1 H/V TTO TEXTBOOK. history

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1 1 H/V TTO TEXTBOOK history

2 Contents Preface 4 1 Key facts Close-up The age of hunters and farmers The rise of civilisations 1 Introduction 8 2 From Big Bang to primitive man 10 3 Agriculture 13 4 The river Nile and Egypt 16 5 Society is changing 19 6 Gods and mummies 22 7 Building for eternity 25 8 Review 27 2 Key facts Close-up The age of Greeks and Romans The Greeks 1 Introduction 30 2 Life in a Greek city-state 32 3 Local government: Athens and Sparta 35 4 The Greek gods 38 5 Greek culture 41 6 The Greeks and their neighbours 44 7 Going to school in Athens 47 8 Review 49 3 The age of Greeks and Romans The Roman Empire 1 Introduction 52 Key facts Close-up 2 The conquest of a great empire 54 3 Life in the Roman Empire 57 4 Emperors in power 60 5 Romanisation 63 6 Christianity in the Roman Empire 66 7 Popular entertainment in Rome 69 8 Review 71 2

3 4 The age of monks and knights Monarchs, monks and farmers 1 Introduction 74 Key facts Close-up 2 The Franks arrive 76 3 Life in the countryside 79 4 The spread of Christianity 82 5 Islam in Europe 85 6 Loyalty to the lord 88 7 Symbols in medieval art 91 8 Review 93 5 Key facts Close-up The age of cities and states Citizens, princes and the pope 1 Introduction 96 2 War in the name of God 98 3 New cities begin to trade The medieval citizen It s all about faith Monarchs want more power Count Floris V of Holland Review The age of discoverers and reformers Rediscoveries 1 Introduction 118 Key facts Close-up 2 Antiquity reborn A different outlook Beyond Europe everything is different Voyages of discovery The end of a culture The conquest of the Inca Empire Review 137 Overview of historical skills 140 Step-by-step plan for your research 141 Index 142 Colophon 144 3

4 Source 1 Chapter 1 The age of hunters and farmers The rise of civilisations Source 2 IONIAN SEA MACEDONIA Olympus Peloponnese MESSENIA Source 3 ATTICA Athens AEGEAN SEA harbour Troy PERSIAN EMPIRE Athens and Delian League in 431 BC allies of Athens Sparta and allies neutrals DIPYLON GATE SACRED GATE PIRAEUS GATE Athens Wall of Acropolis Themistocles ACHARNIAN GATE Preface The first book of Memo takes us a long way back in time. It begins in prehistoric times and each chapter brings us closer to our time. You will find out about people from the past. How did they live and how did they think? Did they look like us? Sometimes you will stay close to home, in other sections you will take a look in another country. Memo contains many pictures and reading texts, and it also helps you discover for yourself, sometimes individually, sometimes in groups. Memo consists of two books to help you discover history. There is a handbook (HB) with essential information, and a workbook (WB) with assignments. In addition to the books, Memo also offers digital material. The structure of a chapter The chapters in Memo consist of several parts. These parts are to be found in both handbook and workbook. Introduction Each chapter starts with an Introduction, in which you learn about the period in the chapter by means of one large picture, a map and a very short introduction. Assignments relating to the Introduction can be found in the workbook. Sections with key facts These sections consist of an Intro and the main text. Each Intro is a short story accompanied by a large picture. History is explained in the main text for you to learn well. The assignments in the workbook support your learning. There are also sources to accompany the main text and in the workbook. The workbook contains questions about the sources. On pages 5-7, you will find out how Key facts works in a section. Close-up The topic discussed in a Close-up section is not part of the required learning material, but it is interesting and it is fun to learn more about it. Review The review tells you what you should know and be able to do. It also contains an overview of concepts (keywords) and a timeline. In the workbook, you practise the main concepts and skills once again. 2 1 The age of Greeks and Romans The Greeks Introduction An amphora from around 540 BC. Around 750 BC, a unique society arose in Athens and elsewhere in Greece. The ancient Greeks are famous for their architecture and art, their thinking and their type of government. In their artwork they often depicted stories from the Greek world of the gods. The world of the gods consisted of one family headed by the god Zeus. The Greeks believed that Zeus was born in a cave and was raised by divine bees. The amphora in source 1 shows four men, being stung by these bees all over their bodies. They had entered the cave looking for honey. However, young Zeus took pity on the burglars and changed them into birds, so that they could fly away. This chapter is about Greek history in the age of Greeks and Romans (3000 BC until 500 AD). The age of Greeks and Romans is also called ancient times or antiquity. Review What should you know and be able to do? You should be able to explain: A Early humans went hunting and gathering how the evolution of man happened, on the whole; what was the means of existence of the early humans; in what kind of dwellings the first people lived. B The emergence of agriculture which new means of existence arose around 9000 BC; what caused this change; what were the consequences. Keywords 8 agriculture A means of existence where people work in arable or cattle farming. arable farming Cultivation of crops such as grain. cattle farming Keeping or breeding animals as a means of existence. civil servant Someone who is employed by the local administration to make sure decisions are carried out, to collect taxes and to maintain order. crafts and trades Making products or their components (by hand), using raw materials. division of tasks The way in which the activities are shared out, for example between men and women. history The past of which we have written sources. hunter-gatherers People who live by hunting, fishing and gathering edible plants. C A prosperous kingdom with a high civilization grew in Egypt how prosperous Egypt became; what part irrigated agriculture played; how local administration and society were organised; what part religion played in the lives of the Egyptians. Skill To find out what happened previously, historians investigate different types of sources. irrigated agriculture A farming method in which the fields are irrigated by means of canals and other water systems. local administration People who set rules and regulations and make sure everyone follows them. means of existence The way in which people provide for themselves, for instance through farming or hunting and gathering. nature worship A religion in which forces of nature, such as the sun and water, are worshipped. permanent dwelling places Villages or towns where people built homes to live in for a longer period of time. pharaoh Highest ruler (king) in Egypt in ancient times. polytheism Belief in more than one god. Map of the alliances of Sparta and Athens during the Peloponnesian War. Athens in the 5th century BC. Long wall of 6.35 km (ca. 450 BC) Long wall (ca. 445 BC) Wall of Phaleron (its possible course) 4

