# Time Value of Money Level I Quantitative Methods. IFT Notes for the CFA exam

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1 Time Value of Money 2014 Level I Quantitative Methods IFT Notes for the CFA exam

3 1. Introduction Individuals often save money for future use or borrow money for current consumption. In order to determine the amount needed to invest (in case of saving) or the cost of borrowing, we need to understand the mathematics of the time value of money. Money has a time value, in that individuals place a higher value on a given amount, the earlier it is received. As a simple example, a dollar today is worth more than one dollar a year from today. This reading covers: The concept of time value of money How to interpret interest rates Types of cash flows The concepts of compounding and discounting Present value and future value How to calculate the present value and the future value for different compounding periods and different types of cash flows Practical application of determining annuity payments in mortgages and retirement planning Note: the concepts covered in this reading form the basis of subsequent topics; you will see them recurring throughout the curriculum in different forms. 2. Interest Rates: Interpretation The time value of money concerns equivalence relationships between cash flows occurring on different dates. It is based on the simple premise that a dollar today cannot be compared to a dollar one year from now. In other words, cash flows occurring at different points in time cannot be compared. Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 2

5 3. The Future Value of a Single Cash Flow In this section, we look at the relationship between an initial investment or present value (PV), and its future value (FV), which will be received N periods from today. Present value: How much money must you invest today at the rate of 10% per year to receive \$10,000 at the end of 5 years? is an example of a present value question. Future value: How much money will you have at the end of 5 years if you invest \$10,000 at the rate of 10% per year today? is an example of a future value question. We are trying to determine the value of x amount of money after a certain period of time. Suppose you invest \$100 (PV = \$100) in an interest-bearing bank account paying 5% annually. The total amount at the end of the first year can be calculated using the following formula: Equation 1 Future value for a single compounding period: FV N = PV (1 + r) N where: FV N = future value of the investment N = number of periods PV = present value of the investment r = rate of interest l Using equation 1: N = 1, PV = 100. Future value is calculated as FV 1 = \$100(1.05) 1 = \$105. The \$5 interest earned in each period on the \$100 original investment is known as simple interest. Suppose you invest the \$100 for two years instead, and the interest earned is credited to your account annually (annual compounding). What would be the future value after two years? Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 4

6 In this case, the future value is calculated as FV 2 = \$100(1.05) 2 = \$ You earn a simple interest of \$10 during the two-year period. The extra \$0.25 at the end of year 2 is the interest earned on the year 1 interest of \$5, which was reinvested. This concept is known as compounding. It is tabulated below: Table 1: Differences between simple interest and compound interest Investment = \$100; r = 5% at t=0 at t=1 at t=2 Simple Interest earned 5 5 during the period Value of investment Compound Interest (1.05) = 5.25 earned during the period Value of investment Note: as you can see there are two factors that affect the future value of an investment: rate of interest and number of periods.the effect of compounding increases with both the rate of interest and the number of periods. In short, the frequency of compounding matters as we ll see in the next section. Financial Calculator You must learn how to use a financial calculator to solve problems related to the time value of money. CFA Institute allows only two calculator models during the exam: Texas Instruments BA II Plus (including BA II Plus Professional) Hewlett Packard 12C (including the HP 12C Platinum, 12C Platinum 25th anniversary edition, 12C 30th anniversary edition, and HP 12C Prestige) Note: check the CFA Institute website for any changes in calculator policy. Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 5

8 3.1 The Frequency of Compounding Remember compounding is a term associated only with future value. Many investments pay interest more than once a year, so interest is not calculated just at the end of a year. For example, a bank might offer a monthly interest rate that compounds 12 times a year. Financial institutions often quote an annual interest rate that we refer to as the stated annual interest rate or quoted interest rate. With more than one compounding period per year, the future value formula can be expressed as: Equation 2 Future value for multiple compounding periods: FV N = where r s = the stated annual interest rate m = the number of compounding periods per year N = the number of years Worked l Example 1 You invest 80,000 in a 3-year certificate of deposit. This CD offers a stated annual interest rate of 10% compounded quarterly. How much will you have at the end of three years? Solution: PV = 80,000; m = 4; N = 3, r S = 0.1 Using equation 2, Note that the interest rate must be entered as a decimal. You can also solve this problem using a financial calculator. Plug the following values: N = 12 I/Y = 2.5 Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 7

