Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering

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1 Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering AUTOMATIC TYRE PRESSURE REPLENISHING SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT ASSISTED BY MATHEMATICAL MODELLING AND FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Ainol Suhada Bin Dahlan Doctor of Philosophy 2016

2 AUTOMATIC TYRE PRESSURE REPLENISHING SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT ASSISTED BY MATHEMATICAL MODELLING AND FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS AINOL SUHADA BIN DAHLAN A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA 2016

3 DECLARATION I declare that this thesis entitled Automatic Tyre Pressure Replenishing System Development Assisted by Mathematical Modelling and Finite Element Analysis is the result of my own research except as cited in the references. The thesis has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree. Signature :. AINOL SUHADA BIN DAHLAN Name :. Date :.

4 APPROVAL I hereby declare that I have read this dissertation/report and in my opinion this dissertation/report is sufficient in terms of scope and quality as a partial fulfillment of Doctor of Philosophy. Signature :. ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR IR. DR. SIVARAO SUBRAMONIAN Supervisor Name :.. Date :

5 DEDICATION To my beloved father and mother

6 ABSTRACT Tyre pressure loss is a common phenomenon whereby, air from the tyre chamber would be naturally released to the atmosphere causing its pressure to drop from time to time. It has been reported that, almost 80% vehicles on the road are running with underinflated tyres which is due to lack of user awareness of the importance running their cars with properly inflated tyres. Running with below recommended/pre-set pressure often leads to catastrophic tyre failure which leads in major road accidents. One of the main reasons for the negligence in maintaining tyre pressure is due to the hassle of having to check and inflate the tyre manually. Therefore, many ideas and systems have been initiated since the past to ensure correct tyre pressure is maintained at all time. Unfortunately, there is no one complete system found in the market to date for the matter. Therefore, a novel Tyre Pressure Replenishing System (Pre-Rep) has been researched, which has also been filed for patent. This research successfully established a system which could ensure the tyre pressure is sustained at a safe pre-set limit at all time without human intervention. The system design has been verified to contain the maximum operational pressure by using the finite element method to analyse the strength of the pressure capsule design. The structural analysis of the system has been verified by Finite Element Analysis incorporating maximum pressure obtained from mathematical modelling, and maximum tyre temperature obtained from thermal investigation which experimentally conducted over a travelled distance with two sets of speed limit. Finite element analysis being the critical engineering analytical tool reveals that, the structural design advocated AISI 304 Stainless Steel as the work material which resulted factor of safety to be 1.2 which is considered safe for pressure vessel fabrication. The proposed technology comprises a combination of high pressure capsule called pressure capsule to automatically replenish air into the tyre when deflation occurs so that the pressure in the tyre is always maintained to its set value without one having to worry about checking or even monitoring the pressure. This system works as an embedded unit where it is installed onto a standard automobile wheel. The research methodology with critical considerations has successfully enabled the development of successful Pre-Rep after incorporating the mathematical modelling output into the finite element analysis which was later tested and experimentally validated using Proton Perdana V6. The compensation performance and the results show that Pre-Rep is capable to compensate the tyre pressure loss with pressure check sensitivity of 7 kpa pressure cut-off accuracy 14 kpa. This very much complies with the tyre pressure monitoring system sensitivity range used worldwide proving agreement of the designed system to automatically inflate the tyres. Pre-Rep besides overcoming all the hustles to maintain safe tyre pressure, it is also able to provide comfort and economical drive besides lifesaving by reducing or eliminating major road accidents due to tyre explosion. i