5 Key facts An exciting subject Each section begins with an an explanation and an illustration in the Intro. The workbook offers some questions to help you think about it. Open the workbook on pages 4-5 and answer the questions under the heading Intro.? Source 1 What are the kinds of things you forget when you suffer memory loss? There is an Englishman with no memory. A disease has affected his brain. He cannot retain anything for more than 30 seconds. If you tell him something, he will immediately forget. His long-term memory does not function anymore either. He does remember that he has a wife and three children, but he does not know their names. He has also forgotten that he is a musician, but he can still play the piano beautifully. It is an automatism, just like talking. The man without a memory lives entirely in the present. He is a man without a history. The question is: why is history taught at school? 5

6 The main text follows after the Intro. Read it well. Then do the assignments under the heading Using your knowledge in the workbook. After that, the Assignment offers you more chances to work with the material from the main text and the historical sources. Source 2 Every five years, hundreds of volunteers re-enact a famous battle in the Belgian town of Waterloo. Napoleon Bonaparte, the French emperor and conqueror, was beaten in that battle in The story of the man without a memory shows that in fact everything around us is history. Without any knowledge of your own history you do not know who you are what you like, for example, and why, where you have grown up, who are your relatives and what you have learned from them. Cities and countries also have character, thanks to their history. As a result people in cities and countries feel connected. Here is a list of what we learn at school in history. History gives us a sense of identity, of our origin and what we consider important. History encourages a better understanding of the world. Conflicts between countries always relate to what has happened in the past. Opinions often relate to history too. For example, after World War II many Dutch people did not think positively about Germans. In your history lessons, you will investigate what actually happened. When two children quarrel, they will both tell different stories about what started their disagreement. How do you know which story is true? A historian tries to find out what exactly happened in the past, how people lived and what were their ideas. Sources are essential for this. Sources can be all kinds of remains from the past: objects, buildings, paintings, but also old 6

7 Source 3 Two sources about the Battle of Waterloo. On the left you see a skeleton of a soldier with a bullet between his ribs. On the right, the tricorn worn by Napoleon in the Battle of Waterloo. It is now kept in a German museum. letters, diaries and newspapers. In history lessons, you will investigate why people have different opinions. Many women were burnt in the 16th century because they were accused of witchcraft. We might say this is stupid (because witches do not exist!). But we can also try to understand why people thought witches existed and why so many women were burnt as witches, particularly in that century. The study of history involves much discussion of what is right or wrong. For example: was it wrong not to join the resistance movement during World War II? Thinking about these questions also helps us determine what is right or wrong in our time. Keywords The review at the end of each chapter includes all the keywords with a clear description. They are helpful when you are preparing for a test. The keywords from this section are: sources Remains from the past, such as objects, buildings, paintings, photos, old letters, diaries and newspapers. history A subject that investigates how people lived in the past. historian Someone who investigates the past. 7

8 2 1 The age of Greeks and Romans The Greeks Introduction Source 1 An amphora from around 540 BC. Around 750 BC, a unique society arose in Athens and elsewhere in Greece. The ancient Greeks are famous for their architecture and art, their thinking and their type of government. In their artwork they often depicted stories from the Greek world of the gods. The world of the gods consisted of one family headed by the god Zeus. The Greeks believed that Zeus was born in a cave and was raised by divine bees. The amphora in source 1 shows four men, being stung by these bees all over their bodies. They had entered the cave looking for honey. However, young Zeus took pity on the burglars and changed them into birds, so that they could fly away. This chapter is about Greek history in the age of Greeks and Romans (3000 BC until 500 AD). The age of Greeks and Romans is also called ancient times or antiquity. 30

