Unit of Study: Making Inferences

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1 Anchor Lesson: 2 Pre-assessment Select the Materials Name the Strategy Explain I have noticed that A strategy readers use is Introduce the Text Demonstrate the Strategy Say: Think aloud. Show: Model. Explain: How this will help them as a reader. Inferring in real life/reacting to a text Have you ever laughed or cried, felt afraid or angry when you read a book, watched a movie, or a show on TV? Turn and talk to a partner about what happened. Don t Let the Pigeon Stay Up Late, Mo Willems One way readers make inferences is by reacting to the text. When you laugh, cry or feel something, you are inferring. An inference is something that is probably true. The author doesn t directly tell us everything in the story, like, laugh here! cry here!, or now is the time to feel angry. The same thing happens when we watch a movie. Have you ever yelled at the characters in a movie to Run! or while you are watching, your heart begins to beat faster and you feel as if you are right there with them? That s inferring. You are inferring what may happen to them while you are watching. When you do this while reading or listening to a story, you are making an inference. We can use the illustrations, the words the author chose, or the type of print the author uses to help us to make these inferences. This also helps us to understand and enjoy the story more. Let me show you what I mean. From the very first page, I know that the pigeon is pretty tired. He says he isn t, but I can see that Mo Willems drew the pigeon with sleepy eyes. He is also waving his wings and walking a bit and I know that when my children want to stay up past their bedtime, they try to convince me they aren t tired just like the pigeon is doing. Mo Willems didn t tell me the pigeon is really tired, but I inferred it with what I already know from my schema and the evidence in the illustration (pigeon s sleepy eyes). On the next page I laugh because he is saying I m in the mood for a hot dog party very excitedly. I can tell from the exclamation point Mo used, and by the way the Notes to Build Next Lesson Refer to the Venn diagram from the previous lesson s anchor chart 16

2 Provide Guided Invite the students to practice the strategy with teacher guidance. Provide Independent. Remind students before they go off to read. When you go to RW try pigeon is opening his eyes very wide, he is still trying to stay up past his bedtime. Continue to read, stopping a various points in the text, having students turn and talk about what they are thinking. Did they laugh when the pigeon say, Humph and fold his arms? Why? How do they think the pigeon says, No? Why did they say it that way? What is probably true about the pigeon now? Stop and discuss their thinking with their partner when they make an inference. During RW, see if you laugh, cry, think or feel something about the characters in your book. Use what you know about how people in your life do things and the illustrations, the way the author chooses to write the words, or the actions of the characters to make inferences. Conference Points Have you made any inferences about the characters in your book? What are you thinking? What made you think that? Look at this picture. How does the illustrator help you know what this character is thinking or feeling? Did you feel something today while you were reading? Share/Reinforce Have two or three students share any inferences made while reading, showing the evidence from the text. Remind students how their inferences helped them understand the story better. 17

3 Anchor Lesson: 3 Pre-assessment Select the Materials Name the Strategy Explain I have noticed that A strategy readers use is Introduce the Text Inferring with wordless books Turn and talk to your partner about what you know about making inferences. Hiccup, Mercer Mayer on overheads or document camera A strategy readers use is called making inferences. An inference is something that is probably true. The author and illustrator don t always tell us everything about a story directly, but sometimes they give us evidence in the pictures to help us think like a reader and say, This is probably true. Introduce the wordless picture Book, Hiccup. Notes to Build Next Lesson Other titles: Free Fall. David Wiesner Tuesday, David Wiesner Pancakes for Breakfast, Tomie DePaola Other titles by Mercer Mayer Demonstrate the Strategy Say: Think aloud. Show: Model. Explain: How this will help them as a reader. In this book the author only uses pictures and the reader must analyze the pictures and think about what the character is feeling, thinking, or saying. Use the Venn diagram about how to make an inference as a reference, reminding the students that they need evidence and background knowledge to think about what is probably true. Place the first pages on the overhead or document camera. Think aloud by analyzing the illustrations and what the characters are probably saying and thinking. Write the dialogue in speech bubbles over each character. Continue thinking aloud over the next few pages. Continue to write the text in speech bubbles. Make your inferences explicit by sharing how you are taking clues from the illustrations and your own experiences to decide what is probably true. 18