7 ABSTRAK Kehilangan tekanan angin tayar adalah suatu fenomema biasa di mana udara daripada ruang tayar meresap keluar ke atmosfera yang mengakibatkan tekanan angin tayar hilang secara semulajadi dari masa ke masa. Menurut laporan, hampir 80% kenderaan di jalan raya bergerak dengan tayar yang kurang tekanan disebabkan kurang kesedaran oleh pengguna terhadap kepentingan mengekalkan tekanan angin yang betul. Tayar yang mempunyai tekanan di bawah tekanan yang disyorkan, cenderung untuk gagal dan boleh mengakibatkan kemalangan jalan raya. Salah satu sebab pengabaian penjagaan tekanan angin adalah kerana kesulitan untuk memeriksa dan mengisi angin tayar secara manual. Pelbagai idea dan sistem telah direka sebelum ini, tetapi malangnya tiada satu pun sistem yang lengkap boleh didapati di pasaran sehingga kini. Oleh kerana itu, satu sistem yang diberi nama Sistem Pengisian Tekanan Angin Tayar (Pre-Rep) telah dilakukan penyelidikannya. Penyelidikan ini berjaya membangunkan satu sistem yang dapat memastikan tekanan angin tayar sentiasa berada pada nilai tetapan yang selamat tanpa campur tangan manusia. Pembangunan konsep sistem telah dilakukan dengan pemilihan konsep dilaksanakan menggunakan kaedah proses analisis hierarki. Sistem berupaya menyimpan angin bertekanan pada tekanan maksima operasi sistem dan pengesahan telah dilakukan menggunakan kaedah unsur terhingga dengan analisis dilakukan ke atas rekabentuk kapsul tekanan. Analisis struktur bagi sistem telah disahkan menggunakan kaedah analisis unsur terhingga dengan nilai tekanan maksima diperolehi daripada model matematik dan suhu maksima tayar diperolehi daripada penyiasatan haba di mana satu eksperimen telah dilakukan ke atas kereta yang bergerak untuk satu jarak yang ditetapkan bagi dua set had laju. Rekabentuk struktur yang direka terdiri daripada keluli tahan karat AISI 304 sebagai bahan kerja, mempunyai faktor keselamatan bernilai 1.2 di mana ia dikira selamat bagi fabrikasi bekas penyimpanan bertekanan. Teknologi yang dicadangkan terdiri daripada kombinasi kapsul tekanan tinggi yang dipanggil kapsul tekanan untuk mengisi angin secara automatik ke dalam tayar apabila pengurangan tekanan berlaku. Sistem ini beroperasi sebagai unit terbina dalaman di mana ia dipasang pada bahagian dalam rim tayar kereta. Kaedah penyelidikan dengan pertimbangan kritikal telah memberi kejayaan kepada pembangunan Pre-Rep selepas menggunakan hasil keputusan yang diperolehi daripada model matematik ke dalam analisis unsur terhingga di mana ia kemudiannya diuji secara eksperimen menggunakan kereta Proton Perdana V6. Prestasi pengimbangan tekanan angin menunjukkan Pre-Rep berupaya untuk mengimbang semula tekanan angin tayar yang telah hilang dengan sensitiviti pemeriksaan tekanan bernilai 7 kpa dengan ketepatan pemutusan tekanan bernilai 14 kpa. Prestasinya jelas menepati julat sensitiviti sistem pemantauan tekanan angin tayar yang diaplikasi seluruh dunia. Selain itu, Pre-Rep berjaya mengatasi segala kesulitan untuk mengekalkan tekanan angin tayar yang selamat dan ia juga berupaya memberi penjimatan dan keselamatan pemanduan selain daripada menyelamatkan nyawa. ii

8 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First and foremost, I would like to take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to my principal supervisor Associate Professor Ir. Dr. Sivarao Subramonian and my cosupervisor Dr. Raja Izamshah Raja Abdullah from the Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) for their indispensable guidance, assistance and encouragement. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Ministry of Higher Education for awarding MyBrain KPT scholarship which enabled the successful progression of this critical research grant.i would also like to assert my genuine appreciation to the top management of UTeM, namely Vice Chancellor, Prof. Datuk Dr. Shahrin Bin Deputy Vice Chancellor (Research and Innovation), Prof. Ir. Dr. Mohd. Jailani Bin Mohd. Nor as well as Deputy Vice Chancellor (Academic and Internationalization), Prof. Datuk Dr. Mohd Razali Bin Muhamad where the same is extended to the Dean of Centre for Graduate Studies, Associate Professor Dr. Zulkifilie Bin Ibrahim and the Director of Centre for Research and Innovation Management (CRIM), Associate Professor Dr. Badrul Hisham Bin Ahmad. I would also like to express my sincere recognition and gratitude to the Dean; Associate Professor Dr. Mohd Rizal Bin Salleh and Deputy Dean; Associate Professor Dr. Hambali Bin Ariff from the Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering and not forgetting the entire staff and technician for their continuous advice along with crucial technical support. iii