9 Source 2 Map of the alliances of Sparta and Athens during the Peloponnesian War. MACEDONIA Olympus Troy IONIAN SEA AEGEAN SEA PERSIAN EMPIRE ATTICA Athens Peloponnese MESSENIA Athens and Delian League in 431 BC allies of Athens Sparta and allies neutrals DIPYLON GATE ACHARNIAN GATE SACRED GATE PIRAEUS GATE Athens Long wall of 6.35 km (ca. 450 BC) Long wall (ca. 445 BC) Wall of Acropolis Themistocles harbour Wall of Phaleron (its possible course) Source 3 Athens in the 5th century BC. 31

10 Chapter 2 Key facts 2 The age of Greeks and Romans The Greeks Life in a Greek city-state The great temple of Athens is situated on the Acropolis. court stoa The Athenians meet in the agora to trade and gossip. The Pnyx: Athenian citizens hold meetings here. Source 1 The agora (the square) in the polis of Athens in the 5th century BC. Most Greek cities arose at a location that was easy to defend. As you can see in source 1, the Athenian Acropolis is on a hill. Acropolis literally means: high city. In difficult times people living outside the city could find refuge here. The main temples were here too. The agora, which means gathering place in Greek, was next to the Acropolis. Men gathered in the shade of the stoai (porticoes, or galleries with columns) to tell and hear the latest news and to trade goods. The court, too, was next to the agora. 400 metres from the agora the men gathered to talk about politics. Important decisions were made on Pnyx Hill. Greek cities differed in many respects, but there were also similarities. The question is: what was daily life like in a Greek city-state? 32

11 Source 3 This tomb was made for Archestrate. Her name is inscribed at the top of the temple. She is sitting under her name. Two grieving relatives or slaves are standing behind her. Source 2 This amphora shows how olives are picked. The olive tree is one of the few trees that bear fruit on rocky and barren terrain. City-states Various city-states arose in Greece around 750 BC. A city-state consisted of a city with surrounding land, and was called a polis (plural: poleis). These city-states were separated from each other by mountain ranges and water. There were about 700 poleis in all of Greece. An average polis had 1000 inhabitants. Only Athens and Sparta were much larger. Each polis in ancient Greece decided about its local government and which rules they would have. The population felt very attached to their polis. Because the Greeks were of the same descent, they all spoke the same language, worshipped the same gods and shared the same architectural style. Yet they considered themselves primarily residents of the polis, and felt Greek in the second place. Daily life Fertile soil was scarce in Greece. The soil was only suitable for the cultivation of crops in the mountain valleys and in some towns along the coast. Yet most Greeks made a living as farmers. They grew mainly grain, grapes and olives. They also traded to make sure that there was enough food for everyone. The Greeks were good builders of ships and they traded all around the Mediterranean Sea. They sold clay pots, wine and olive oil, so that they could buy grain from elsewhere. Working on the land and trading were jobs for men. A man was at the head of the family and provided an income. He decided who his daughters could marry and he could disinherit his sons. Only boys were educated. They learned to do sums, writing and reading. Sports were an important part of their upbringing. Boys from poor families received less education than boys from rich families. In rich families women were at the head of the household. They kept an eye on the domestic slaves and looked after the money. Daughters were raised by their mothers to become wives. Girls were allowed to marry from 14 years of age. 33

12 Source 4 A Greek bronze panoply (plate-armour) and helmet from ca BC. A Greek s weaponry consisted of a panoply, a helmet, a belt and leg guards. Originally this weaponry had a gold colour. It was made not only to protect the horseman s body, but also to make an overwhelming impression on the opponent! At the side of the helmet, bits of tubing are visible in which plumes and feathers were inserted. And the impressive muscles on the armour are there for a reason too. The Greeks found their weaponry so important, that they wanted it to be buried alongside them after they had died. Source 5 Bronze statuette from the 6th century BC, found on the Peloponnese (Sparta). If you look closely you see that the shepherd is holding a lamb under his cloak. In the polis of Sparta, daily life was quite different. The Spartans had conquered their neighbouring country Messenia in the 8th century BC. From then on the residents of this fertile area were owned by Sparta. They were called helots. Helots were allowed to continue working on their own land. There was only one problem: there were more Messenians than Spartans. In order to control them, Sparta was totally focused on fighting wars. Seven-year-old Spartan boys were conscripted into military training, where they were put in a herd (class) of peers of the same age. They were trained to endure pain, hunger, thirst, cold and lack of sleep. They completed their military service when they were 30. If they had done well and completed everything, they were given a piece of land that was cultivated by slaves. Spartan girls were raised by their mothers. They married when they were between 18 and 20 years old. They did not have to do housework themselves: the helots did it for them. Inequality In Greece people had different rights. There was inequality between free people and slaves. Slavery was quite normal in ancient Greece. A slave was someone s property and did not have any rights. You were a slave if your parents were slaves or if you had been made a prisoner of war. Slaves worked in the mines, as rowers on ships, as housekeepers or teachers. Occasionally slaves were released or they could buy their freedom. There were also differences between free people. In many poleis civil rights only belonged to rich free men who had land and weaponry. Only citizens were allowed to decide in the politics of the polis. Poor free men, foreigners and women were not. Because the helots did all the work on the land, the Spartans no longer had to work as farmers. Only the Spartans who had completed military training and service were given civil rights. 34