4 Provide Guided Invite the students to practice the strategy with teacher guidance. Provide Independent Remind students before they go off to read. When you go to RW, try Decide at what point the students should join in and help to write the text. Ask for a few options for each page and have the students share how they made their inferences. (What clues from the text made them think that? What from their background experience makes them think their inference is probably true?) During RW, see if you make any inferences about the characters in your books by the illustrations and the way they look or by the way they act (this is evidence). Be sure to also think about your schema, and what you know about people or characters who act like that. Students can work with a partner and write their own version or students can work with a partner on a different text. The finished texts could be bound and added to the classroom library Provide other wordless Picture book titles for students to read through inferring during RW. Conference Points Have you made any inferences about the characters in your book? What are you thinking? What makes you think that? Look at this picture. How does the illustrator help you know how this character is feeling? If students have wordless book- What are the characters doing? What are the characters saying? How do you know? Share/Reinforce Have two students share any inferences they made while reading. Ask students how their inferences helped them understand the story better. 19

5 Anchor Lesson: 4 Pre-assessment Select the Materials Name the Strategy Explain I have noticed that A strategy readers use is Introduce the Text Recording our inferences Turn and Talk. What do you know about making inferences? Spoon, Amy Krouse Rosenthal Enlarged 2-column chart (T-Chart) or 3- column chart A strategy readers use to think about what they are reading is called making inferences. An inference is something that is probably true. The author or illustrator doesn t directly tell us everything in a story, but sometimes s/he gives us evidence to help us think about things that are probably true. Notes to Build Next Lesson This lesson can also be repeated with the 2- column chart (T-Chart). Demonstrate the Strategy Say: Think aloud. Show: Model. Explain: How this will help them as a reader. As we read we want to record our thinking, our inferences, so that we can remember and talk about our ideas with other readers. Today I am going to teach you how to use a 3-column chart to record your thinking.. Watch Me. As I read this book, Spoon, I am going to stop, think about what is probably true as I read. The other day we learned how to use the Venn Diagram to describe our thinking. The 3-column chart is another way to record our thinking as we read. The first column is for my inferences, the second column is for my evidence and the third column is where I record my schema. Our inferences are not explicitly written in the text. They are our thinking about what is probably true. The evidence is the words in the text and the illustrations that support our inference. The evidence is the words that made us infer. The explanation is our schema. What do we 20

6 already know that helps us understand the inference? Let s try to record our inferences as we read the story, Spoon. Read until the text says, Nothing, mumbled Spoon. I am making an inference about Spoon after I read this. I am thinking that Spoon is upset. (Record Spoon is upset in the inference column.). The reason I think that is because the text says, Spoon has been feeling blue. The text also says, You look a bit out of shape. (Record those 2 sentences in the evidence column.) Do you see readers? Even though Spoon says nothing is wrong I can infer that something is probably wrong. I know this because I have been upset before and I know how I feel when I am upset and what my face looks like. Record this in the explanation column Repeat modeling after a few more pages. Continue to record your ideas on the chart. Provide Guided Invite the students to practice the strategy with teacher guidance Now readers, it is your turn. I am going to read the next few pages and I want you to think about what is probably true. What can you infer? What evidence in the text makes you think that? What in your schema makes you think that? Ask students to turn and talk. As students share have them point to the chart. 21

7 Provide Independent Remind students before they go off to read. When you go to RW, try At reader s workshop today, I would like you and your partner to read a picture book together. As you are reading, stop every few pages and talk about your inferences. Record your ideas on a chart. Please remember to record your inference your evidence and your explanation. Repeat this lesson with students working independently Conference Points Take me to a place where you made an inference. What were you thinking as you read that? What evidence in the text made you think that? Show me how you can record your thinking on the chart. As you look over your chart, which inferences are still true and which have changed? Share/Reinforce Have two students share any inferences they made while reading. Ask them to show how they recorded their inferences. 22

