1 53 7. Key performance indicators (KPIs) What the standard requires The standard requires that process and product performance is measured against targets and that this information is analysed, along with other information, to generate opportunities for improvement. This is on the basis that the aim of the standard is to generate continuous improvement and the key drivers for this are the measurement of your results and what you have achieved. Identifying measures or KPIs is quite straightforward. Making sure the organization has the right ones is another matter. As far as the standard is concerned the organization not only has to have these related to the product and its processes, but also needs to ensure that these are linked to the business objectives at the appropriate level. This is achieved by measuring them and reporting and communicating the results both to management and people within the wider organization generally. What is a KPI? A KPI is a metric, not a target. Often expressed as a ratio or percentage it allows data to be tracked over time to form trends in performance. Targets are often expressed as objectives and may be included in the performance data to highlight under- or over-performance. They are also likely to be found in business plans. For example, the actual number of complaints is not a KPI it is just information. On the other hand the number of complaints expressed as a
2 54 Creating a Process-based Management System percentage of the number of orders dispatched or the number of customers seen would be: Number of complaints received 100 Number of customers serviced This is much more meaningful than just the bare number of complaints. KPIs can relate to any part of the organization or any process or subprocess based on its needs and requirements. Strictly speaking, every process or sub-process could have one or more KPI, which can be used to help manage and control it. The standard, however, allows KPIs to be used as appropriate, which means that not all processes and sub-processes require measures. This allows a degree of flexibility, particularly for smaller organizations (say up to 20 employees with a 2 million turnover) where measuring every process and the system overall would be too much and inappropriate given the size of the organization. If you are in this situation then use one set of system KPIs that include process KPIs operating at a tactical level only where you feel they are absolutely necessary, see below for more detail on the right KPIs. How do I know if we have the right measures? There are no prizes for having many KPIs, but there are for having the right ones. Some organizations have many KPIs or every performance indicator (EPI) and spend inordinate amounts of time collecting, collating and reporting on information. It is far better to design the right measures, often a smaller number, that can be used on an ongoing basis and provide a good overall picture of what is happening, not only in the process, but also collectively in the system overall. The main aim of the KPI is to measure either system or process performance. Often it is easier to think of KPIs as either strategic for system measurement or tactical for process measurement. Strategic measures tend to be aligned to the needs of stakeholders and therefore customers of the organization. They tend to be concerned with longer-term trends in performance and operate at this level to ensure that the organization (and its management system) is delivering the required results over time. As KPIs are a key part of the continuous improvement cycle these strategic measures are aimed at making sure the organization does not take its eye off the ball and uses the data to improve the overall performance of the organization, ie at an organizational level (see Figure 7.1, which illustrates this principle).
3 Key performance indicators (KPIs) 55 Stakeholder and customer needs and requirements Report and improve Business strategies and objectives Create management information system System KPIs Framework of key business processes Design key performance indicators Figure 7.1 System (strategic) KPIs and the continuous improvement cycle at an organizational level KPIs at a system level are driven by the needs of the different stakeholders. As discussed in chapter 3, these requirements often conflict with each other and need to be analysed and a risk assessment made of their impact on the organization in order to create a prioritized list. The KPIs are therefore influenced by those factors at the top of the prioritized list. The analysis also helps create the business objectives, on the basis that no organization can satisfy everyone all the time and decisions have to be made on who will or won t have their needs satisfied or, more likely to what extent. In ISO 9001:2000, clause 5.2 covers this area with the same principles being extended in ISO 9004:2000 to cover other interested parties or stakeholders. In the real world of course, organizations have to meet stakeholder as well as customer needs hence the probable need for a comprehensive list of system or strategic KPIs. Examples of system KPIs could be: percentage turnover from previous periods; percentage margin; percentage of customers very satisfied ; percentage of market share;
4 56 Creating a Process-based Management System percentage profit per person; percentage costs spent on energy consumption. If we look at our typical system, and the processes that it consists of, we can perhaps illustrate the point about what are good and what are not so good system KPIs. This is shown in Table 7.1. Table 7.1 Suitable and unsuitable system KPIs Process Suitable system KPI Unsuitable system KPI Understanding the market Percentage of market reviews Customer satisfaction rating required in a process fully presented, validated and accepted by its planned date Business planning Business plan agreed by board Number of initiatives in the and group by required date business plan Developing products Percentage of new products Number of new products that successfully deliver target released profi t Winning business Value of sales made that have Value of sales achieved been confi rmed by rest of business as achievable divided by sales target Delivering products Customer satisfaction ratio Deliveries made on time against target Measuring performance Percentage of accurate Number of reports delivered performance reports produced to timetable Making improvements Percentage of planned Number of improvement deliverables achieved through projects initiated major improvement projects Managing people Staff morale rating against Percentage of staff target undergoing training Managing assets Percentage availability against Number of maintenance plan schedules achieved Managing fi nance Profi t achieved against target Average debtor days