13 Chapter 2 Key facts 3 The age of Greeks and Romans The Greeks Local government: Athens and Sparta Source 1 The Council of Elders of Sparta examines a newborn baby. The bronze statuette of a running Spartan girl originates from around 500 BC. It was stated in Spartan law that a woman should be able to run, to wrestle, and to throw the discus and the javelin. Once every four years, in Olympia a running race was organised for unmarried Greek girls in honour of the goddess Hera (Zeus wife). Especially many Spartan girls took part. Spartan women had to be strong and healthy to bear children who would later become healthy soldiers and mothers. Health and strength were so important to the Spartans that all newborn Spartan babies were examined by the Council of Elders. This council decided whether a child was strong enough. If it was, it was allowed to live. And if it wasn t? Then it was left to die in the Taigetos Mountains. The question is: how was local government organised in Athens and Sparta? 35

14 Source 2 The Athenian local government around 500 BC. Day-to-day government 50 people Source 3 This ostrakon (piece of pottery) has the name Themistocles scratched in it. 10 generals Lead the army and the fleet appoint each month Council of people Prepare bills Judges Punish people who do not obey the rules After the introduction of democracy, the Athenian citizens were afraid that one person would seize power again. Each year it was decided in the national assembly whether they should hold an ostracism. During an ostracism the citizens would scratch the name of a suspect person on a broken piece of pottery. The person who was given the most votes would then be banned (ostracised) from Athens for a number of years. elect for 1 year elect for 1 year by drawing lots elect for 1 year by drawing lots National assembly All citizens over 18 - Decide on war and peace - Conclude alliances - Approve or reject bills - May vote someone out once a year (ostracism) Politics in Athens Our word politics comes from the concept polis. Politics includes everything that is related to ruling a country or a city. Local government can be organized in different ways. In the beginning the Greek poleis often were monarchies. This was also the case in Athens. In a monarchy, a king (monarch) Source 1 inherits xxx the power from his predecessor. The Council of Elders (wise old men) helped him to govern the people. Frequently there were disagreements between the Greek poleis. These conflicts were fought out by heavily armed soldiers. They were rich men, who paid for their own weaponry. In return for protecting their polis they were given a say in local government. This is how the aristocracy came about. Aristoi means noblemen or the best. A few times a year these noblemen met in the assembly and made joint decisions. They were advised by the Council of Elders, like the king was previously. Sometimes one man managed to take control of all power. This is called a tyranny. Around 590 BC new laws were adopted in Athens so that from then on ordinary citizens also had to fight in the army. They then also wanted to be allowed to decide on issues such as war and peace. In 508 BC that moment arrived. All Athenian men over 18 who had civil rights were now allowed to decide in the national assembly. Athens had thus become a democracy: the people had the power. The assembly met around forty times a year. In source 2 you can see the assembly s tasks. At first the democracy did not yet work so well, because many poor Athenians did not show up. Around 460 BC the Athenian commander of the army Pericles thought of a solution. From now on the citizens would be given a day s pay if they attended the assembly. 36

15 Source 4 Heavily armed soldiers are fighting beside a friend who was killed in action. (Detail of a Corinthian vase from BC) Politics in Sparta Like in Athens, in Sparta there was a national assembly. All Spartan men over 30 participated in making decisions about the polis. Until they turned 30, Spartans did not have any time for politics, because they first had to do their military training and service. Once a year the assembly elected five men Source who took 1 xxx care of the day-to-day government. There were also two hereditary kings in Sparta. They led the army in wartime. There where two of them, so that the great Spartan army would still have a commander if one of them were to be killed. In peacetime the two kings were priests and they administered justice. The kings were monitored by the day-to-day government. The assembly also elected 28 men to sit on the Council of Elders. These men, who were over 60, advised the kings and the day-to-day government until they died. The Peloponnesian War Athens and Sparta were very different, but both were very successful in their own ways. Both Athens and Sparta wanted to be the most powerful and the strongest in Greece. In previous wars the two poleis had worked together, but in 431 BC it went wrong. Athens and Sparta each had their own alliances. Athens tried to make one of Sparta s allies change sides. Sparta responded with an attack on Attica, which was Athenian territory. This is how the Peloponnesian War began. This war was named after the Peloponnese peninsula, where the Spartans lived. The sides were well matched: it took almost thirty years before the Spartans were able to defeat the Athenians. In 405 BC Sparta destroyed the Athenian fleet. As a result, grain could no longer be transported to Athens. A year later a severely weakened Athens had to admit defeat. Athens power was broken forever. 37

