# What s up with Arc Flash?

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1 What s up with Arc Flash? Presented by Mark Haskins, CSP Practical Safety Solutions, LLC CONN OSHA Breakfast Roundtable February 18, Practical Safety Solutions, LLC

2 What is Arc Flash? Definition An arc flash or arc explosion is the passage of a substantial electric current through ionized air. It is characterized as being: Less than one second in duration Extremely high in radiant energy Explosive in nature

3 When Does it Happen? Arc Flash happens while making or breaking contact within an electrical system Examples include: Low voltage operating a light switch, opening & closing breakers, making contact during energized work Medium voltage racking (removing and replacing) breakers or fuses Opening closing switchgear, busses, etc. As a result of a system fault

4 How Can it Affect Me? Arc Flash is the other half of the electrical safety equation Shock hazards are about current, voltage and resistance ( Ohm s Law) Arc flash hazards are about the heat energy resulting from current flow through air across contacts Arc flash can lead to severe burns and nerve damage, especially with voltages of 480 V and higher.

5 Important Temperatures Skin temperature for curable burn Skin temperature causing cell death Ignition of clothing Burning clothing Metal droplets from arcing Surface of sun Arc terminals 176 F 205 F F 1472 F 1832 F 9000 F 35,000 F

6 How Do We Protect Employees? Practice electrical safety 101 Don t work on exposed energized circuits! Use lockout tagout procedures to isolate hazardous energy Make sure employees are qualified, authorized and properly trained Use proper tools and PPE Implement a comprehensive electrical safety program

7 What if We Need to Work Energized? Try to keep the arc in the box An arc flash that is at least partially contained in the electrical cabinet is less likely to cause serious harm Distance is your friend! Know and abide by safe working distances Arc Flash Boundary: incident energy > 1.2 cal/cm 2 Limited approach boundary: shock Restricted approach boundary: shock Prohibited approach boundary: shock Distances vary due to many variables Use appropriate voltage and arc rated PPE

8 NFPA 70E 2012 Arc Flash Boundary Arc Flash Boundary Energy Source Calculated for Each Task Outside 2 nd Degree Burn Boundary Injury Not Expected Arc Rated Clothing & PPE Not Required Inside Boundary 2 nd + Degree Burn Injury Is Predicted Arc Rated Clothing & PPE Required

9 Electric Arc Blast- Untreated Cotton Shirt Before Electric Arc Blast During Electric Arc Blast After Electric Arc Blast

10 Establish an Electrical Safety Program Standards to follow OSHA , and Subpart S NFPA 70E 2012 Electrical Safety Program Principles Inspect, evaluate and maintain the electrical equipment Plan each job and expect the unexpected De-energize if possible Identify and minimize hazards Protect people from shocks, burns and blasts Use the right tools Use the right people Audit the program

11 Protecting from Arc Flash Perform an assessment Identify electrical hazards Start at the source (utility/main power feed) Step through to the control panel level Identify tasks performed and frequency Gather the data to calculate the incident energy fault potential

12 Case Study Small Power Plant at 15 megawatts Arc Fault blast at 4160 VAC metering a racked out breaker with a lack of a formal program, incorrect meter and inadequate PPE Employee injuries: severe burns to face chest and arms with nerve damage What was the fix?

13 4160 Volt Switchgear Breaker

14 Case Study Assessment of loads, tasks, contact points, procedures, PPE and training Calculation of the incident energy with output in cal/cm 2 Redesign of some equipment Development of new procedures Labeling Spec and procure new PPE Training and implementation

15 What Does OSHA Cite For? Citations largely under 29CFR 1910 Subpart S (d)(1) PPE Assessment (b) Content of Training. Trained in and familiar with safety related work practices pertaining to their respective assignments (a)(1)(i) Use of Protective Equipment. Use electrical PPE for specific body parts (a)(1)(iv) Protective Equipment. Non-conductive head protection (a)(1)(v) Protective Equipment. Use PPE for eyes and face when there is danger from electrical arcs, flashes or explosions (a)(2) Protective Equipment. Use of insulated tools (l)(6)(ii) & (iii) Apparel. Train on hazards of flames or electric arcs. Ensure employees exposed to hazards of flames or electric arcs do not wear clothing that can increase extent of injury

16 Summary Arc Flash is a significant electrical hazard for both qualified and unqualified workers Hazards include high heat, pressure and noise A comprehensive electrical safety program is needed to protect workers PPE can be an effective protective method Current OSHA Standards are often cited for arc flash hazards NFPA 70E is often the remedy for those citations

17 Thank you! Questions and Answers

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