5 Key performance indicators (KPIs) 57 Process KPIs work in a similar manner but generally at a more tactical level. These tend to be based on the purpose of the process being measured. As before, the KPIs form an integral part of the continuous improvement cycle for the process (see Figure 7.2). Purpose of the process Report and improve Process objectives Create management information system Process KPIs The process Design key performance indicators Figure 7.2 Process (tactical) KPIs and the continuous improvement cycle at a process level Clearly defining the purpose of each process is therefore important if the correct KPIs are to be identified. KPIs can be measured at any time or frequency based on the nature of the KPI and its importance. For example, data on staff turnover for many organizations would not be collected and reported on a daily or, perhaps, even a weekly or monthly basis but data on customer service or production, a more everyday activity, could well be. The organization can decide the frequency. Examples of process KPIs are obviously based on the process but could include: percentage machine/equipment utilization; percentage return on investment; percentage number of improvement ideas per employee; percentage volume of calls taken within 5 seconds;
6 58 Creating a Process-based Management System percentage sales lead conversion rate; percentage number of products or services needing rework; percentage cost of carrying out reworking or correcting errors. Can we use existing measures that we already have and how many KPIs do we need? There is no reason why the organization cannot use the existing measures or data it already has. If they do satisfy the requirements of a process-based approach, then there is great benefit in doing so. The most important point is that the KPIs have to be aligned directly to the process or the system and expressed as metric rather than just information. Often organizations will produce a lot of data and information and in many cases seem to be overloaded with it. The test is whether or not the information is used to generate improvements to the system or process. For some organizations, therefore, creating a system is also an opportunity to review the data produced and determine if it is being expressed in the correct manner and to the right people or even if it is needed at all. When creating a system for the first time it is suggested that the existing data is reviewed for suitability and ease of use. Identify what is required and align this to the system or process as is necessary. This should produce a gap analysis, identifying where particular process or stakeholder KPIs are missing or expressed incorrectly. The gaps can then be addressed and you will be able to prove the links and therefore the requirements of the standard. This may take some time to achieve, so prioritizing which KPIs to develop first is important again this is based on business risk. As to how many KPIs are needed, this depends on the organization and the process. Processes needing little control, or where the business risk of failure is minimal, require fewer KPIs than processes where the impact, scope or instance of failure is higher. The more operational processes tend to have more KPIs than supporting processes. This does not mean that they are more important, just that they need more KPIs. So as a guide, aim for something between two and six KPIs for each process, with, for example, 12 as a maximum at the organizational (system) level. These are only guides and are not meant to be absolute many organizations operate outside of these guidelines based on their needs and requirements. The main point is that they are key performance indicators, not every performance indicators. It is easy to get seduced into the need to try to measure everything. The aim of KPIs is to provide a set of indicators that can be looked at collectively to determine improvement needs. There is a danger in taking one indicator in
7 Key performance indicators (KPIs) 59 isolation of the others and basing an improvement on this information alone. Often bringing about change to improve an indicator will have an impact on another, be that negative or positive keeping an eye on the bigger picture is therefore important. The other danger in measuring everything is that you will confuse the need to provide specific information to management, on which routine improvement decisions can be made, with collecting information relating specifically to a particular improvement. This second type of measurement comes after an improvement project has been initiated, and may only continue until the improvement has been embedded within the process. Overmeasurement is often borne out of the desire to measure things just in case or to identify where areas for improvement may be required. To avoid this, concentrate your routine measurement on the KPIs only. Then, having identified an improvement opportunity or project, start to collect more information on that particular issue in order to analyse the problem or cause further. This saves the need to regularly measure more than is necessary and provides the focus for why the measurement is taking place. This second phase of collecting information often takes place as part of the change or improvement process rather than prior to it starting, for example, for the management review.