16 Chapter 2 Key facts The age of Greeks and Romans The Greeks 4 The Greek gods Source Source 11 xxx A procession for the goddess Athena. From afar I can hear the crowds. They are making music and above all I hear the sound of the aulos [flute]. I am waiting at the altar, watching the procession as it arrives at the temple. The animals are painted and the people are wearing garlands. A man with a water jug and a woman carrying a bowl of grain on her head are approaching me. I accept the jug and take the knife that is hidden among the grain out of the bowl. All fall silent. I sprinkle a bull and a goat with water and grain. Then I hit them on the head and I cut the throats of the animals. The bones and fat are burnt as a sacrifice to satisfy the goddess Athena. The meat is prepared for all the people who are present. What a feast! The question is: what role did gods play in Greek society? 38

17 Source 2 Nike crowns an athlete with an olive branch. Nike was the goddess of victory in sports, but also in war. Source 3 In the temple on the Acropolis of Athens there was a marble statue of Athena, decorated in gold and silver. Athena can be recognised by her shield. She is carrying Nike in her hand. (Roman copy from the 2nd century.) Greek gods Like the Egyptians the Greeks believed in more than one god. They therefore had a polytheistic religion. The Greeks believed that their gods and goddesses Source 1 each xxx had their own tasks. In Greece, nature could be quite violent: volcanic eruptions, floods, storms and lightning. The Greeks thought that this was the work of the gods. The Greeks also believed that the gods decided if you became ill, had a good marriage, had children, et cetera. Zeus, the supreme god, was the god of heaven, thunder and lightning. One of his brothers, Poseidon, ruled the seas. His other brother, Hades, ruled the underworld. Zeus was married to Hera, the goddess of marriage. The Greek gods also had children. Athena, the goddess of martial art and wisdom, was one of Zeus daughters. The Greek gods formed one large family. The Greek gods were just like people. They were happy, angry, sad, in love and jealous. But the gods were immortal and had the power to decide on the lives of people. Worshipping the gods The Greeks built altars to worship their gods. An altar was like a high table on which sacrifices were laid, such as wine, fruit, animals and sometimes gold and silver. There were altars in the homes of the Greeks and in the fields. Later the inhabitants of a polis also built temples in which they might worship, for example, the patron gods and goddesses of the city. Often there was a beautiful idol in a temple. Priests worked in the temples. They were appointed by the local government of a polis to offer sacrifices on behalf of all residents. That is how the Greek gods were honoured and put in a good mood. People also organised celebrations and sports competitions for the gods. The most famous sports competitions were the games for Zeus in the 39

18 Source 4 The birth of the goddess Athena is portrayed on this Greek stamp (1974). Zeus kept falling in love and had many sweethearts. He also fell very much in love with Metis, the goddess of wisdom. Zeus was told that Metis children would be smarter and more powerful than himself. Zeus therefore ate Metis. After that day he had terrible headaches. He asked the god Hephaestus to open his head. To their great surprise, a beautiful and fully-grown girl came out of his head. Athena, the goddess of war and wisdom, was born. You can see the god Poseidon left on the stamp (recognizable by his trident). Aphrodite, the goddess of love, and Ares, the god of war (recognizable by his weaponry), are on the right. Source 5 On this beaker (500 BC) you see an event from the Iliad. After a battle during the Trojan War, the hero Achilles bandages his best friend Patroklos. small city of Olympia, more commonly known as the Olympic Games. From 776 BC these games were held every four years to thank Zeus for all the victories. In Olympia games for Hera were also organised Source 1 every xxx four years. The Greeks believed that the gods sent them signs to communicate messages. A thunderstorm could be one of those signs from the gods. In order to be able to translate these messages from the gods correctly, the people consulted oracles. An oracle is a sanctuary where a god makes a prophecy or prediction through a priest(ess). The prediction itself was also called an oracle. The problem caused by these prophesies was that they were rather puzzling. They could be interpreted in more than one way. If someone speaks gibberish today, we might also say they speak like an oracle. Myths The Greeks told each other all sorts of stories about gods, demigods and heroes. These stories about the gods are called myths. Very often an event that had actually happened was the start of a myth. A myth could also give an explanation of the name of a town, for instance. As the stories were told and passed on for centuries, they became more and more exciting and many details were added. The Greek mythology contains all the Greek stories about their gods. The Greek poet Homer wrote down two very wellknown myths in the 8th century BC: the Iliad and Odyssey. The Iliad is about the war in Troy. The Odyssey is about the wanderings of King Odysseus after the Trojan War. From these stories we can learn what the Greeks considered important and how they thought about their gods. 40