9 PV = 80,000 PMT = 0 Compute FV = -107,591 Interpretation of the values entered in the calculator: N: N is 12 because we have 12 compounding periods: 4 periods per year x 3 years. I/Y: When N is the number of periods, I/Y has to be the interest rate per period. In this example, I/Y = 10/4 = 2.5. When we use the time value functions of the calculator, the rate must be entered as a percentage. So, I/Y = 2.5 and NOT PMT: PMT is 0 because there are no intermediate payments in this example. We will see examples later in this reading where PMT is non-zero. Signs of PV and FV: Notice that the calculator gives a negative number for future value (FV). When using the TVM functions on the calculator, the sign of the future value will always be the opposite of the sign of the present value (PV). The calculator assumes that if the PV is a cash inflow then the FV must be an outflow and vice versa. 3.2 Continuous Compounding In the previous section, we saw how discrete compounding works: interest rate is credited after a discrete amount of time has elapsed. If the number of compounding periods per year becomes infinite, then interest is said to compound continuously. Equation 3 Future value for continuous compounding: FV N = PVe rn where r = continuously compounded rate N = the number of years l Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 8

10 Worked Example 2 An investment worth \$50,000 earns interest that is compounded continuously. The stated annual interest is 3.6%. What is the future value of the investment after 3 years? Solution: PV = 50000; r = 0.036; N = 3 Using equation 3, 3.3 Stated and Effective Rates The effective annual rate (EAR) is the amount by which a unit of currency will grow in a year with interest on interest included. It illustrates the effect of frequency of compounding.the EAR can be calculated as follows: Equation 4 Effective annual rate for discrete compounding: EAR = (1 + periodic interest rate) m 1 where m = number of compounding periods in one year Periodic interest rate = Effective annual rate for continuous compounding: where r s = stated annual interest rate Assume the stated annual interest rate is 8%; compounding is semiannual. What is the effective annual rate? In this case, periodic interest rate = 4%. Using l equation 4, EAR = (1.04) 2 1 = 8.16%. This means that for every \$1 invested, we can expect to receive \$ after one year if there is semiannual compounding. Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 9

11 4. The Future Value of a Series of Cash Flows The different types of cash flows based on the time periods over which they occur include: Annuity: a finite set of constant cash flows that occurs at regular intervals. Ordinary annuity: the first cash flow occurs one period from now (indexed at t=1). Annuity due: the first cash flow occurs immediately (indexed at t=0) Perpetuity: a set of constant never-ending cash flows at regular intervals, with the first cash flow occurring one period from now. The period is finite in case of an annuity whereas in perpetuity it is infinite. 4.1 Equal Cash Flows Ordinary Annuity Consider an ordinary annuity paying 5% annually. Suppose we have five separate deposits of \$1,000 occurring at equally spaced intervals of one year, with the first payment occurring at t = 1. Our goal is to find the future value of this ordinary annuity after the last deposit at t = 5. The calculation of future value for each \$1,000 deposit is shown in the figure below. Computing the Future Value of an Ordinary Annuity x x x x The arrows extend from the payment date till t = 5. For instance, the first \$1,000 deposit made at t = 1 will compound over four periods. We add the future values of all payments to arrive at the future value of the annuity which is \$5, Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 10

12 The future value of an annuity can also be computed using a formula: Equation 5 Future value of an annuity: FV N = A {[(1+r) N 1]/r} where A = annuity N = number of years The term in curly brackets {} is known as the future value annuity factor. This factor gives the future value of an ordinary annuity of \$1 per period. On the exam, it is strongly recommended that you use the financial calculator. Given below are the l keystrokes for computing the future value of an ordinary annuity. Keystrokes Explanation Display [2nd] [QUIT] Return to standard calc mode 0 [2 nd ] [CLR TVM] Clears TVM Worksheet 0 5 [N] Five years/periods N = 5 10 [I/Y] Set interest rate I/Y = 10 0 [PV] 0 because there is no initial investment PV = [PMT] Set annuity payment PMT = 1000 [CPT] [FV] Compute future value FV = Hence, the future value is \$5, As explained earlier the calculator shows the future value as a negative number because the payment has been entered as a positive number. 4.2 Unequal Cash Flows In many cases, cash flow streams are unequal, precluding the use of the future value annuity factor. In this case, we can find the future value of a series of unequal cash flows by compounding the cash flows one at a time. This concept is illustrated in the figure below. We Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 11

