1 NAST GUIDELINES REGARDING COMPETENCIES VI. TWO-YEAR DEGREE-GRANTING PROGRAMS A. Purposes and Protocols 1. Purposes. Two-year degree-granting programs in theatre are normally offered within the following general contexts: a. Terminal offerings which have an occupational emphasis; b. Terminal offerings providing instruction in theatre as an element of liberal education, without the intention of training for theatre occupations; or c. Programs intended to prepare students for continuing study toward liberal arts or professional baccalaureate degrees in theatre. 2. Standards Applicability a. Associate degree programs offering theatre courses in a two-year program of occupational studies not intended for transfer should follow standards below in Standards VI.C. b. Associate degree programs offering theatre courses as a major in a two-year program of liberal studies not intended for transfer should use as guidelines the standards for four-year institutions offering liberal arts degrees. c. Associate degree programs offering theatre courses in a curriculum intended to lead, by transfer, to baccalaureate degree programs should follow the standards and guidelines for the theatre major transfer program found in Standards VI.B. below. B. Standards for the Theatre Major Transfer Program 1. Curricular Purpose. Institutions offering the theatre major transfer program shall maintain a curricular program equivalent to the first two years of a four-year baccalaureate program. In this regard, institutions offering programs intended to transfer to liberal arts degrees must use the standards for such degrees found below in Standards VII. Institutions offering programs intended to transfer to a professional baccalaureate degree must use the Common Body of Knowledge and Skills in Standards VIII.B., and the appropriate major in Standards IX. as the basis for their curricular requirements. 2. Theatre Education. Students expecting to transfer to baccalaureate degree programs in theatre education shall be provided opportunities to gain background understanding and skills that support upper-division completion of competencies essential to the teaching specialization (see Standards X.). 3. General Studies. The liberal arts component of a student s program shall be selected according to the requirements of each state for the specific colleges to which students will
2 transfer, taking into consideration the NAST guidelines and recommendations for general studies listed under the standards for the various baccalaureate degrees in theatre. 4. Articulation Agreements. Two-year colleges preparing students for continuing study in fouryear colleges should maintain close liaison with those institutions to which their students may transfer. It is expected that community/junior colleges and senior colleges and universities will assume joint responsibility for working cooperatively to facilitate the articulation of community/junior college and senior college programs; for example, the development of validation examinations, state and/or regional articulation committees, means for relating courses in terms of content rather than numbers or titles, and procedures for maintaining current information regarding credit, transfer, and admissions policies. VII. THE LIBERAL ARTS DEGREE WITH A MAJOR IN THEATRE A. Titles. The titles Bachelor of Arts in Theatre and Bachelor of Science in Theatre are used to designate the study of theatre in a liberal arts framework. B. Purposes 1. Liberal arts degree programs with a major in theatre are normally offered within one of the following general contexts: C. Curricular Structure a. The degree focus is breadth of general studies in the arts and humanities, the natural and physical sciences, and the social sciences. Theatre study is also general; there is little or no specialization. Degree titles: Bachelor of Arts in Theatre, Bachelor of Science in Theatre. b. The degree focus is breadth of general studies combined with theatre studies and an area of emphasis in theatre such as performance, design, theatre history, and so forth. Degree titles: Bachelor of Arts in Theatre, Bachelor of Science in Theatre (institutional catalogs and other materials note the area of emphasis). c. Degrees with liberal arts purposes that prepare students for state licensure or certification as specialist theatre teachers. These programs are reviewed using standards in Standards for Accreditation X. Degree titles: Bachelor of Arts in Theatre Education, Bachelor of Science in Theatre Education. 1. Standard. Curricular structure, content, and time requirements shall enable students to develop a range of knowledge, skills, and competencies expected of those holding a liberal arts degree in theatre. 2. Guidelines a. Curricula to accomplish this purpose normally adhere to the following structural guidelines: Requirements in general studies comprise 50-70% of the total program; theatre, 20-25%; performance and theatre electives, 10-20%. Theatre studies,