19 Chapter 2 Key facts The age of Greeks and Romans The Greeks 5 Greek culture Plato ( BC) Aristotle ( BC) Socrates ( BC) Pythagoras (572-ca. 500 BC) Apelles (4th century BC) Source Source1 1 The xxx School of Athens by Raphael Santi ( ). Have a close look at source 1. In the bottom left corner you can see someone secretly copying the great Greek mathematician Pythagoras notes. And that is not the only joke Raphael, the Italian painter, made in this painting. He has included himself as well. Of course not as himself: he portrayed the Greek artist Apelles with his face. The philosopher Plato and his student Aristotle are debating in the centre of the painting. A little to the left you see another well-known philosopher: Socrates, who is always asking tough questions. Raphael has tried to combine all the great Greek thinkers, scientists and artists in one piece of art. He created it in the 16th century, especially for the pope s residence in Rome. He called it Philosophy, which means friend (filos) of wisdom (sofia). Over time, the painting has become known as The School of Athens. The question is: why are Greek art and science so highly appreciated? 41

20 Source 2 Picture from about 2300 BC of an Egyptian couple: Katep and Hetepheres. Source 4 The athlete is tying ribbons round his head to celebrate: he has just won a competition. (A Roman copy of the Greek statue from BC). Source 3 A Greek statuette of a young man (kouros) from the 6th century BC. Greek culture Culture is everything that is made and invented by a society, for instance art. It includes buildings, statues, paintings, stories and plays. But Source science 1 also xxx belongs to culture. We have adopted much from Greek culture. The art of the Greeks has often been copied over the centuries. In turn the Greeks had studied the Egyptians well. The Egyptian statues were beautiful, but they did not look very lifelike. And that is what the Greeks found important. Their statues had to be perfect. That made them divine. Therefore sculptors studied the human body from top to toe: muscles, face and movement. Their statues show perfect bodies. Often the statues represent gods or sportsmen and women. In their architecture the Greeks tried to achieve perfection, too. The temples for the gods had to be as beautiful as possible. Height, width and depth of the temple had to be of good proportions. Mathematical calculations were needed to achieve this. Much mathematics was also applied to the design of theatres. The Greek theatres were open-air theatres, where thousands of people could come and watch plays. The theatres were built so that even people in the top rows could hear the softest voices from the stage. Science The Greeks were curious and tried to find explanations for everything. At first they found those explanations in their myths. Later, scholars looked for answers in nature itself. If there was a thunderstorm, it was not because Zeus was angry, but because of a natural cause. Many Greeks thought that if they became ill, it was a punishment of the gods. Hippocrates (ca BC) discovered that some diseases had an entirely different cause. He noticed that people became ill 42

21 Source 5 A mask in a comic play from the 4th or 3rd century BC. In Greece only men could act in plays. Each actor played multiple roles, including women s roles. They wore masks to show the audience who they were representing. There was a large hole in the mask, so that the actors could be heard clearly. This mask was made for a comical play. Tragic plays, especially, are still performed, also in the Netherlands. Their themes are very familiar to us. The plays are about love, jealousy, betrayal, revenge and death. Today the plays are not performed to please the gods, and the female roles are played by women. Source 6 The Greeks often sacrificed a sculp-ture of a healed body part to Asclepius, the god of medicine. The Greek Tyche made the sacrifice of a leg in thanks (AD ). if they lived unhealthy lives or if they did not look after themselves. Hippocrates taught his students to study the human body and people s behaviour very closely. Greek Source scientists 1 xxx wanted to know everything about man, nature and the universe. One scientist suspected that the world consisted of very small particles: atoms. These researchers could not yet prove their ideas, but it was the starting point of various sciences, such as mathematics and physics. Science means gathering knowledge by studying phenomena in detail. Scientists look for explanations and try to find proofs. Herodotus ( BC) also tried to gather as much knowledge as possible, but in this case about history. The Greek word historia literally means research. For instance, Herodotus studied the wars between the Persians and Greeks. In his description of the wars he tried not to choose sides. Philosophy Instead of studying nature, some scholars asked questions about what people do and think, such as what is right and wrong? What is beauty? How do we know what is true? What is the best form of government? We call these thinkers philosophers. The philosopher Socrates ( BC) tried to teach people by asking them questions. Only when you have acquired much knowledge, will you be able to make correct decisions, he thought. In the polis of Athens, Socrates was considered a danger. He was said to have a bad influence on young people. Socrates was dragged before the court and sentenced to death: he had to drink a poisoned cup. 43

