1 The * Immune System and Disease pre 1600s - cause of disease not known Punishment from God, bad luck, bad air, witchcraft, curses, maternal impressions etc. After 1600s, microscopy and germ theory of disease Scientific basis for disease, BUT doctors did not wear gloves, no anesthesia, no sterile technique antibiotics - penicillin, 1940s. Revolutionized medicine
2 Pathogen = A biological unit that causes disease prion protein no DNA AND not alive!! virus - non living, needs host cell to replicate bacteria - single celled microbe protozoa single celled eukaryote microbe parasite - multicellular Most microbes are NOT pathogens
4 Disease Terms 1. Infectious Can be transmitted from person (or animal) to person Body fluids example: Vectors example: Ingestion example: Inhalation example:
5 2. Epidemic Contagious disease that spreads rapidly and uncontrollably affected large numbers of people 3. Plague epidemic that kills large numbers of people
6 ~23% die of diarrhea (10 million children per year)- why/how? Life straw nyt video lifestrawaustralia
7 Prions = (rare) spongiform encephalopathy disease CJD in humans Always fatal, no treatment Most cases sporadic (arise spontaneously) or inherited Can be acquired from exposure to infected brains Sponge-like brain Example: Kuru
8 Outbreak in England 1980s Cows stagger, shake, fall down ( mad cow ) Transmitted to ~18 humans via contaminated hamburger meat Caused by an infectious agent that is NOT alive and has no DNA!
9 How does a prion cause disease? Normal prp protein undergoes a shape change Brain cells lyse spongy brain
10 Don t eat brains or meat from contaminated people or cows.
11 VIRUSES Antiviral drugs or wait it out consist of protein + genetic material infect cells and reproduce Smallpox virus (not in textbook) pustules disfigure, blind, kill eradicated in 1977
12 Other viruses Rhinovirus (50) colds Influenza -the flu (not in textbook) changes genetic makeup every year 40 million deaths in 1920 in 4 months! >30,000 die in US each year! new vaccine needed every year because it changes so rapidly
13 Smallpox (variola virus ) Vaccination available, if you re under 30, you probably are not vaccinated last case
14 Herpes viruses sores on skin Lies dormant in nervous system, activated by stress, sunlight transmitted by direct contact with lesion 1. oral = 225 million in US (90% of us) 2. genital = 45 million in US
15 3. Chicken pox (a herpes virus) and shingles (not in textbook) Millions of new virus in pustules After infection, virus remains dormant near spinal cord If reactivated in later life - shingles
16 Poliomyelitis virus attacks the nervous system -> paralysis virus shed in feces (improved sanitation and hygiene helps to prevent transmission but its easily transmissible!) 1916 New York, 27,000 infected, 9000 died
17 / Effects of polio
18 Bacteria single celled, prokaryotic May be killed by antibiotics penicillin, tetracycline etc... antibiotic resistance problem
19 Lyme disease caused by B. burgdorferi bacteria Tick vector Tick feeds on blood -> bacteria migrate to mouthparts Bulls-eye rash treat early with antibiotics or joint/nervous system problems Look at the size of this tick!
20 Incidence of lyme disease..
21 Salmonella (not in textbook) (Daniel Salmon) From contaminated chicken, eggs Must heat to 160 F to destroy, or wash off Diarrhea, nausea, can be fatal in some
22 MRSA Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection Staphylococcus aureus bacteria "staph." normally found on the skin of about 1/3 people. "colonized" but not infected can pass it on Usually does not cause problems unless it gets into the bloodstream, heart, lungs Can t be treated with normal antibiotics (vancomycin still works)
23 How do bacteria develop antibiotic resistance? 1. Unnecessary antibiotic use in humans 2. Routine antibiotics in food and water 3. Mutation rate + bacteria that survive treatment with one antibiotic soon can resist others. What can you do? Wash hands, don t share towels, shower, use antibiotics appropriately!
24 Malaria Protozoa - mosquito vector contains protozoa (single-celled eukaryote) Periodic bursting of protozoa from red blood cells Fever, weakness, death 300 million infected, millions die each year
25 Parasites Multicellular animals hookworm, tapeworm, pinworm, heartworm (dogs) diarrhea, weakness, weight loss tapeworm Roundworm infects millions of people Up to 12 inches in length Note: you may not want to see next.
26 Organs of the immune (lymphatic) system tonsils Lymph nodes thymus Also, bone marrow spleen
27 Lymph nodes in groin, armpit, neck, intestines Tonsils Spleen Thymus Bone marrow
29 How do we fight disease? How can we ever win in this sea of pathogens? Non specific immunity Skin, sweat, mucus, tears, stomach HCl, some types of white blood cells, ear wax, ph.
30 Specific immunity Recognizing self from non-self each foreign cell, protein, DNA has a unique identity that can be recognized as foreign by the body s immune system Self antigens Mark your cells as you Foreign antigens Are not yours.. Your immune system should be able to attack and destroy specific pathogens
31 white blood cells active in specific immunity B cells (lymphocytes) Make antibodies Antibodies bind to foreign antigens (pathogens) T cells (lymphocytes) coordinate immune response Kill infected cells
32 Vaccination/Immunization Vaccine = antigen Types Killed microorganism or virus attenuated (disabled) Toxoids (the toxin) Fragment (piece)
33 Expose individual to vaccine and.. B cells make antibodies to the vaccine
34 B cells have memory When body is exposed to foreign antigen (pathogen) years later, B cells rapidly produce large amounts of the correct antibody Enough B cells to recognize every foreign antigen in nature! Note: you can gain immunity by contracting disease itself Some vaccines require boosters (example: tetanus)
37 Why vaccinate? Diptheria 1920s 100,000 to 200,000 cases per year in the United States, 13,000 to 15,000 deaths. [ Pertussis Worldwide, million pertussis cases, 300,000 deaths Before polio vaccine was available, 13,000 to 20,000 cases of paralytic polio were reported each year in the United States. Before measles immunization was available, nearly everyone in the U.S. got measles. 1/100 1/1000 die Hib Before the vaccine, approximately 20,000 invasive Hib cases annually. Approximately two thirds of the 20,000 cases were meningitis, and onethird were other life-threatening invasive In , before rubella immunization was used routinely in the U.S., there was an epidemic of rubella that resulted in an estimated 20,000 infants born with CRS, as well as 2,100 neonatal deaths and 11,250 miscarriages. Of the 20,000 infants born with CRS, 11,600 were deaf, 3,580 were blind, and 1,800 were mentally retarded. 2 billion persons worldwide have been infected with the hepatitis B virus at some time in their lives. 1 million will die from liver disease An estimated 212,000 cases of mumps occurred in the U.S. in Was a leading cause of childhood deafness, can be fatal
38 Measles outbreak 2008 Unvaccinated 7 yr old child visited Europe 1/08 (PBE) unvaccinated children in US contracted measles His siblings 5 kids from school 4 kids in the waiting room at the Dr. s office 21 were quarantined Can cause encephalitis, pneumonia, even death
39 Before vaccination program for measles Millions of cases per year, 28,000 hospitalizations, 1000 s with chronic disabilities (encephalitis effects) One case costs >$100,000 to control
41 Quick Immunization Facts: 3 million children die every year from diseases that are entirely preventable. 30 million infants have no access to basic immunization each year. One child can be fully immunized for $17.
42 Malaria HIV Lyme disease Herpes In the future.
43 Available but not given to general Smallpox population, why?? Anthrax
The * Immune System and Disease pre 1600s - cause of disease not known Divine punishment Also: bad luck bad air witchcraft curses maternal impressions How to treat disease (back then) Flowers smell wards
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