3 performance, and theatre electives normally total between 30% and 45% of the total curriculum. b. When undergraduate liberal arts programs in theatre include a significant elective component, the institution should ensure that the overall pattern of elective choices exhibited by graduating students maintains the curricular emphasis on general studies consistent with NAST standards, and with philosophies and policies that define the liberal arts degree in the institution. D. Essential Content and Competencies 1. General Education a. Competencies. Specific competency expectations are determined by the institution. Normally, students graduating with liberal arts degrees have: (1) The ability to think, speak, and write clearly and effectively, and to communicate with precision, cogency, and rhetorical force. (2) An informed acquaintance with the mathematical and experimental methods of the physical and biological sciences, and the historical and quantitative techniques needed for investigating the workings and developments of modern society. (3) An ability to address culture and history from a variety of perspectives. (4) Understanding of, and experience in thinking about, moral and ethical problems. (5) The ability to respect, understand, and evaluate work in a variety of disciplines. (6) The capacity to explain and defend views effectively and rationally. (7) Understanding of and experience in one or more art forms other than theatre. b. Operational Guidelines. These competencies are usually developed through studies in English composition and literature; foreign languages; history, social studies, and philosophy; visual and performing arts; natural science; technology; and mathematics. Precollegiate study, regular testing and counseling, and flexibility in course requirements are elements in achieving these competencies. 2. Theatre Studies a. Competencies. Students holding undergraduate liberal arts degrees must have: (1) The ability to think conceptually and critically about text, performance, and production.
4 (2) An understanding of playwriting and production processes, aesthetic properties of style, and the way these shape and are shaped by artistic and cultural forces. (3) An acquaintance with a wide selection of theatre repertory including the principal eras, genres, and cultural sources. (4) The ability to develop and defend informed judgments about theatre. b. Operational Guidelines. Objectives of this type are ordinarily emphasized in courses such as acting, speech, play analysis, design technology, history and literature of the theatre, and through regular practical and intimate contact with living theatre. 3. Performance and Theatre Electives a. Competencies. Students holding undergraduate liberal arts degrees must have: (1) Ability in areas of performance and production or playwriting appropriate to individual needs and interests, consistent with the goals and objectives of the specific liberal arts degree program being followed. (2) An understanding of procedures and approaches for realizing a variety of theatrical styles. (3) Intermediate to advanced competence in one or more theatre specializations in creation, performance, scholarship, or teaching. b. Operational Guidelines (1) The work in this area includes acting, design/technology, other aspects of participation in theatre productions, and studies in scholarly or pedagogical aspects of theatre. (2) In addition to electives in general education, further studies in theatre, including performance, should be possible through a selection of additional courses. (3) Institutions have various policies concerning the granting of credit for performance and production in liberal arts curricula, including the relegation of performance to extracurricular activity. Such policies are taken into account when curricular proportions are considered. VIII. ALL PROFESSIONAL BACCALAUREATE DEGREES IN THEATRE A. Principles and Policies 1. Title. The term Bachelor of Fine Arts is the most usual designation for the professional undergraduate degree in theatre. In certain circumstances, other titles may be used if degree structure and content is equivalent to that required for the Bachelor of Fine Arts degree.