8 Name(s) Date Title Inference Evidence Explanation 23

9 Name Date Title My Inference Evidence Explanation 24

10 Anchor Lesson: 5 Pre-assessment Select the Materials Name the Strategy Explain I have noticed that A strategy readers use is Introduce the Text Inferring with song lyrics Turn and talk to your partner about what you can infer about songs. What can you use to infer? Text: Recording of song with printed lyrics (if needed) Songwriters are also authors who tell a story through their songs. While listening to songs, a strategy readers and listeners use is called making inferences. An inference is something that is probably true. The song writer doesn t always tell us exactly what his/her song is about, but give us clues to help us think like a reader and say, this is probably true. Give the title of the song, and talk about how you can already make a prediction about what the song may be about. Explain that you will listen to the song in sections, thinking about the features of a song that may add to your inference, and stop after each section to talk about the inferences you are making. Notes to Build Next Lesson Possible Song titles: Cat s in the Cradle, Harry Chapin Day Is Done, Peter, Paul, and Mary The Best Gift, Barbra Streisand King of Anything, Sara Bareilles Beep, Beep, the Playmates "The Climb", Miley Cyrus I'm Amazing', Keb' Mo' "The Sharing Song", Jack Johnson The Good Green Earth, James K Demonstrate the Strategy Say: Think aloud. Show: Model. Explain: How this will help them as a reader. Listen to the first part of the song; stopping after the first section to think aloud about what you think the song is about and why. Discuss how the refrain or chorus was most likely carefully chosen by the songwriter to emphasize a particular message. You may also discuss the type of music chosen, such as the particular beat or tempo, the type of music and the 25

11 rhythm, the low or high notes, and how these features add to the message the songwriter is trying to convey. Use evidence from the song as well as your schema and record your initial thoughts on the T-chart. Provide Guided Invite the students to practice the strategy with teacher guidance. Provide Independent Remind students before they go off to read When you go to RW, try Continue with your own thinking for the next part of the song as well as the chorus, and then continue to record your thinking on the T-Chart. Show how stopping and thinking about the evidence and you schema helps you to understand the deeper meaning of the song. Students turn and talk about their reasoning (evidence) for each section of the song that follows. They discuss where they would place the evidence on the T- chart and their explanation that supports their answer. As you are reading today, see if you make any inferences about the characters or the big ideas in your stories. Conference Points What are you inferring? What evidence from the text makes you think that? What are you thinking? Did you make any inferences in your reading today? Share/Reinforce Let s share what you were thinking about in your books during reader s workshop. 26

12 Anchor Lesson: 6 Inferring with picture books Pre-assessment Select the Materials Turn and talk to your partner about what an inference is and what you can use to make one. Encounter, Jane Yolen and David Shannon 3-Column Chart Notes to Build Next Lesson Other texts: Teammates, Peter Golenbock Rose Blanche, Roberto Innocenti Wednesday s Surprise, Eve Bunting Name the Strategy Explain I have noticed that A strategy readers use is Introduce the Text Demonstrate the Strategy Say: Think aloud. Show: Model. Explain: How this will help them as a reader. A strategy reader s use is called making inferences. An inference is something that is probably true. The author doesn t tell us everything. We need to take evidence from the text and combine it with what we already know and say, This is probably true. That is an inference. Show students the 3-column chart. Say: Readers make initial inferences about what a text will be about just from the title and cover illustration. (A prediction is a type of inference.) Think aloud about your own thinking and record your thinking on the 3- column chart. Show students some illustrations from the text and ask them to share what they infer the text will be about. Record some thoughts on the chart. (p. 1) The moon was overhead and our great fire had burned low. Reread this first sentence and think aloud what you infer it means. Record your thinking on the chart Mark a few more spots to model how you make inferences over the next few pages. 27