22 Chapter 2 Key facts 6 The age of Greeks and Romans The Greeks The Greeks and their neighbours Marathon Persian camp Large swamp the Persian army the Greek army Persian fleet Greek camp Source 1 The Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. In 491 BC, the Persian King Darius sent a messenger to Greece. The messenger asked the Greeks to hand over some earth and water to the Persians. The answer from the Athenians was clear: the messenger was killed. Darius demanded revenge and immediately sent a fleet of 600 ships, packed with troops, to Athens. They went ashore near the city of Marathon, where they were met by the Greek army. The first days nothing happened. Darius thought he was being clever and secretly sent part of his fleet to Athens in the middle of the night. The Greeks, who were still in the minority, managed to beat the remaining Persian troops without any difficulty. They then marched to Athens as quickly as possible and arrived there at the same time as the Persian fleet. The Persians realized that they had lost and retreated, but not for long The question is: what was the relationship like between the Greeks and their neighbouring countries? 44

23 Source 2 The Greek colonisation between 750 and 550 BC. BLACK SEA Sicily Rhodes M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A Crete Greek poleis region with much Greek influence regions with little Greek influence Colonisation In the 8th and 7th century BC the population in the Greek poleis grew. Because there was not much fertile soil in Greece, food shortages grew quickly. Part of the population was therefore sent on an expedition Source 1 to xxx other towns in the Mediterranean to found new Greek settlements (colonies). This happened for instance on the Turkish west coast, in the south of Italy and in Sicily. There was much trade between the various poleis and the colonies. The founding of settlements outside Greece in the 8th and 7th century BC is called colonisation. If the Greeks settled somewhere, they kept their own language, culture and gods. The languages and customs of the peoples they met, were often strange to them. The language of those strangers, according to the Greeks, sounded like barbarbarbar. For this reason the Greeks began to call the strangers barbarians. At war with the Persians The Persian king planned to add the Greek colonies on the Turkish coast to his kingdom. The poleis in Turkey, however, received support from Athens. Then the Persians organised two major campaigns against all the Greeks. It became a clash between two worlds. On the one side there was the divided Greek world: a group of small poleis. On the other side there was the enormous Persian Empire, ruled strictly by one king. On the one side there were the small land armies of the Greek poleis with soldiers who were their own citizens. On the other side there was the enormous Persian army. Most of its troops belonged to peoples they had conquered before. The divided Greeks decided to work together under Athenian leadership and managed to defeat the Persians. In 480 BC the Athenian fleet finally defeated the Persian fleet near the town of Salamis. In 479 BC the Persian land army was also trampled by the Greeks and the war was over. 45

24 Source 3 The trireme is a Greek war ship that is propelled by rowers. The Athenian ships could change direction more easily than the Persians large ships. Source 4 Alexander the Great in action against the Persians at the Battle of Issus (333 BC). Alexander the Great fulfilled his father s great desire: he defeated the Persian Empire. In this relief, which was originally on a sarcophagus (a stone coffin), you see Alexander in action in the Battle of Issus. The sarcophagus was probably made for a Persian nobleman. To the left on the prancing horse you see Alexander the Great. At the time he was 23 years old. He can be recognised by the lion s head on his head. Alexander believed he was a descendant of the hero Heracles. In one of the Greek myths Heracles kills a lion. He then wears its skin as a cloak and its head as a helmet. The Persians were then driven from the cities on the Turkish coast. At this time the word barbaric acquired the meaning of uncivilised for the Greeks. Hellenism In 338 BC King Philip of Macedonia conquered Greece. Macedonia lies north of Greece. Philip could easily conquer the Greek poleis, because after the Peloponnesian Wars ( BC) the Greeks were still weak and divided. The king then wanted to conquer the Persian Empire with a large Greek army. Before he could begin, he was assassinated. His son Alexander the Great succeeded him and carried out his plans. Between 336 and 323 BC Alexander not only defeated the Persians, but also conquered Egypt and many other regions, even as far as India. Alexander the Great was taught by the philosopher Aristotle. Science was very important to him. Scholars also joined his army on its journeys. On his journey Alexander founded new cities, such as Alexandria in Egypt. After Alexander s death Alexandria became one of the most important research centres at that time. Mainly Greek scholars worked there. Alexander wanted all nations in his kingdom to become one nation. So he adopted customs from all cultures. For instance, they had to follow the Egyptian custom and kneel before him and address him as if he were a god. He also married three Persian princesses. He encouraged his soldiers to marry girls from captured territories. Nevertheless the Greek culture remained most important in Alexander the Great s Empire. Because the Greeks called their own country Hellas, we refer to the civilisation in the kingdom of Alexander and his successors as Hellenism. Thanks to Alexander the Great, the Greek culture spread across an enormous region. 46

