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7 Fitness and Academic Achievement 245 Table 2 Intercorrelations Between Variables for All Participants Variable Total achievement 2. Mathematics achievement.90** 3. Reading achievement.92**.86** 4. Age (years) Sex Poverty index School.15*.10.15*.16*.07.18** 8. Total fitness (z score).42**.45**.41** PACER.48**.49**.45**.04.19** ** 10. BMI.28**.27**.28** **.23** 11. Curl-ups.22**.24**.24** **.34**.23** 12. Push-ups.18**.19**.17**.03.15*.04.13*.62**.30**.02.36** 13. Sit and Reach.13*.19**.11.17**.17** **.15*.14*.12*.17** Note. PACER = progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run; BMI = body mass index; sit and reach = mean score of back-saver sit and reach. *p <.05, **p <.01.

9 Fitness and Academic Achievement 247 Table 4 Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Variables Predicting Reading Achievement Variable B SE B β Step 1 Age Sex School Step 2 PACER *** BMI ** Push-ups Curl-ups Sit and reach *p <.05, **p <.01, ***p <.001. The Step 1 regression analysis for mathematics achievement was not significant, adjusted R 2 <.01, F(3, 255) = 1.8, p =.15, indicating that age, sex, and school were unrelated to performance in mathematics achievement. The Step 2 regression analysis was significant, R 2 =.28, F(5, 250) = 19.9, p <.001. There were significant effects for BMI, pr =.15, t(250) = 2.3, p =.02, β =.13, and for PACER, pr =.41, t (250) = 7.1, p <.001, β =.42, indicating that lower BMI and higher aerobic fitness were positively related to mathematics achievement (see Table 5). Table 5 Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Variables Predicting Mathematics Achievement Variable B SE B β Step 1 Age Sex School Step 2 PACER *** BMI * Push-ups Curl-ups Sit and Reach *p <.05, **p <.01, ***p <.001.

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