13 Provide Guided Invite the students to practice the strategy with teacher guidance. Provide Independent Remind students before they go off to read. When you go to RW, try Decide when in the text to invite students to share some of their own inferences. Ask students to turn and talk to their partners about what they are thinking and why they are thinking that. Guide students to articulate which clues from the text and which experiences from their schema helped them create the inference. Record the thinking on the chart. Invite students to use a post-it to mark places where they made an inference as they were reading. OR Have students record their inferences in their reader s notebooks by drawing a 3- column- chart and recording their thinking. Move from turn and talk to stop and jot before sharing out. Conference Points Did you make any inferences in your reading today? What are you thinking? What makes you think that? Use the chart to explain what clues in the text and what background knowledge you used to make you come to that conclusion. Share/Reinforce Have 1-2 students share inferences they came up with today. Encourage students to articulate how making inferences as they read helped them understand the story. 28

14 Anchor Lesson: 7 Pre-assessment Select the Materials Inferring with text without illustrations Turn and talk to your partner about what you can do to infer when there are no pictures. Slower than the Rest from Every Living Thing, Cynthia Rylant, Snippets - Attached Notes to Build Next Lesson Other Texts: Stories from Every Living Thing, Cynthia Rylant Excerpts from Hey World Here I Am, Jean Little Name the Strategy Explain I have noticed that A strategy readers use is I have noticed that you are very successful making inferences using picture books because not only are you using the text, you are also using the illustrations. Now that you are in fourth grade many of you are also reading chapter books with very few or no pictures. Today we will work on making inferences in text without illustrations. Put Slower than the Rest text on the overheard. Introduce the Text Use the 3-column chart to remind students how to make inferences by using evidence from the text and an explanation that supports their inference. Demonstrate the Strategy Say: Think aloud. Show: Model. Explain: How this will help them as a reader. Let s work on making inferences in a text without pictures so that we can really focus on making inferences and then using the words in the text to support our thinking. Watch me. Model making inferences throughout the first few pages. p. 1 I am thinking that Leo is a caring person and an animal lover. I am thinking this because in the text it says, There s a turtle! It also says, Leo was allowed to pick it up off the highway and bring it home. Continue modeling inferences from the first few pages of the text. 29

15 Provide Guided Invite the students to practice the strategy with teacher guidance. Place another page from the story on the document camera or overhead. Ask students to read the text and have them discuss their inferences with a partner. Encourage partners to share what lines in the text helped them to make those inferences. OR Provide Independent Remind students before they go off to read If you finished the story and want additional guided practice, read the Snippets excerpts with a partner and ask students to record their thinking on the appropriate sheet. Today at RW, I want you to record a few of your inferences on the chart. Please make sure to think about the information in the text and your background knowledge that helped you to make your inference. When you go to RW, try Conference Points What are you thinking? What parts of the text helped you to make that inference? What words in the text support your inference? Share/Reinforce A few students share their inferences. Students need to use the chart to explain the thinking behind their inferences. 30

16 Two Column Chart to Record Inferences Name Date Title Inference Evidence Explanation 31

17 Making Inferences - Snippets Name Date Snippet (evidence) Explanation I m inferring, It sure is dark in here. Could we turn on some lights? asked Wendy and Jack. The fun house is too spooky! said Jack as he walked through it. I m ready to go on the Ferris wheel, said Wendy. 32

18 Making Inferences - Snippets Name Date Snippet (evidence) I am not jealous of your new dress, said Mary. I don t like that color on me anyway. My mother buys me more expensive things than that. I think the material looks like it would rip easily and not wash well. Where did you buy it? Was that the only one they had left? asked Mary. Explanation I m inferring, 33