25 Chapter 2 Close-up 7 The age of Greeks and Romans The Greeks Going to school in Athens Our word school is derived from the Greek word scholazo. Strangely enough, it means free time. Would that mean that children in ancient Greece loved school? No, another translation of scholazo is: to be exempted from work. And of course that was the case: if you went to school, you did not have to work. Athenian parents found education very important for their sons. Girls did not have to go to school. They stayed at home with their mothers where they learned housekeeping and how to become good wives. Most boys went to school between the ages 7 and 14. All schools were private schools: parents had to pay for education. Fortunately it was not very expensive, so that poor Athenians could send their sons to school too. Schools were usually small (twenty pupils) and often only had one classroom. There the boys would sit on low benches. All they had was a little board to write on. If they did not behave, the teacher would slap them. The question is: what did Athenian students learn at school? Source 1 Reading, writing and music. In the middle of this beaker from ca. 485 BC you see a teacher holding a wax tablet in his hand. The student standing in front of him is being tested. Hopefully he has learned his homework well enough! Athenian students had to learn long chapters of important Greek poets by heart. Those poems told them about the history and culture of the Greeks. To the left you see a music teacher playing the aulos (flute) while a student is singing. Learning how to sing was the most important part of music lessons. Each boy had to be able to sing in the choirs during the festivals in honour of the gods. It was also a good preparation for speaking to the assembly. 47

26 Source 2 Gymnastics. Sports were a very important subject in Athenian schools. Therefore the boys went to the gymnasium in the afternoons. Literally gymnasium means: a place where you go in the nude. The students were always nude when they practiced sports. They rubbed their bodies with olive oil. The Greeks admired a trained body. Sports were considered beneficial for body and mind. And of course, strong men were important in the Athenian army. Source 3 The author of the Iliad and Odyssey: Homer. (Statue from the 1st or 2nd century AD) Source 4 The ancient Greek alphabet. 48

27 Chapter 2 The age of Greeks and Romans The Greeks 8 Review What should you know and be able to do? You should be able to explain: A Citizenship in the Greek city-state which forms of government exist; how Athens and Sparta were governed; what were the views of civil rights in Athens and Sparta. B Culture and scientific thinking in the Greek city-state what is so special about Greek culture in the 5th century think of (religious) customs, science, literature and art; that gods were very important to the Greeks; how the Greeks developed scientific thinking; how the Greek culture spread; what you can still see today of ancient Greek culture. Skill You should be able to handle the concepts cause and consequence. Historians aim to answer the questions why something happened (cause) and what happened as a result of an event (consequence). Keywords aristocracy A form of government in which a small group of people with privileges (noblemen) are in power. barbarian Stranger, later: not civilised. civil rights (among the Greeks) The rights given to the landowning inhabitants of a polis. In a democracy, men with civil rights were allowed to govern the city. colonisation (in ancient Greece) The founding of Greek settlements outside Greece in the 8th and 7th century BC. culture Anything created and invented by a society such as customs and traditions, forms of art (architecture, sculpture, literature and plays) and science. democracy A form of government in which the people (demos) decide by voting who should be rulers. In Athens only men with civil rights could participate in democracy. Greek gods The Greeks believed that their gods determined life and death and that the whole world was governed by their natural forces. The Greek gods formed one large family. Hellenism The predominantly Greek civilisation that arose in the empire of Alexander the Great and his successors. The Greeks called their country Hellas. inequality Differences between people in property, power or rights. monarchy A form of government led by a king who inherits his power. myth A story about gods or demigods, or a story that is considered true but is not entirely based on facts. Olympic Games A sporting contest for all the Greeks to honour the supreme god Zeus, organised in Olympia once every four years from 776 BC onwards. 49

28 oracle A sanctuary where a god makes a prophecy through a priest(ess). The prophecy itself is also called an oracle. philosopher Someone looking for wisdom and knowledge to understand more about the world and man. polis (plural: poleis) A Greek city-state, consisting of a city and its surroundings. science Gathering knowledge by studying a phenomenon. Scientists look for explanations and try to find proofs. slavery A system in which people are owned by someone else and therefore are not free and do not have rights. tyranny A form of government where all the power is held by one person. Source 1 Comedy or tragedy? This vase (ca BC) shows a scene in a play. It is a comedy in which the gods are ridiculed. To the left you see Zeus holding a ladder. He is on his way to one of his sweethearts (in the centre). The god Hermes tries to help him and holds up a light. Source 2 The Concertgebouw was opened in Amsterdam in The building has a neoclassical (new-classic) style. 50

29 Source 3 Leonidas. Timeline Ca. 750 BC Rise of Greek poleis and beginning of Greek colonisation The film 300 (from 2006) is about the Spartan King Leonidas, who had to defend the Thermopylae mountain pass against the Persian army. The Spartans were attacked from behind after the Greek Ephialtes betrayed them. They fought like lions, but in the end all 300 were killed BC 3000 BC EGYPTIAN KINGDOM AGE OF GREEKS AND ROMANS 3000 BC AD BC. Athens becomes a democracy Source 4 Imme Dros, the author of children s books, adapted the books by the Greek poet Homer about the hero Odysseus to turn them into exciting stories for children BC Persian Wars 750 BC BC Peloponnesian War 332 BC 200 BC 1 GREEK POLEIS ROMANS BC The spread of Greek culture by Alexander the Great Ca. 200 BC The Romans conquer the Greek poleis 51 today

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