Performance Management: A Tool For Employee Success Guidelines, Process and Useful Hints for Supervisors and Staff (Updated 1/08) University of Missouri Division of Finance & Administration Table of Contents
ISO 9001 It s in the detail Your implementation guide ISO 9001 - Quality Management Background ISO 9001 is the world s most popular quality management system standard and is all about keeping customers
A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO SUCCESSFUL CONTRACT MANAGEMENT December 2009 Technology and Outsourcing Group CONTENTS 1. PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE...1 2. INTRODUCTION...2 3. MANAGEMENT OF CONTRACT START UP...5 4. ADMINISTRATION
The Components of Corporate Performance Management Part II: Management and performance reporting by PA Consulting Group A PA Consulting Group guide in association with AccountingWEB.co.uk accountingweb.co.uk
Rob Davis Everyone wants a good process. Our businesses would be more profitable if we had them. But do we know what a good process is? Would we recognized one if we saw it? And how do we ensure we can
8 Performance Management and Appraisal Learning Outcomes After studying this chapter you should be able to: 8.1 Discuss the difference between performance management and performance appraisal 8.2 Identify
Chapter 3 KEY PERFORMANCE INFORMATION CONCEPTS Performance information needs to be structured to demonstrate clearly how government uses available resources to deliver on its mandate. 3.1 Inputs, activities,
Guide to Implementing Quality Improvement Principles Foreword Quality Improvement in health care continues to be a priority for the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). In the Affordable Care
Consulting Performance Improvement European Corporate Performance Management Survey How do you manage your business? pwc Consulting Performance Improvement European Corporate Performance Management Survey
SECTION 1: DEVELOPMENT POCESSES 1.1 PEFOMANCE MEASUEMENT POCESS 1.1 Performance Measurement Process Introduction Performance measures are recognized as an important element of all Total Quality Management
Management system management by matrix Assessing your management system and the approach that you take raising standards worldwide About the author John Osborne is Product Manager for BSI Training. The
Workforce Management: It s more than just software Troy Plott Product Manager Interactive Intelligence Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Configuration... 3 Day classifications... 3 Weekly shift definition...
66/67 How to manage your return on investment in innovation Reaping the most from innovation investments Michaël Kolk, Rick Eagar Any CTO or Innovation Leader will be very familiar with the following question
Designing performance measures: a structured approach Andy Neely, Huw Richards, John Mills, Ken Platts and Mike Bourne University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Designing performance measures 1131 Introduction
How to Provide Customer Service Excellence A guide to help you on the excellence journey, to constantly push the bar to get even better at what you do Service excellence cannot be achieved in the short-term,
A vital part of successfully running a business is looking after your finances. This guide to Managing Finance covers a variety of different issues from raising finance for your business and forecasting
Question 1 Text reference. The characteristics of service industries are highlighted in Chapter 3 of the BPP Study Text and revised in Chapter 13. The balanced scorecard, and Fitzgerald and Moon s building
Asset Management BC Roadmap Project Guide for using the Asset Management BC Roadmap Asset Management B.C. ROADMAP MAY 2011 Asset Management BC ROADMAP PROJECT Guide for using the Asset Management BC Roadmap
KM COLUMN FEBRUARY 2003 Metrics for knowledge management and content management Metrics are a concrete way of defining what a knowledge management or content management project will achieve, and whether
Ville-Pekka Peltonen Software Asset Management Current state and use cases Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences Master of Business Administration Master's Degree Programme in Business Informatics
REPORT General counsel: vague about value? A survey and discussion paper Contents 01 Foreword 02 Flashback: The GC value pyramid 05 Key findings 06 Adding value 08 Case study: Daragh Fagan, General Counsel
A GUIDE TO MEASURING HEALTH & SAFETY PERFORMANCE December 2001 1 MEASURING HEALTH AND SAFETY PERFORMANCE Contents Introduction How will this guidance help me? What the guidance is not Why is guidance necessary?
Issue 1 Demonstrating the Business Value of Software Asset Management and Software License Optimization Leveraging Best Practice Processes and Technology to Improve the Bottom Line Featuring research from
Developing Real Time Tracking of User Behavior, with Google Analytics for Mobile Phone Devices Ahmed Hulo & Johnny To Master's Thesis Department of Design Sciences Lund University EAT 2015 Abstract Sony
Sales Forecasts: A Question of Method, Not Magic Table of Contents Foreword... 1 Chapter 1: What is Forecasting? Why is it Important?... 2 Characteristics of Expansion-stage Companies...3 Which Companies
HM Treasury Cabinet Office National Audit Office Audit Commission Office For National Statistics FOREWORD The business of government is complex. What matters to the public about performance of government