19 Anchor Lesson: 8 Pre-Assessment Select the Materials Inferring by using text features while previewing Turn and talk to your partner about what you do when you first look at a book. Superdog: The Heart of a Hero, Caralyn Buehner Or Any picture book/ informational text will work. Look for features such as a title page, dedication page, continuous cover, etc. Notes to build next lesson Name the Strategy Explain I have noticed that A strategy readers use is When readers decide to choose a book to read, they do some inferring about the text even before they begin to read. Using some text features that are included in most texts helps us think about what the text may be about, why the author chose to write the book, and whether or not we are interested in reading this text. This strategy is called previewing the text. Introduce the Text Demonstrate the Strategy Say: Think aloud. Show: Model. Explain: How this will help them as a reader. Watch me as I preview this text. It is called Superdog: The Heart of a Hero. I chose this book because I have a dog that looks like this dog, but I was also intrigued by the way the illustrator chose to present the character on the cover page in a big city. The title of the book is written in bold and enlarged print, and I have seen writing like this before in movies like Superman. I am already inferring that this is a little dog like mine who is determined to be a hero. Heart of a Hero also makes me think that this little dog care for others and this is going to make him a hero. I am also noticing that the setting is most likely a city because of the illustrations on the front cover. The back cover shows the dog with a very determined look on his face. He actually looks a little angry. He is making a growling look and is flying in the sky. I am now looking at the inside cover, and noticing a different look on the same dog s face. He is reading another book about a dog called, Planet Protector. It looks like he is very 34

20 interested in this book and maybe getting some ideas about how he can protect and become a hero. I am inferring that this is where he is getting his ideas. As I turn the page I notice that this dog is tiny. He is a miniature daschund. My schema tells me that this type of dog wants to be bigger than they actually are, and as I look at the dog looking at a movie poster of the Planet Protector dog, I think he may be getting more ideas about being a hero. The title page makes me laugh because the dog is actually trying to flex his muscles. I am making an inference here, just by laughing. This is funny because most dogs don t actually flex their muscles, but in this book, the author Caralyn Buehner had him do this the way a person may do this to show off a bit. As I look at the dedication page, I notice that the author dedicated the book to someone named Roger Buehner. I am inferring that she dedicated it to someone related to her, maybe her father, brother or husband. I also see that she said in memory of Roger Buehner, a hero. I am inferring that she felt very strongly about this hero in her own life, and wonder if some of what she will include in the story with this fiction story actually matches her idea of the hero from her own life. This preview has helped me think about the book before I actually start to read it. I have a prediction for what I think the story may be about, and I am also wondering if this character learns to be brave. Since SuperDog is so small and it talks about heroes, maybe the theme of this story is that all people can be heroes. Maybe the theme is, You don t have to be big and tall to be a hero. Readers, do you see how I infer about the characters, setting and theme as I preview? This helps me to think deeply as I read. I can t wait to read this book! 35

21 Provide Guided Invite the students to practice the strategy with teacher guidance. Provide Independent Remind students before they go off to read. When you go to RW. try Pair students and give them picture books with a variety of features for previewing. Have students stop and jot when they notice features and discuss how they are making inferences about what the book may be about. Have them cite evidence from the text and connect it to their schema. During RW, choose a book from your book bag to preview. Preview the text by looking at the cover, the title page, the pictures, the blurb on the back of the book and the dedication page. Think about how you make inferences using these pieces of evidence and your schema. What are your initial inferences about the characters, setting and theme? What evidence did you gather during the preview to make you think that? Conference Points What clues from the text help you to infer? What do you think this book will be about? What makes you think that? What evidence in the text supports your inferences? Share/Reinforce Have a few students share what they inferred from previewing the text and how it helped them when reading the book. 36

22 Anchor Lesson: 9 Inferring the setting Pre-assessment Select the Materials Name the Strategy Explain I have noticed that A strategy readers use is Introduce the Text Demonstrate the Strategy Say: Think aloud. Show: Model. Explain: How this will help them as a reader. Turn and talk to your partner about how you may infer the setting of a story. Goin Someplace Special, Patricia McKissack A strategy readers use is called making inferences. An inference is something that is probably true. The author doesn t tell us everything but we can take clues from the text and combine it with what we already know and say, this is probably true. That is an inference. We can infer the setting of a story by using the pictures, the evidence in the text and our background knowledge. We can infer where the story takes place as well as when (time period) this story is happening. As I read this story I know the author doesn t tell me everything about the setting. I have to think about what is probably true. When I infer the setting, it helps me to understand the characters actions and to make predictions about what will happen next. Watch as I read and infer the setting. This text is called Going Someplace Special. On page 1 and 2 notice the illustrations. Discuss the old-fashioned clothing and kitchen items. Based on the pictures, we are inferring that this story does not take place in the present and that this child lives in the country. Notes to Build Next Lesson On page 5, notice the Jim Crow sign Colored Section. Talk about what you know about the time period when segregation was legal. Discuss how knowing this information helps you to understand what Tricia Ann is facing when going to town. Continue reading and modeling noting how the time period and setting help you to understand the character and the problem the character is facing. 37