9 DECLARATION APPROVAL DEDICATION ABSTRACT ABSTRAK ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF APPENDICES LIST OF ABREVIATIONS LIST OF SYMBOLS LIST OF PUBLICATIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE i ii iii iv vii viii xii xiii xiv xv CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION Background Problem Statement Objectives Research Scope Research Motivation 8 2. LITERATURE REVIEW Background Tyre History Tyre Structure Tyre Materials Tyre Safety Measures Tyre Pressure Loss Mechanism Tyre Air Permeation Air Permeability Effect of Temperature Mechanical Fittings Ideal/Proper Tyre Inflation Effect of Improperly Inflated Tyre Effect of Running with Underinflated Tyre Advancement in Tyre Pressure Compensating Technology Central Tyre Inflation System Compression of Routed Hoses Deformable Bladder Self-inflating Tyre Pump Centrifugal Pump Micromechanical Pump Driven System Electromagnetic Pump Inflation System Dynamically Self-Inflating Tyre System Research / Technology Gap Investigation and Benchmarking 42 iv

10 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Introduction Research Methodology Flowchart Concept Development Specifications Product Design Specifications (PDS) Customer requirement (Voice of Customer) Concepts Generation and Selection Concept selection Pre-Design Pressure Capsule Profiling Mock-Up Pressure Compensation System Structural Analysis Mathematical Modelling Critical Tyre Pressure Loss Investigation Model Development Thermal Analysis Finite Element Analysis Prototype Development and Functional Test Pressure Capsule Compensation System System Integration Performance Test Analysis Test Setup Development Sensitivity Test Accuracy Test RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Concept Generation and Selection Product Requirements Generated Concepts Selected Concept Architectural Design Overall System Framework Pressure Capsule Profiled Mesh Pre-Designed Mock-up Dimensionalizing and Development Compensation System Full Integrated System Finite Element Analysis Tyre Pressure Loss Investigation Mathematical Modelling Thermal Investigation Finite Element Analysis Prototype Development and Validation 121 v

11 4.4.1 Final Prototype Performance Analysis CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusion Recommendations for Future Work 131 REFERENCES 133 APPENDICES 148 vi

12 LIST OF TABLES TABLE TITLE PAGE 2.1 Air Permeability Values of Various Inner-Liners Weightages for Concept Selection Criterions 96 vii

13 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE TITLE PAGE 1.1 Tyre Blowout due to Tread Separation Cross-Section View of a Radial Tyre Structure Ingredient Fractions of a Radial Tyre Statistical Observations (a) Increase of Road Fatalities over the Years and (b) Primary Crash Contributing Factors Air Molecules Escapism Through Tyre Side Walls Air Molecules Sneak Through Tyre Bead Air Permeability in the Tyre Compound Tyre Pressure Loss Operation Cycle Upon Excessive Heat Thermo-Graphic Images of Tyres Operating with Decreased Air 21 Pressure 2.9 Contour Plot of Average Temperature of the Tread and Sidewall 22 during Dynamic Condition 2.10 Corroded Rim Flange and Valve Rubber-Type Valve Stem Cracks Monitored Tyre Pressure via TIC in Hamilton, UK Effect of Various Inflation Pressure on the Tyre-Road Contact Properly Inflated Tyre Underinflated Tyre 28 viii

14 2.16 Overloading Phenomena of Underinflated Tyre Thermal Imaging of Tyre Inflated at (a) 200 kpa, (b) 130 kpa and (c) kpa 2.18 Central Tyre Inflation System Compression of Routed Hoses Deformable Bladder High Pressure Reservoir Centrifugal Pump Micromechanical Pump Electromagnetic Pump Inflation System DSTS Configuration Benchmarking of Tyre Pressure Compensation Technology Research Methodology Flowchart Total Design Activity Model Typical House of Quality (HOQ) Customer Requirements Assessment Using House of Quality (HOQ) Typical Hierarchical Assessment System Application Profile Scanning Setup for a. Hub profiling, and b. Rim profiling FaroArm Scanner Typical FDM Technology for Rapid Prototyping (Alexander et al., ) 3.9 Schematic Illustration of Pressure Compensation System Proton Perdana V Basic TPMS Setup on a Vehicle 74 ix

15 3.12 TPMS Sensor and Receiver Specifications Monitoring System Setup Simulation of Finite Element Analysis Finite Element Simulation of Von Mises Stress Distribution Pressure Capsule Blueprints Finalised Design of Pressure Capsule Finalised Design of Compensation System Finalised Design of Integrated Pre-Rep System Experimental Setup for Compensation System Sensitivity Test and 86 Validation 3.21 Schematic of Spring Displacement Sensitivity Test Pre-Rep Concept Pre-Rep Concept Pre-Rep Concept Concept Selection Result by Expert Choice Main Criterion Priorities Percentage over Goal Performance Sensitivity for Manufacturing Cost Performance Sensitivity for Ergonomic Performance Sensitivity for Safety Performance Sensitivity for Maintenance Cost Performance Sensitivity for Reliability Performance Sensitivity for Ultimate Goal Schematic of Air Flow Design for Compensation Process Scan Data 102 x