5 2. Purpose. Students enrolled in professional undergraduate degrees in theatre are expected to develop the knowledge, skills, concepts, and sensitivities essential to the life of the theatre professional. In any of many possible roles, the theatre professional must exhibit not only technical competence, but also broad knowledge of theatre, sensitivity to artistic style, and an insight into the role of theatre in the life of humankind. 3. Competency Acquisition a. Specializations. Students gain competency in areas of study, specializations, or emphases. See Standards for Accreditation IX. for descriptions of typical program offerings. b. Common Body of Knowledge and Skills. Irrespective of their area of specialization, students must acquire the common body of knowledge and skills in Standards for Accreditation VIII.B. that constitutes a basic foundation for work and continuing growth as a theatre professional. While the designation of emphases and balances among these competencies appropriate for the particular degree programs are a prerogative of the institution, each institution has the responsibility to ensure basic competence in all areas of the common body of knowledge and skills below, and to assure that graduation requirements outlined below are met. c. General Studies. Students are also expected to develop knowledge and skills through studies associated with subjects and issues beyond theatre as described in Standards for Accreditation VIII.A Levels. The institution shall make clear the levels of competency necessary to graduate for each area of the common body of knowledge and skills in Standards for Accreditation VIII.B., as well as for specific specializations in Standards for Accreditation IX. 5. Means a. Institutions are responsible for providing sufficient classes, productions, repertory requirements and opportunities, performance attendance requirements, and other such experiences to develop the common body of knowledge and skills and to ensure that students meet graduation requirements associated with their specializations. All programs must meet the operational curricular standards that are applicable to all programs of their type. b. Institutions are also responsible for defining how development of essential competencies will be assigned among various curricular offerings and for determining student evaluation procedures. Periodic review for retention is required. These standards do not require a course for each competency. Institutions are encouraged to be creative in developing courses and other formal experiences that engage and integrate several or all of the requisite competencies. c. In addition to standards in Standards for Accreditation VIII., the following standards apply as appropriate to professional undergraduate degrees that involve: (1) Distance Learning, Standards for Accreditation III.H. (2) Disciplines in Combination (multi-or
6 interdisciplinary programs unless there are specific standards for the combination in the Handbook), Standards for Accreditation III.I. (3) Majors in or Based on Electronic Media (unless there are specific standards for the field in the Handbook), Standards for Accreditation III.J. 6. General Studies a. Competencies. Specific competency expectations are defined by the institution. Normally, students holding a professional undergraduate degree in theatre are expected to have: (1) The ability to think, speak, and write clearly and effectively. (2) An informed acquaintance with fields of study beyond theatre such as those in the arts and humanities, the natural and physical sciences, and the social sciences. (3) A functional awareness of the differences and commonalities regarding work in artistic, scientific, and humanistic domains. (4) Awareness that multiple disciplinary perspectives and techniques are available to consider all issues and responsibilities including, but not limited to, history, culture, moral and ethical issues, and decision-making. (5) The ability to identify possibilities and locate information in other fields that have bearing on theatre questions and endeavors. b. Operational Guidelines (1) Some theatre courses, if conceived and taught in relation to other realms of human experience, may be appropriately included in the category of general studies. Some theatre history, literature, theoretical or cultural studies may meet this criterion. (2) Many areas of inquiry from general education are directly supportive of various specializations in theatre. 7. Electives. Ideally, elective areas of study in undergraduate professional programs comprise 10-15% of the total curriculum; however, as indicated in Standards for Accreditation III.C.2., such decisions are the prerogative of the institution. B. Common Body of Knowledge and Skills 1. Production. Students must acquire: a. Technical skills requisite for artistic self-expression in at least one major area of production (for example, acting, design/technology, playwriting, directing) and those skills must be progressively developed to the highest level appropriate to the particular area of concentration. Technical proficiency standards should be established for each level of study. The achievement of a specified level of proficiency in technique should be required for retention at each level and must be required for graduation.