13 need to find the future value of five cash flows: \$,1000 at the end of year 1, \$2,000 at the end of year 2, \$3,000 at the end of year 3, \$4,000 at the end of year 4 and \$5,000 at the end of year x x x x The future value is x x x x = \$17, The Present Value of a Single Cash Flow 5.1 Finding the Present Value of a Single Cash Flow Present value of cash flow is calculated by discounting future cash flows. The future cash flow is converted into present value. Given a cash flow that is to be received in N periods and an interest rate per period of r, we can use the following formula to solve for the present value: Present value: Equation 6 where N = number of periods r = rate of interest Copyright FV = future Irfanullah value Financial of investment Training. All rights reserved. Page 12 R

14 Some obvious deductions on present value and future value based on the above formula: r > 0 which implies that 1/(1+r) < 1 Present value of a cash flow is always less than the future value Worked Example 3 Based on the above equation, we can deduce that present value decreases as discount rate or number of periods increases. Liam purchases a contract from an insurance company. The contract promises to pay \$600,000 after 8 years with a 5% return rate. What amount of money should Liam most likely invest today? Solution: FV = 600,000; N = 8; r = 5% Using equation 6 for calculating the present value, You can solve the same using a calculator by entering the following values: N = 8 I = 5 PMT = 0 FV = \$600,000 Compute PV = - 406,104. Concept Checker: Given the above discussion, can you suggest what happens to the present value of a given cash flow if the discount rate is increased? Secondly, what happens to the present value if the cash flow is to be received at a later point in time with the discount rate unchanged? Answer: Holding time constant, the larger the discount rate, the smaller the present value of a future amount. Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 13

15 For a given discount rate, the farther in the future the amount to be received, the smaller the amount s present value. 5.2 The Frequency of Compounding For interest rates that can be paid semiannually, quarterly, monthly or even daily, we can modify the present value formula as follows: Equation 7 Present value: for multiple compounding periods: where Where N = number of periods m = number of compounding periods per year r = rate of interest r s = quoted annual interest rate or discount rate FV = future value of investment N = number of years R When R using the calculator, we set N as the number of periods. The interest rate should be set as the per-period rate. For example, if you will receive \$100 after one year and the stated annual rate is 12%, compounded monthly, then input the following values: N = 12 I = 1 PMT l = 0 l FV = 100 Compute PV = The Present Value of a Series of Cash Flows 6.1 The Present Value of a Series of Equal Cash Flows Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 14

16 An ordinary annuity is a series of equal annuity payments at equal intervals for a finite period of time. Examples of ordinary annuity: mortgage payments, pension income. The present value can be computed in three ways: 1. Sum the present values of each individual annuity payment 2. Use the present value of an annuity formula 3. Use the TVM functions of the financial calculator The first method is illustrated in the figure below for a \$1,000 five year ordinary annuity with a discount rate of 5%. Summing the present value of each individual payment will give you \$4, / / / / / The second method calculates the present value using the formula below: Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 15

17 Equation 8 Present value of an annuity: where A = r = N = annuity amount interest rate per period corresponding to the frequency of annuity payments number of annuity payments. R Worked Example 4 Quentin buys a financial asset. In accordance to the terms, the asset pays \$5000 at the end of each year for the next 7 years. Assume a required rate of return of 6.4%. What is the payment for this asset today? l Solution: A = 5000; r = 6.4%; N =7 Using equation 8, The third method is to use the time value of money functions on the financial calculator. We strongly recommend this method because it is fast and does not require you to memorize the annuity formula. Keystrokes Explanation Display [2nd] [QUIT] Return to standard calc mode 0 [2 nd ] [CLR TVM] Clears TVM Worksheet 0 7 [N] Five years/periods N = [I/Y] Set interest rate I/Y = 6.4 Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 16