16 4.14 Generated Profile Pressure Capsule Design Pressure Capsule Mock-up Unit Hub-Fit Validation Rim-Fit Validation Schematic of Compensation System Sub-systems of the compensation system Fully Integrated Pre-Rep System Finite Element Analysis Workflow Investigated Tyre Pressure Loss Tyre Chamber Cross Section Pressure Capsule Cross Section and Profile Dimensions Pressure Loss vs. Time/Duration Temperature Dissipated Onto Tyre over Distance Travelled Pressure Accumulated vs. Travelled Distance Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of Pressure Capsule FEA Based Fabricated Pressure Capsule Full Scale Prototype - Compensation System Integrated Pressure Capsule Final Prototype of Pressure Compensation System Full Scale Prototype of Tyre Pressure Sustaining System (Pre-Rep) Completed Pre-Rep Prototype performed on a Wheel Spring Displacement (mm) vs. Pressure (kpa) Pressure Compensation Accuracy Test 128 xi

17 LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX TITLE PAGE A Exploded View of Pre-Rep Test Rig 149 B Exploded View of Pre-Rep 150 C Exploded View of Pressure Indicator 151 D Properties of Inflated Air 152 xii

18 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 3D - Three Dimensional AHP - Analytical Hierarchy Process AISI - American Iron and Steel Institute CP - Centrifugal Pump (CP) CRH - Compression of Routed Hoses (CRH) CTIS - Central Tyre Inflation System DB - Deformable Bladder (DB) DSTS - Dynamically Self-Inflating Tyre System EPIS - Electromagnetic Pump Inflation System (EPIS) FEA - Finite Element Analysis FOS - Factor of Safety HOQ - House of Quality (HOQ) IGES - Initial Graphic Exchange Specification MPDS - Micromechanical Pump Driven System (MPDS) NEDC - New European Driving Cycle NHTSA - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration OEM - Original Equipment Manufacturer PDS - Product Design Specifications (PDS) Pre-Rep - Tyre Pressure Replenishing System QFD - Quality Function Deployment (QFD) RSD - Road Safety Department Malaysia STP - Self-Inflating Tyre Pump (STP) TREAD - Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation VOC - Voice of Customer (VOC) xiii

19 LIST OF SYMBOLS kg - kilogram kpa - kilopascal mm - millimetre n - moles P - pressure psi - pound per square inch R - ideal gas constant T - temperature V - volume xiv

20 LIST OF PUBLICATIONS M.J., Raguvaran, A.S., Dahlan, Sivaraos, M.A., Amran, T.J.S., Anand, Qumrul, and R., Izamshah, Way Forward to Halt Pressure Loss in Automotive Tyres. Applied Mechanics and Materials, Volume 761, pp Sivaraos, A.S., Dahlan, M.J., Raguvaran, K., Kadirgama and M.A., Amran, Air Permeability Investigation towards Automotive Tyre Pressure Sustainability and Life Saving. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences (ARPN). Volume 10, No. 10, pp Sivaraos, A.S., Dahlan, M.J., Raguvaran, M., Shajahan, K., Kadirgama, and M.A., Lajis, Design of a Novel Pressure Replenishing System to Sustain Automobile Tyre Pressure without Human Intervention (2015). International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, Volume 10, No. 10, pp xv

21 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background Having properly inflated tyres are advantageous to vehicle owners as it enhances tyre lifetime and promotes safer driving conditions. The main factors for the crashes due to loss of control are speed and underinflated tyre (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2000a). A special investigation was carried out by the Department of Transportation in the United States of America using Goodyear tyres. The investigation revealed that, skidding occurred due to the effect of tyre pressure which was related to the speed of the car. Besides, the findings indicated that tyres with 207, 186 and 138 kpa were found to start skidding at speeds of 61, 59.5 and 56.3 km/h respectively. The investigations also revealed that, cars running with lower tyre pressure tend to skid at a much lower driving speed. It was reported that, when the tyre pressure is low, it requires a greater steering angle to generate the same cornering force in a curve (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2000a). The agency had also performed several other tests using the 2001 Toyota 4-runner automobile where, tested with 80.5 km/h at constant speed/decreasing radius circle to observe the effects of the inflated pressure on lateral road condition. It was concluded that, much lower tyre pressure had proportional lower lateral g-force, where higher lateral g-force is seen better in providing track on the road. Lower pressure causes the wheel 1