7 b. An overview understanding of the major aspects, techniques, and directions in the area of concentration. c. Fundamental, comprehensive understanding of the various elements and basic interrelated processes of creation, interpretation, performance, and production. d. Fundamental, conceptual understanding of the expressive possibilities of theatre. e. Knowledge and skills sufficient to work in both collaborative and individual roles in matters of theatre interpretation. f. Growth in artistry, technical skills, collaborative competence, and knowledge of repertory through regular performance and production experiences. Students must have such experiences throughout the degree program. 2. Repertory. Students must acquire: a. Familiarity with theatre literature of various historical periods, cultural sources, and modes of presentation. b. Experience with specific repertories and comparative standards of production quality through performance, academic study, and attendance at productions. 3. Theoretical and Historical Studies a. Students must acquire: (1) The ability to analyze plays perceptively and to evaluate them critically. (2) An understanding of the common elements and vocabulary of theatre and of the interaction of these elements, and be able to employ this knowledge in analysis, including analyses of their productions. (3) The ability to place works of theatre in historical and stylistic contexts and have some understanding of the cultural milieu in which they were created. (4) The ability to develop and defend informed judgments about theatre. b. The competencies listed in Standards for Accreditation VIII.B.3.a. are achieved by coursework and studies in such fields as repertory, playwriting, theatre history, theatre criticism, philosophy of theatre, dramaturgy, performance studies, movement, anatomy and kinesiology, and production design. c. In certain areas of specialization such as costume and scenic design, it is advisable to require that students study the historical development of works within the specialization. 4. Technology. Students must acquire a working knowledge of technologies and equipment applicable to their area(s) of specialization. 5. Synthesis. While synthesis is a lifetime process, by the end of undergraduate studies students should be able to work independently on a variety of professional problems by combining, as
8 appropriate to the issue, their capabilities in performance, repertory, theory, history, and technology, as well as other fields they have studied. C. Results. Upon completion of any specific professional undergraduate degree program: 1. Students must demonstrate achievement of professional, entry-level competence in the area of specialization including significant technical mastery, the capability to produce work and solve professional problems independently, and a coherent set of artistic/intellectual goals that are evident in their work. 2. Students must demonstrate their competence by developing a body of work for evaluation in the major area of study. A senior project or presentation in the major area is required in many concentrations, and strongly recommended for all others. 3. Students must have the ability to communicate ideas, concepts, and requirements to theatre professionals and laypersons related to the practice of the major field. Such communication may involve oral, written, visual, and musical media. D. Recommendations. Students engaged in professional undergraduate degrees in theatre should have opportunities to: 1. Gain a basic understanding of the nature of professional work in their major field. Examples are: organizational structures and working patterns; artistic, intellectual, economic, technological, and political contexts; and developmental potential. 2. Acquire the entrepreneurial skills necessary to assist in the development and advancement of their careers. 3. Explore areas of individual interest related to theatre in general or to the major. Examples are: bibliography, aesthetics, theory, production practices, specialized topics in theatre history, analysis, technology, and pedagogy. 4. Practice synthesis of a broad range of theatre knowledge and skills, particularly through learning activities, such as independent study, that involve a minimum of faculty guidance, where the emphasis is on evaluation at completion (see Standards III.G.). IX. SPECIFIC PROFESSIONAL BACCALAUREATE DEGREES IN THEATRE A. Bachelor of Fine Arts in Acting 1. Curricular Structure a. Standard. Curricular structure, content, and time requirements shall enable students to develop the range of knowledge, skills, and competencies expected of those holding a professional baccalaureate degree in acting as indicated below and in Standards for Accreditation VIII. b. Guidelines. Curricula to accomplish this purpose that meet the standards indicated normally adhere to the following structural guidelines: studies in the major area, including acting (speech, voice, and movement), participation in full-length plays performed before an audience, and independent study should comprise 30-40% of the
