E. Russell, E. Hiby, F. Abson

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1 Rabies Control in Bali: Animal Welfare and Mass Dog Vaccination World Society for the Protection of Animals FERA The 1st International Conference on Dog Population Management 4-8 th September 2012 E. Russell, E. Hiby, F. Abson World Society for the Protection of Animals 5 th floor, 222 Gray's Inn Rd, London WC1X 8HB, UK

2 Last year on World Rabies Day, 28 September 2011, WSPA launched it s Red Collar Campaign WSPA is calling on all Governments to stop the culling of dogs in response to rabies and to implement the only proven and humane solution mass dog vaccination.

3 Collars not Cruelty The Red Collar campaign Why are we campaigning? More than 20 million dogs are inhumanely culled each year One of the excuses given is rabies prevention

4 The Global Burden of Rabies Rabies kills an estimated people every year (Coleman et al. 2004, Knobel et al. 2005) Rabies is predominantly transmitted through saliva of infected animals (dog bites) If untreated, rabies attacks the central nervous system, leading to an almost certain death 95% of the deaths occur in Africa & Asia, where rabies is endemic in the dog population (WHO rabies factsheet, 2011) Most victims are reported to be children under the age of 16 (Pancharoen et al. 2001, Cleaveland et al. 2002, Knobel et al. 2005, Fevre et al. 2005)

5 Dog population and rabies control Roaming dogs are common across the world, many are owned but some have no identifiable owner The choices appear to be culling, impounding or vaccinating dogs We know that the mass removal of dogs can impede vaccination coverage and increase disease risk A stable, safe (i.e. vaccinated) dog population is the best defense against rabies

6 So what s the theory? Rabies is 100% preventable In 1885, Dr Pasteur and Dr Roux developed a rabies vaccine for humans and one for canines Rabies control and prevention is achievable Vaccinating 70% of dog population creates herd immunity and stops disease spread (WHO 2005)

7 Rabies is a vaccine preventable disease. The most cost effective strategy for preventing rabies in people is by eliminating rabies in dogs through vaccination, World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 What do others have to say? The control and elimination of rabies in dogs through vaccination remains the only cost effective way to sustainably protect humans from contracting the disease. World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) 2011 Vaccinating dogs against rabies is the key to stopping this terrifying disease. It protects the dogs from rabies and creates a barrier between the disease and the people Global Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC) 2012

8 Rabies reached Bali in 2008 (after circa 20 years of being rabies free, possibly longer) A widespread cull was initiated by the Government: 130,000 dogs culled However, human deaths rose The Bali Case Study WSPA and BAWA convinced the Government to stop culling and implement the first island-wide mass vaccination programme March 2011: first phase of mass vaccination programme completed 210,000 dogs were vaccinated (>70% of dog population)

9 The Bali Case Study The Results Comparative data of 6 month periods - Before (Apr.-Sep. 2010)/ During (Oct Mar. 2011) 35% decrease in human rabies deaths (46 30) 76% decrease in dog rabies cases (267 63)

10 Mass vaccination - the only global solution to rabies Latin America ( ) 99% decrease in dog cases 96% decrease in human cases India: Jaipur Zero reported cases since 2002 Humane mass dog vaccination programmes control rabies regardless of geography, climate or politics

11 Why invest in mass dog vaccination? The global burden of rabies is estimated to be 4,000 million USD pa (Hampson et al) If governments don t invest now, the associated costs of rabies will continue to rise: PEP post exposure prophylaxis DALYs disability-adjusted life years Livestock losses Bali: mass vaccination without culling can provide significant monetary benefits

12 Critical factors of a successful mass vaccination programme Mass vaccination must be achieved quickly and systematically: Based on a survey of the total dog population, not simply the number of registered dogs Vaccinated dogs must be identified with a temporary mark Vaccination campaign must proceed consistently and uniformly, but, speed is not as important as coverage Assessment of vaccination coverage must be based on post-campaign surveys, not on vaccine utilization Mass vaccination must be achieved in cooperation with the community: Sensitizing the public and ensuring confidence in the campaign (humane handling, good standards) Encouraging owners to bring and restrain their own dogs, promoting responsible pet ownership

13 To conclude Why mass culling is not the answer to rabies It is cruel It does not stop rabies spreading between dogs It does not stop rabies spreading to people It is opposed by local communities and does not stop rabies spreading from place to place

14 Thank you for your time and attention

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