18 0 [FV] Set to 0 because there is no payment other than the PV = 0 final annuity amount 5000 [PMT] Set annuity payment PMT = 5000 [CPT] [PV] Compute future value PV = -27,519 At times you might be asked to find the present value at t = 0, of an annuity which starts in the future. Consider a \$1,000, 5-year annuity where the first payment is received three years from today. The discount rate is 5%. To solve this problem first compute the present value of the annuity at t = 2, and then discount to t = 0. The present value of the five year annuity at t = 2 is 4,329. Note that this value was calculated earlier as the present value at t = 0 for an annuity where the first cash flow is at t = 1. In this example, the first cash flow is at t = 3 so the present value is at t = 2. Having 4,329 at t = 2 is equivalent to five cash flows of 1,000 starting at t = 3. Now we simply need to discount 4,329 back two periods to get the present value at t = 0. This value is 4,329 / = 3,927. Keeping track of the actual calendar time brings us to a specific type of annuity with level payments: the annuity due. An annuity due has its first payment occurring today (t = 0). In other words, payments occur at the start of every period. (Remember that t = 0 can be thought of as the start of Period 1.) Suppose there is an annuity due which makes four payments of \$100. The cash flows are shown in the figure below (drawing a timeline makes it easier to understand when the cash flows occur): We can view the four-period annuity due as the sum of two parts: a \$100 lump sum today an ordinary annuity of \$100 per period for three periods. This must be adjusted for time value by determining the present value at t=0. Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 17

20 If an ordinary annuity extends indefinitely, it is known as a perpetuity (a perpetual annuity). In other words, it is a constant cash flow that occurs at periodic intervals forever. The present value of a perpetuity can be calculated by using the following formula: Equation 9 Present value of a perpetuity: where A = r = annuity amount discount rate This equation is only valid for a perpetuity with level payments. Example of a perpetuity: certain government bonds and preferred stocks. l Consider a preferred share, which pays a dividend of 5.00 every year forever. The appropriate discount rate is 10%. The present value of the dividend payments is 5 / 0.1 = Present Values Indexed at Times Other Than t = 0 An annuity or perpetuity beginning sometime in the future can be expressed in present value terms one period prior to the first payment. That present value can then be discounted back to today s present value. The following example illustrates this concept. Worked Example 5 Will Graham is willing to pay for a perpetual preferred stock that pays dividends worth \$100 per year indefinitely. The first payment Mr. Graham will receive would be at t = 5. Given that the required rate of return is 10% per annum, compounded annually, how much should Mr. Graham pay today? Solution: Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 19

21 6.4 The Present Value of a Series of Unequal Cash Flows When we have unequal cash flows, we can first find the present value of each individual cash flow and then sum the respective present values. Consider the following cash flows: Time Period Cash Flow (\$) With a 10% discount rate, the present value at time This method is tedious if we have several cash flows. Hence, the preferred strategy is to use the cash flow register on your financial calculator. Here are the keystrokes: Keystrokes Explanation Display [2nd] [QUIT] Return to standard mode 0 [CF] [2nd] [CLR WRK] Clear CF Register CF = 0 0 [ENTER] No cash flow at t = 0 CF0 = 0 [ ] 50 [ENTER] Enter CF at t = 1 C01 = 50 [ ] [ ] 100 [ENTER] Enter CF at t = 2 C02 = 100 [ ] [ ] 150 [ENTER] Enter CF at t = 3 C03 = 150 [ ] [ ] 200 [ENTER] Enter CF at t = 4 C04 = 200 [ ] [ ] 250 [ENTER] Enter CF at t = 5 C03 = 250 [ ] [NPV] [10] [ENTER] Enter discount rate I = 10 Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 20

22 [ ] [CPT] Compute NPV Practice this a few times so you are comfortable with the keystrokes. If you need more help, refer to the calculator tutorial on our website: 7. Solving for Rates, Number of Periods, or Size of Annuity Payments 7.1 Solving for Interest Rates and Growth Rates An interest rate can also be considered a growth rate. If we replace r with the growth rate g, then we arrive at the following expression for determining growth rates: Equation 10 Growth rate: g = (FV N /PV) 1/N 1 where FV = future vale PV = present value N = number of years l Consider the following scenario: The population of a small town is 100,000 on 1 Jan., On 31 Dec., 2001 the population is 121,000. What is the growth rate? Since the growth is happening over two years, N = 2. Using equation 10, We can also use the calculator: N = 2, PV = 100,000, PMT = 0, FV = -121,000 (remember that PV and FV should have different signs). Compute I/Y = 10. The I/Y represents the growth rate and is given as a percentage. Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 21

