1 To begin, look at the face of the calculator. Most keys on the 17BII have two functions: a key's primary function is noted in white on the key itself, while the key's secondary function is noted in gold above the key. To use the function on the key, simply press the key. To access the gold function above each key, first press the key with the solid gold face, which we will call the "gold shift" key, and then press the desired function key. (Note that the gold shift key is near the lower left corner of the calculator keyboard.) Turning the Calculator On and Off CLR To turn on the calculator, press. Note that the ON key is on the lower left corner of the keyboard the face of the key has a white "CLR," while the word "ON" appears below the key. Also, we will designate keys throughout this tutorial by the use of small boxes, as above. To conserve the battery, the calculator turns itself off about 10 minutes after your last keystroke. OFF To turn the calculator off, press. Here we are using the solid black square to represent the gold shift key. Thus, the keystrokes to turn the calculator off are (1) press the gold shift key, and (2) then press the CLR key. Note that the word "OFF" appears above the CLR key in gold. Thus, by pressing the gold shift key first, we are activating the gold function above the CLR key, which is the off function. Also, note that pressing the gold shift key places a little up arrow symbol in the upper left corner of the display. Press the gold shift key again and the symbol goes away. The key is a toggle key that switches back and forth between the regular and the gold functions. is like the typewriter shift key. After you press, look only at the gold writing. Note that the calculator has a continuous memory, so turning it off does not affect any data stored in the calculator. The Menu System The HP17BII differs from many calculators in that it uses a menu system. To access the main menu, press MAIN. The display shows five menu choices: FIN, BUS, SUM, TIME, and SOLVE. To access one of the menu choices, press the arrowhead key directly below the appropriate choice. To illustrate, press FIN the arrowhead key directly below FIN. (We will designate this operation by. Thus, a shaded box means press one of the arrowhead keys rather than one of the regular keys.) Now a new set of menu
2 Page 2 choices appears. Press TVM to get into the time value of money menu. To get back to the main menu, MAIN EXIT either press or press a number of times until the menu items stop changing. Clearing the Calculator CLEAR DATA To clear the calculator s memory, press. Clearing the calculator is very important, since unwanted data in memory can result in improper calculations, and hence wrong answers. It is best to get into the habit of automatically clearing memory before starting a calculation. Occasionally, you may purposely want to save data, but, in general, you will be entering all new data, so starting with a clear memory is the safest approach. There are three different levels of clearing data: CLEAR DATA clears all memory and the display. CLR» clears the entire display, but not the memory. clears numbers on the display one at a time if you made a mistake entering data. Changing the Display To change the number of decimal places from 2 to 4, press , is displayed. DSP FIX 4. Now press Note that the calculator display itself is often used to designate calculator functions. When this occurs, we shade the box as above. To invoke the function displayed, press the arrowhead key directly below the function. DSP FIX 2 To change from 4 places to 2, press. Now press , is displayed. (Rounding is automatic.) We usually set the display to 2 places, which is especially convenient when working with dollars and percentages. However, we often use 4 places when dealing with interest rates and rates of return that are entered as decimals. CLR + - To control the brightness of the display, hold down and press or.
3 Page 3 Periods per Year Setting One important setting that can cause problems is the periods per year setting. To check the current setting, MAIN FIN TVM first press to get the main menu, and then press. The display shows the setting for periods/year. The calculator comes pre-set at 12 periods per year, that is, it assumes calculations will be done on a monthly basis. However, the problems in finance textbooks generally use 1 period/year. To change to 1/year: FIN TVM OTHER 1 P/YR 1) From the main menu, press. EXIT MAIN 2) Return to the main menu by pressing three times or. Time Value of Money (TVM) To enter the time value of money menu, do the following: FIN TVM From the main menu, press. In general, TVM problems involve four variables three are known and the fourth is unknown. Lump Sums To begin, we consider TVM calculations with single (lump) sums. In this situation, we do not have CLEAR DATA payments, so be sure to either press, which sets the payment (PMT) equal to 0, or enter 0 for the PMT. If you know any three variables, you can find the value of the fourth.
4 Page 4 Example 1: What is the FV of $100 after 3 years if the interest rate is 26 percent? First, clear with and enter the following data: CLEAR DATA 3 N 26 I%YR 100 PV PMT 0 (Optional if registers are cleared.) Next, press FV and the future value of -$ is displayed. The HP is programmed so that if the PV is + then the FV is displayed as - and vice versa, because the HP assumes that one is an inflow and the other is an outflow. If you are entering both PV and FV, one must be entered as negative and the other positive. Example 2: What is the PV of $500 due in 5 years if the interest rate is 10 percent? Clear data first and then enter the following: 5 N 10 I%YR PMT 0 (Optional if registers are cleared.) 500 FV Next, press and the present value of -$ is displayed. Thus, $ will grow to $500 in 5 PV years at a 10 percent rate.
