbsp 5 grams 45

6 Eggs & Egg Substitutes Egg, large 1 egg 6 grams 70 Egg White 1 egg white 4 grams 17 Eggbeaters 3 Tbsp 5 grams 25 Beans & Legumes Tofu ¼ cup 5 grams 95 Fat-free refried beans ¼ cup 5 grams 68 Barley ¼ cup 7 grams 50 Baked beans ¼ cup 4 grams 80 Kidney beans ¼ cup 3.5 grams 55 Black beans ¼ cup 4 grams 57 Edamame ¼ cup 3 grams 33 Chickpeas ¼ cup 3 grams 72 Pinto beans ¼ cup 3 grams 52 Lentils ¼ cup 5 grams 58 Miso ¼ cup 8 grams 134 Veggie Burger 1 Patty grams Dairy Fat-free Cottage Cheese ¼ cup 7 grams 40 Fat-free American Cheese 1 slice 7 grams 35 Fat-free Cheddar Cheese 1 oz. 5 grams 18 Fat-free Feta Cheese 1 oz. 7 grams 35 Skim Milk 8 oz. 8 grams 80 Non-fat dry milk 2 Tbsp 3 grams 10 Part-skim Mozzarella 1 oz. 6 grams 80 Part-skim Ricotta 1 oz. 3 grams 39 Fat-free Yogurt 6 oz 5 grams 80 Fat-free Plain Greek Yogurt 6 oz 18 grams 100 Oikos Nonfat Frozen Yogurt ½ cup 6 grams 100 Artic Zero Frozen Dessert ½ cup 3.4 grams 37 Grains Quinoa ½ cup 4 grams 112 Special K Protein Plus ¾ cup 10 grams 120 Conversion Chart 1 oz 2 Tbsp 2 oz 4 Tbsp (1/4 cup) 3 oz 5 Tbsp (1/3 cup) 4 oz 8 Tbsp (1/2 cup) 8 oz 16 Tbsp (1 cup) Bariatric Care Center: Dietitian:

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