23 7.2 Solving for the Number of Periods Say you invest 2,500 today and want to know how many years it will take for your money to grow by three times if the annual interest rate is 6%. This can be solved using the formula or with a calculator. Method 1: FV = PV (1 + r) N 7,500 = 2,500 ( ) N 1.06 N = 3 N x ln 1.06 = ln 3 N = = Method 2: Using the calculator: I/Y = 6, PV = 2,500, PMT = 0, FV = -7,500. Compute N = Solving for the Size of Annuity Payments Given the number of periods, interest rate per period, present value and future value, it is easy to solve for the annuity payment amount. This concept can be applied to mortgages and retirement planning. Consider the following examples: Worked Example 6 Wally Hammond is planning to buy a house worth \$300,000. He will make a 20% down payment and borrow the remainder with a 30-year fixed rate mortgage with monthly payments. The first payment is due at t = 1. The current mortgage interest rate is quoted at 12% with monthly compounding. Calculate the monthly mortgage payments. Solution: Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 22

24 Amount borrowed = 80% of 300,000 = 240,000. This represents the present value. We need to determine the 360 (30 years x 12 periods/year) equal payments which have a present value of 240,000 given a periodic interest rate of 1% (12% per year means 12/12 = 1% per period). While this can be solved using the annuity formula, it is much easier to use the calculator: N = 360, I/Y = 1, PV = , FV = 0. CPT PMT = This means that 360 level payments of is equivalent to a present value of 240,000, given an interest rate of 1% per period. Worked Example 7 Your client is 25 years old (at t = 0) and plans to retire at age 60 (at t = 35). He wants to save \$3,000 per year for the next 10 years (from t = 1 to t = 10). He would like a retirement income of 100,000 per year for 21 years, with the first retirement payment starting at t = 35. How much will you advise him to save each year from t = 11 to t = 34? Assume a return of 10% per year on average. Solution: First set up a timeline. The time periods are shown above the line. Each number represents the end of that period. So 1 means the end of period 1 and so on. The cash amounts are shown in thousands below the line. Your client wants an annuity payment of 100,000 starting at t = 35 and lasting till t = 55. There are three steps to this problem: Step 1: Calculate how much the client must have at t=34 when retirement begins. The present value of annuity payments of 100,000 (retirement income every year) at t = 34 can be computed using the calculator: Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 23

25 N = 20, I/Y = 10, PMT = 100,000, FV = 0. CPT PV = -851,356. This means that having \$851,356 at the end of year 34 is equivalent to receiving 100,000 for 21 years starting at t = 35. Step 2: Calculate the future value of current savings of \$3,000 every year at the end of 10 years. The client will save 3,000 every year for 10 years. Use the calculator to determine how much he will have at the end of 10 years: N = 10, I/Y = 10, PV = 0, PMT = CPT FV = 47,812. Hence, he will have 47,812 at the end of year 10. Step 3: Calculate how much he must save every year for the next 24 years to make up for the shortfall. N = 24, I/Y = 10, PV = -47,812, FV = 851,356. CPT PMT = -4,299. Your client will have to contribute \$4,299 every year from t = 11 to t = 34 in order to meet his retirement objective. 7.4 Review of Present and Future Value Equivalence As discussed in the earlier sections, finding the present and the future values involves moving amounts of money to different points in time. These operations are possible because present value and future value are equivalent measures separated in time. This equivalence illustrates an important point: a lump sum amount can generate an annuity. If we place a lump sum in an account that earns the stated interest rate for all periods, we can generate an annuity that is equivalent to the lump sum. Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 24