5 Page 5 Example3: Assume a bond can be purchased today for $200. It will return $1,000 after 14 years. The bond pays no interest during its life. What rate of return would you earn if you bought the bond? 14 N 0 PMT 1000 FV Next, press I%YR and a rate of return of percent is displayed. Remember to press +/- PV +/- 200 (The key changes the sign.) +/- to convert the 200 to -200 because the purchase of the bond is a cash outflow! Now suppose you learn that the bond will actually cost $300. What rate of return will you earn? +/- PV I%YR Override the -200 by simply entering 300 and then press to get 8.98 percent. If you pay more for the bond, you earn less on it. The important thing, though, is that you can do what if analyses with the calculator. Ordinary Annuities Now we will use the PMT key, and either the PV or the FV key, depending on whether we want to find the PV or the FV of the annuity.
6 Page 6 Example 1: What is the FV of an annuity of $100 paid at the end of each year for 5 years if the interest rate equals 6 percent? 0 6% /))))))))3))))))))3))))))))3))))))))3)))))))) N 6 I%YR 0 PV 100 +/- PMT Now press the Example 2: FV key, and an FV of $ is displayed. What is the PV of the same annuity? PV Leave data in calculator, but enter 0 as the FV to override, then press to get $ Annuities Due Each payment of an annuity due occurs at the beginning of the period instead of at the end as with a regular annuity. In essence, each payment is shifted back one period. To analyze annuities due press FIN TVM OTHER BEG. The words BEGIN MODE appear on the screen. Now the HP analyzes the cash flows based on beginning of period payments. Change back to end mode by pressing EXIT get back to the TVM menu press. Interest Conversion The following equation is used to convert a nominal rate to an effective rate. END. To Given: k Nom = 10% and m = 12 payments/year,
7 Page 7 This formula is fine, however, the calculator can be used to convert the rates much faster. FIN ICNV PER From the main menu press. Now, enter 12 and then press P to compound 12 times per year. NOM % To enter 10 percent as the nominal rate, press 10. Now, to determine the effective rate simply press EFF % and percent is displayed. Cash Flow Operations The HP is useful for finding the PV, FV, and IRR (rate of return) of a series of unequal cash flows. Example 1: Uneven Cash Flows Assume the following cash flows: 0 10% /))))))))3))))))))3))))))))3)))))))) CLEAR DATA What is the PV of these CFs? Clear the memory by pressing. You should also clear any previously entered cash flow lists by pressing FIN CFLO CLEAR DATA YES. #T? Now, press until #TIMES PROMPTING: OFF is displayed because each cash flow is different than the one before it and thus occurs only one time. There is no need for the HP to prompt you for the number of times that a particular cash flow occurs since each one is different than the one before it.
8 Page 8 The screen should now display FLOW(0)=?. Next, enter the following: 0 This enters 0 as the cash flow at time This enters 50 as the CF This enters 100 as the CF This enters 150 as the CF This enters 200 as the CF 4. After all the cash flows have been entered, press EXIT to return to the menu. Select CALC and NPV, NUS, NFV NEED I% is displayed. I% Now enter the 10 percent interest rate by pressing 10. At this point the HP knows the cash flows, the number of periods, and the interest rate. To find the NPV, NPV press to get PV = NPV = $ Example 2: Embedded Annuities Assume the following cash flows, which contain embedded annuities or groups of equal, consecutive cash flows: 0 10% /)))))))3))))))3))))))3))))))3))))))3))))))3))))))3))))))3)))) )) What s the PV? Clear the previously entered cash flow lists by pressing main menu. FIN CFLO CLEAR DATA YES from the #T? Now enter until #TIMES PROMPTING: ON is displayed. After each cash flow is entered the calculator will prompt you for the number of times that cash flow occurs. This feature saves you from having to enter identical, consecutive cash flows one by one. If each cash flow is different than the one before it (see previous example), then the #TIMES PROMPTING can be turned off.
9 The screen should now display FLOW(0)=?. Hewlett-Packard 17BII Tutorial Page 9
10 Page 10 Next enter the cash flows. 0 This enters 0 as CF This enters 100 as the CF 1. 3 This tells the HP that the $100 CF occurs three consecutive times. 200 This enters 200 as the CF 2. 2 This tells the HP that the $200 CF occurs two consecutive times. 300 This enters 300 as the CF 3. 4 This tells the HP that the $300 CF occurs four consecutive times. After all the cash flows have been entered, press EXIT to return to the menu. Select CALC and NPV, NUS, NFV NEED I% is displayed. I% Now enter the 10 percent interest rate by pressing 10. At this point the HP knows the cash flows, the number of periods, and the interest rate. To find the NPV, NPV press to get PV = NPV = $1, Lastly, the > and? keys can be used to view your cash flow list entries. First, exit to the menu that looks like this: CALC INSR DELET NAME GET #T? Then simply use the > and? keys to view the cash flow entries. Example 3: The Rate of Return Offered by an Investment (IRR) 1 Assume that we invest $1,000 now (t = 0) and then expect to receive an uneven set of cash flows. Here is the CF time line: 1 If a negative CF occurs at the end of a project s life, then the HP may give an error message, indicating that STO IRR there are two IRRs. Enter data, then enter 10 to get the first IRR. Then enter a large percentage, such as STO IRR 100 to find the other IRR. You might have to experiment with guesses to locate the two IRRs.