23 Provide Guided Invite the students to practice the strategy with teacher guidance. Provide Independent Remind students before they go off to read When you go to RW, try Continue reading and stop after you read the scene at the hotel. Ask the readers to stop and jot, what they can infer now. How is the setting impacting the character? Read until the end of the story. Ask students to stop and jot their inferences now. When you go to RW today, think about the setting. Think about how you use your schema, pictures, and words to infer when and where the story takes place. You can use post-its to track your thinking. Conference Points What are you inferring? What do you think the setting? How does the setting change this story? What evidence do you have to support your thinking? Share/Reinforce Let s share some of what you were thinking about as you read your books during reader s workshop. 38

24 Anchor Lesson: 10 Pre-assessment Select the Materials Inferring by making predictions Turn and talk to your partner about how making predictions can help you infer about a text. The Empty Pot, Demi Anchor Chart- Making Predictions Notes to Build Next Lesson Name the Strategy Explain I have noticed that A strategy readers use is Introduce the Text One way readers made inferences is by making predictions before they read. When you think about what might happen in a story or what you think a story might be about you are making a prediction. Predictions get your mind ready to expect something and then as you read you need to be on the look out for what you predicted. You will either confirm or contradict the prediction you originally made and revise your prediction with the new information you have from the text. When we make predictions and search for information it helps us think about what will happen and how it will happen. Let me show you how. Demonstrate the Strategy Say: Think aloud. Show: Model. Explain: How this will help them as a reader. This text is entitled The Empty Pot. Let s see if we can make some predictions to help us understand the story better. Before I read the text, I am going to preview the text. I will look at the cover, the back of the book, the title page, the pictures and the dedication page. I am going to infer what I think this story is going to be about. Model: Think aloud about your background knowledge on the topic and share a few predictions you have and how you will use these predictions as you read to search for information. Predict not only what will happen but also how it might happen. Document your initial predictions on an enlarged T-chart. Read the first portion of the text and think aloud about how you search for information and interact with the text to confirm/revise your predictions. Think aloud about your predictions 39

25 and how you used your schema and the information in the text to make your predictions. Talk about how you predict not only what will happen but also how it will happen. Record ideas about your thinking on the overhead or document camera. Continue reading and stop at turning point in the text when you have the opportunity to rethink your prediction. (e.g. Who would his successor be? How will the Emperor choose? ) Think aloud: I think Ping is going to be his successor because in the text it said that both Ping and the Emperor loved flowers and gardens. I also know that Ping is going to experience some kinds of trouble. I know that authors often introduce a character early in the story when something big is going to happen later in the story. I am also thinking that the Emperor is somehow going to use growing flowers to choose the new Emperor. I am going to read on to see what happens. 40

26 Provide Guided Invite the students to practice the strategy with teacher guidance. Provide Independent Remind students before they go off to read When you go to RW, try Read aloud another section of text and invite students to share how they search for information as they read and make new predictions. Guide students to explain how they use information from the text and background knowledge to form and change their predictions. Record their predictions on the chart. When you go to RW today, think about the predictions you have before you read and as you read in your text. Try to notice and remember how you searched for information to confirm/contradict your predictions. You can use post-its to track your thinking or this T- chart. Remember, readers make predictions and follow their thinking as they read to help them become involved in the story. Conference Points New text- What do you think this book will be about? Why do you think that? Share/Reinforce In the middle of text: What is happening in your book now? What do you predict will happen? Why do you think that? Have 1-2 students share predictions they came up with today. Encourage students to articulate how making predictions helped them understand the story. 41

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