9 total program; supportive courses in theatre, 20-30%; general studies, 25-35%. Studies in the major area and supportive courses in theatre normally total at least 65% of the curriculum. See Standards for Accreditation III.C., Forms of Instruction, Requirements, and Electives of the NAST Handbook. 2. Specific Recommendations for General Studies. Studies in social, political, cultural, and intellectual history that form the subject matter of plays are strongly recommended. 3. Essential Competencies, Experiences, and Opportunities (in addition to those stated for all degree programs) a. Demonstrated ability to act (i.e., to project one s self believably in word and action into imaginary circumstances, evoked through improvisation or text). b. Demonstrated ability to engage effectively in improvisations both by oneself and in an ensemble. c. Demonstrated ability to create characters convincingly from plays drawn from different genres and styles in an ensemble relationship with other actors. d. A developed technique for analyzing the specific tasks required in performing varied characters from written plays. e. Understanding of the specific demands of the acting styles for major periods and genres of dramatic literature. f. Clear, articulate, and expressive speech, normally with demonstrated ability to use appropriate tools and systems to learn and perform dialects, and the ability to perform effectively in verse plays. g. A flexible, strong, and controlled voice with trained breath support; appropriate vocal range and freedom from vocal and postural tension in rehearsal and performance; demonstrated ability to use the voice effectively as an instrument for characterization together with the ability to project the voice effectively in theatre spaces of varying sizes and in media productions. h. A flexible, relaxed, and controlled body trained in basic stage movement disciplines, including dance and mime; demonstrated ability to use the body effectively on stage as an instrument for characterization and to be responsive to changing time/rhythm demands and spatial relationships. i. An overview understanding of makeup materials and techniques. j. Demonstrated comprehension of the basic business procedures of the actor s profession, including audition procedures, résumés, agents, and so forth. k. Solo and ensemble performance experience in a variety of formal and informal settings shall be provided throughout the degree program including the opportunity for a significant role in a major production no later than the senior year. B. Bachelor of Fine Arts in Design/Technology
10 1. Curricular Structure a. Standard. Curricular structure, content, and time requirements shall enable students to develop the range of knowledge, skills, and competencies expected of those holding a professional baccalaureate degree in design/technology as indicated below and in the Standards for Accreditation VIII. b. Guidelines. Curricula to accomplish this purpose that meet the standards indicated normally adhere to the following structural guidelines: studies in the major area, including basic design and/or technical training, should comprise 30-40% of the total program; supportive courses in theatre, 20-30%; general studies, 25-35%. Studies in the major area and supportive courses in theatre normally total at least 65% of the curriculum. See Standards for Accreditation III.C. Forms of Instruction, Requirements, and Electives of the NAST Handbook. 2. Specific Recommendations for General Studies. Studies in mathematics, physics, textiles, and electrical engineering; other art and media disciplines; history, cultural studies; and computer science are especially appropriate. 3. Essential Competencies, Experiences, and Opportunities (in addition to those stated for all degree programs) a. Ability to conceptualize and realize a design aesthetic consistent with the overall artistic concepts of a production. b. Ability to understand and articulate basic elements and principles of design theory. c. Ability to understand and articulate basic elements and principles of composition related to line, shape, color, texture, and sound. d. Understanding of the aesthetic use of color. e. Understanding of the aesthetic use of sound. f. Ability to communicate design ideas and realities to other personnel involved in the production, including directors, other designers, stage managers, and actors. g. Ability to produce and communicate design ideas with freehand drawings. h. Ability to provide formalized, accurate production models and drawings by hand and/or through the use of current industry standard software programs. i. Fundamental knowledge of the total design process, including the progression of raw materials through multiple design shops and the roles that various craftspeople play in the creation of a finished product. j. Fundamental knowledge of décor, architecture, furniture, dress, crafts, and art as they relate to various historical periods. k. Ability to demonstrate an understanding of basic engineering principles (electrical, mechanical, and/or structural) as they relate to chosen design specializations.
11 l. Knowledge of federal, state, and local health and safety codes, best practices, and industry standards as they relate to theatrical venues and production elements. m. Preparation and presentation of a professional résumé and a portfolio of design and technology-related work that demonstrate one s abilities, strengths, processes, and experiences. n. Opportunities for experience in the design/technology aspects of theatre in a variety of formal and informal settings throughout the entire degree program, including an opportunity to design and/or create the technology for at least one fully realized production that will be presented before an audience prior to graduation. In addition to the basic competencies listed above, each student will develop selected competencies required for any specific Design/Technology emphasis or program being pursued, i.e., lighting design, costume design, scene design, sound design, technical direction, production management, costume technology.