11 Page 11 What rate of return will we earn? /))))))))3))))))))3))))))))3)))))))) Clear the previously entered cash flow lists by pressing press #T? until the #TIMES PROMPTING is turned off. FIN CFLO CLEAR DATA YES. Now Now enter the cash flows as follows: / After all the cash flows have been entered, press EXIT to return to the menu. Select CALC and NPV, NUS, NFV NEED I% is displayed. I% Now enter the 10 percent interest rate by pressing 10. At this point the HP knows the cash flows, the number of periods, and the interest rate. IRR% To find the IRR, press to get IRR = 16.71%. You can also determine the NPV of the investment. Leave data entered and then enter the opportunity cost interest rate, say 8 percent. To find NPV press: 8 I% NPV The NPV of $ is displayed. Thus, the PV of the cash inflows exceeds the cost of the investment by $ Statistical Calculations
12 Page 12 The HP can also be used for several types of statistical calculations. Mean and Standard Deviation (F) Year Sales 1994 $ What s the mean (average) and standard deviation (F) of sales over the 3 years? SUM The first step is to enter the data into a sum list. From the main menu press. Clear any previously entered sum lists by next pressing: CLEAR DATA ITEM(1)=? is displayed. YES. Enter the sales data into the sum list as follows: EXIT CALC Now press to return to the menu and then press to display the following menu: TOTAL MEAN MEDN STDEV RANG MORE Press MEAN and the mean of $ is displayed. Press STDEV and the standard deviation of $84.01 is displayed.
13 Page 13 Linear Regression Beta coefficients can be calculated by using the HP s linear regression capabilities. The X (independent variable) and Y (dependent variable) values must be entered in the proper sequence, where the X data is on the horizontal axis (market) and Y data is on the vertical axis (stock). Enter the data as follows. Year Market (k M ) Stock (k j ) % 38.6% To clear any previously entered list, from the main menu, press: SUM CLEAR ALL YES. First we must create two sum lists: one for the x-values and one for the y-values. Each list must have the same number of items. To create a sum list for the x-values do the following: Enter the five X variables: / Now we must store this list under a name before we create another sum list for the Y variables. Store the X variable sum list as follows: EXIT NAME
14 Page 14 The HP now asks you to input a name for the sum list. We will name the list X by pressing: WXYZ X Of course you could have named the list any name that sufficiently describes the contents of the list (market return) such as KM or MKRT. We have just created a sum list names X, which contains the five X variables. The display now shows ITEM(6)=? but we need to create a sum list for the Y variables starting with Item(1). To create a new sum list for Y, start a new list as follows: GET *NEW This tells the HP to start a new sum list. Now simply enter the Y variables and name the list Y just as you did for the X variables above. CALC MORE FRCST Next, press. At this time, the HP asks you to select the X variable from the lists we created: X Y Press to select the list named X and press to select the list named Y as the Y variable. Next, we must select the curve-fitting model we want to use by pressing: MORE MODL LIN. To calculate the curve-fitting results, press CORR M B Calculates the correlation coefficient, Calculates the slope coefficient, or the beta coefficient, Calculates the Y-intercept, That s all there is to it! Amortization The amortization menu calculates the loan balance after payments are made and calculates the amount of the payments applied toward interest and principal.
15 Page 15 Example: Assume a $1,000 loan at 10 percent with annual payments is amortized over 3 years. Create an amortization schedule for this loan. FIN TVM OTHER 1 P/YR From the main menu, press to set payments/year equal to 1. Exit to the TVM menu and enter the following: 3 N 10 I%YR 1000 PV Next, to calculate the payment press PMT and the loan payment of $ is displayed. Now press OTHER AMRT to enter the amortization menu. Key in the number of payments for which to calculate the amortization schedule: Now press: 1 #P We entered 1 because we want to determine the principal paid, interest paid, and remaining balance after each payment is made. INT PRIN BAL Displays interest paid in first year: INTEREST = ". Displays principal paid in first year: PRINCIPAL = ". Displays balance at end of first year: BALANCE = ". NEXT INT PRIN BAL To calculate the amortization schedule for the second year, press. Repeat for the third year. The amortization table you create should contain these results. If not, try it again. Beg. Bal. Payment Interest Princ. Repmt. Ending Bal. 1 1,
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