26 Here is a simple example to illustrate how a lump sum can generate an annuity. Suppose that we place \$4, in the bank today at 5% interest. We can calculate the size of the annuity payments: N = 5, I/Y = 5, PV = , FV = 0. CPT PMT = Hence, an amount of \$4, deposited in the bank today can generate five \$1,000 withdrawals over the next five years. Now consider another scenario. Invest 4, today at 5%. How much will we have at the end of 5 years? Using the calculator: N = 5, I/Y = 5, PV = 4,329.48, PMT = 0. CPT FV = -5,526. In other words, we will have \$5,526 at the end of 5 years. Here is the final scenario. We invest 1,000 per year for 5 years. How much will we have at the end of 5 years? Using the calculator: N = 5, I/Y = 5, PV = 0, PMT = Compute FV = - 5,526. Here again we will have \$5,526 at the end of 5 years. To summarize: A lump sum can be seen as equivalent to an annuity, and an annuity can be seen as equivalent to its future value. Thus, present values, future values, and a series of cash flows can all be considered equivalent as long as they are indexed at the same point in time. 7.5 The Cash Flow Additivity Principle This principle states that the amounts of money indexed at the same point in time are additive. The principle is useful to determine the future value/present value when there is a series of uneven cash flows. First, let s take a simple example. There are two cash flows: \$50 occurring today, and \$100 at the end of period 1. What is the value of this cash flow? Is this correct? 50 (today) (after one year) = 150 No. Because these cash flows are at two different points in time, so they are not additive. There are two options to make them additive: Present value: 50 + PV (100) Future value: FV(50) Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 25

27 We will look at a comprehensive example now. Consider two series of cash flows A and B as shown below. If we assume the annual interest rate is 2%, we can find the future value of each series of cash flow as follows. Future value of series A: \$100(1.02) + \$100 = \$202. Future value of series B: \$200(1.02) + \$200 = \$404. The future value of (A+B) is, therefore, \$606. The alternative way to find the future value is to add the cash flows of each series, A and B (call it A+B), and then find the future value of the combined cash flow. \$300(1.02) = \$606. Both methods give the same result which illustrates the cash flow additivity principle. Summary An interest rate is the required rate of return. It is also called the discount rate or opportunity cost. We can view an interest rate as: real risk-free interest rate + inflation premium + default risk premium + liquidity premium + maturity premium The stated annual interest rate is a quoted interest rate that does not account for compounding within the year. The periodic interest rate is the interest rate per period. Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 26

28 The effective annual rate is the amount by which a unit of currency will grow in a year when we do consider compounding within the year. Example: if the stated or quoted rate is 12% with monthly compounding, the periodic or monthly rate is 1%. Since \$1 invested at the start of the year will grow to = , the EAR is 12.68%. Future Value = present Value * (1 + r) N and Present Value = Future Value / (1 + r) N where r is the periodic interest rate and N is the number of periods. An annuity is a finite set of level (equal) sequential cash flows occurring at equal intervals. Ordinary annuity: cash flows occur at the end of very period Annuity due: cash flows occur at the start of every period (hence, the Period 1 cash flow occurs immediately) The present value and future value of an annuity can be determined using the formula; however, we strongly recommend that you use the financial calculator. The present value of an ordinary annuity is one period before the first cash flow. The present value of an annuity due is at the same time as the first cash flow. A perpetuity is a series of level cash flows at regular intervals occurring forever (infinite period). If the first cash flow of a perpetuity is at t = 1, the present value at t = 0 is given by A/r where A is the cash flow amount and r is the discount rate in decimal. The relevant variables in time value of money questions are: number of periods, interest rate, present value, payments and future value. Given four of these variables the fifth can be calculated. A lump sum can be seen as equivalent to an annuity, and an annuity can be seen as equivalent to its future value. Thus, present values, future values, and a series of cash flows can all be considered equivalent as long as they are indexed at the same point in time. This cash flow additivity principle states that the amounts of money indexed at the same point in time are additive. This principle can be used to solve problems with uneven cash flows by combining single payments and annuities. Next Steps Make sure you are comfortable using the financial calculator. Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 27

29 Work through the examples presented in the curriculum. Note that many solutions make use of the annuity formula. You should solve these problems using the calculator. Solve the practice problems in the curriculum. Many of the problems are not in MCQformat, but they are still good practice. Here again, many solutions make use of the annuity formula. You should solve these problems using the calculator. Solve the IFT Practice Questions associated with this reading. Copyright Irfanullah Financial Training. All rights reserved. Page 28

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