22 radius to turn smaller, thus alternately increases the speed of the wheel. On the other hand, higher speed relates to higher fuel consumption and this causes underinflated tyre to consume more fuel in comparison to the properly inflated tyre in the same vehicle which moves at the same speed. Goodyear indicates that, fuel efficiency is reduced by one percentage for every 20.4 kpa of under inflation (Varghese, 2013). The findings also bring to light that, in cases of accidents, blowout to the front tyre would cause roadway departure, which would also lead to the lane change resulting in a head-on crash. Alternately, blowouts of a rear tyre could lead to spinning out and loss of control (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2000b). Puncture is the most common reason for a blowout, where, rapid pressure decreases in the remaining core and is often associated with the loss of tyre tread which drastically increases the risk for a vehicle to roll over (Willis, 2000). Tyre wear at the outer tread area usually is the result from tyres running consistently in underinflated conditions. When a tyre runs with an underinflated condition, there would be too much contact with the road by the outer treads and this causes pre-mature wear-off which would result in tyre failure due to a high built-up of temperature (Murray, 2009). When tyres are underinflated, the shape of the tyre footprint and its pressure exertion mechanics onto the road surface would both be altered very much out of what it s supposed to be with proper pressure. This phenomenon degrades the tyre ability to transmit braking force to the road surface thus increasing the chance for undesirable stopping distance either in the form of rolling or skidding. Underinflated tyre, even with little reduction of its pressure will cause excessive heat to be absorbed into the tyre through road contacted tread which often leads to a sudden tyre failure which results in undesired catastrophic events (Bridgestone, 2012). Tyre wear at the outer tread area usually is a result of consistent running with under 2

23 inflated tyre condition. When a tyre runs in an underinflated condition, there will be too much of contact with the road surface, mostly at the outer treads and this causes premature wear-off (Murray, 2009) which fails the tyre unexpectedly. According to the Technology and Maintenance Council of the American Trucking Associations (Berg, 2004), a tyre which is underinflated by 20% will lose 30% of its life due to build-up heat causing hot running condition. The primary tyre defect which is tread separation often causes blowout as shown in Figure 1.1, which will severely limit the control of a driver over the vehicle (Willis, 2000). Figure 1.1 : Tyre Blowout due to Tread Separation (Willis, 2000) Properly maintained tyre pressure also greatly improves vehicle fuel efficiency as compared to running with underinflated tyres. A full-vehicle model developed by Varghese (2013) exhibited the results for the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC city cycle) with fuel consumption reduction of up to 5 %, simply by increasing the tyre pressure from 2 to 3 bar. In a road survey conducted by Tyre Industry Council in the UK, it has been strongly highlighted that, a very small number of people pay attention to tyre pressure, whereby out of 1000 tyres, only 5% were correctly inflated and 72% were found to be running with underinflated tyres without realising (Paine et al., 2007). 3

24 Government of The United States finally came out with the Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation (TREAD) act in the year 2000 which mandates that, all new vehicles need to be equipped with Tyre Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS). This system is capable in alerting the user when the tyre pressure drops by 25% to 30% of the original/safe tyre pressure. It is proven with this Act, the US government insists on the awareness among vehicle users about the importance of running with properly inflated tyres (U.S. Government, 2000). Besides that, all latest BMW automobiles have been fitted with tyre pressure control system (RDC) which electronically monitors tyre pressure on all the four wheels by means of sensors as of March 2014 (BMW, 2014). This system merely monitors the pressure but, not able to replenish the loss tyre pressure automatically. Visual methods, kicking, or thumping of the tyres to inspect underinflated tyre conditions are not practical to know the correct tyre pressure as some tyres always look underinflated, some even have stiff sidewalls and normally look well inflated. Differences in tyre pressure cannot be easily identified, unless reliable pressure gauges are used (Weissler, 2002). Users don t regularly inflate their tyres at the gas station as required due to main reasons where operation failure of air pressure kiosks due to poor maintenance. Besides that, long awaiting queue at the kiosk and not knowing the exact required tyre pressure of their own vehicle are causes for tyres being run with improper pressure (Paine et al., 2007). Therefore, Automatic Tyre Pressure Controller (ATPC) has been developed to ensure correct pressure is inflated into the tyres regardless of the setting value on the pressure source e.g. kiosk, compressor, foot inflator, etc. (Sivarao et al., 2009). The device will alert the user upon reaching the appropriate pressure by a hissing sound, indicated the tyre pressure is sufficient. 4

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