1 ii CAR LOCK INDICATOR HAIRULAZAM BIN HAIRULDIN This thesis is submitted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Bachelor Degree of Electrical Engineering (Electronics) Faculty of Electrical & Electronics Engineering Kolej Universiti Kejuruteraan & Teknologi Malaysia MAY, 2006
2 iii I hereby acknowledge that the scope and quality of this thesis is qualified for the award of the Bachelor Degree of Electrical Engineering (Electronics) Signature :. Name : BADARUDDIN BIN MUHAMMAD Date :.
3 iv ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would like to thank my supervisor En. Badaruddin Bin Muhammad for his advice and support throughout the project. I would like to express my gratitude to Hairul Azwani Bin Aziman, Mohd Khairi Bin Sulaiman and Ali Munawir Bin Borhanudin for the co-operation during doing this project. I also wish acknowledgement to the people who give support direct or indirectly to the project and during the thesis writing. With all my hearts, thank you very much.
4 v ABSTRAK Pada hari ini, kereta telah menjadi salah satu mod pengangkutan yang popular kerana kebanyakan rakyat Malaysia mampu untuk memilikinya. Terdapat banyak pilihan kereta di pasaran sekarang, daripada kereta bajet sampailah kepada kereta mewah, dan ianya cuma bergantung kepada kemampuan. Satu daripada aspek penting sesebuah kereta adalah keselamatan kerana kecurian kereta adalah jenayah yang berlaku di seluruh dunia, termasuklah Malaysia. Buat masa sekarang, pembuat kereta tempatan di Malaysia memberikan sistem keselamatan piawai untuk setiap kereta yang dihasilkan, iaitu sistem kunci berpusat dan penggera kereta piawai. Fokus sekarang adalah kepada sistem penguncian kereta, di mana remot konvensional untuk sistem penguncian kereta biasanya terdiri daripada dua butang, yang mana butang pertama adalah untuk fungsi kunci dan buka, dan butang yang kedua adalah untuk penggera kereta. Tiada penunjuk berfungsi menunjukkan status kunci kereta, yang berfungsi sebagai konformasi kedua kepada status kunci kereta. Di sinilah datangnya idea untuk memperbaharui sistem kunci kereta konvensional dengan meletakkan penunjuk yang berfungsi sebagai konformasi kedua untuk status kunci kereta. Projek ini dinamakan sebagai Car Lock Indicator dan menggunakan pengawal-mikro Motorola MC68HC11A1 sebagai pusat kepada sistem. Untuk penunjuk, Diod Pemancar Cahaya (LED) adalah paling sesuai kerana ianya adalah murah, boleh dipercayai, penggunaan voltan yang rendah dan seterusnya memanjangkan jangka hayat bateri.
5 vi ABSTRACT Nowadays, car has become one of the most popular modes of transportation because many of Malaysians could afford to have a car. There are many choices of cars in the market, from budget cars to the luxurious cars, only a matter now is affordability. One of the important aspects of a car is security because car theft is a crime that occurs all around the world, including Malaysia. Currently, local car manufacturers in Malaysia provides a standard security system for each car manufactured, that is central locking system and standard car alarm. The focus is on the car locking system, where the conventional remote for the car locking system is commonly consists of two buttons, which is the first, is for lock and unlock function and the second button is for the car alarm. There is no indicator that indicates the lock status of the car, acting as the double confirmation for the lock status. Here comes the idea to improve the conventional car lock system by adding an indicator to work as the second confirmation for the car lock status. The project is named as Car Lock Indicator and using microcontroller Motorola MC68HC11A1 as the heart of the system. For the indicator, Light Emitting Diode (LED) is the most suitable because it is cheap, reliable, low voltage consumption thus makes the battery could last longer.
6 vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE PENGESAHAN STATUS THESIS STUDENT DECLARATION TITLE SUPERVISOR DECLARATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT ABTRAK ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS LIST OF APPENDIXES i ii iii iv v vi vii xi xii xiii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background The Modern Cars The Security Car Lock System The Car Lock Indicator Overview of the Car Lock Indicator Project Objective Project Scope Research Methodology 5
7 viii CHAPTER 2 THE REMOTE KEYLESS ENTRY 2.1 Background The Remote Keyless Entry System Product Comparisons 9 CHAPTER 3 PROJECT METHODOLOGY 3.1 Background Methodology The Microcontroller The Transmitter Circuit 13 (i) The Transmitter Module 13 (ii) The Remote Control Encoder The Receiver Circuit 15 (i) The Receiver Module 15 (ii) The Remote Control Decoder The Input and the Indicator Unit 16 (i) The Input Unit 16 (ii) The Indicator Unit PC Communication The Software 17 (i) ASM (ii) JBug (iii) HC Load The Functional Diagram The Design Process Development of the Remote Unit Circuit Design Program Design Development of the Car Unit Circuit Design Program Design 22
8 ix CHAPTER 4 PROJECT RESULTS 4.1 Background MC68HC11A1 Bootstrap Mode Results MC68HC11A1 in Bootstrap Mode The Transmitter Circuit Testing method Results of the Transmitter Circuit The Receiver Circuit Testing Method Results of the Receiver Circuit The Remote Unit The Car Unit The Obstacles 29 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION 5.1 Background Conclusion Contribution Recommendation for Future Works 31 (i) Using LCD as the Indicator 31 (ii) Combining with the Remote Car Starter 31 (iii) Smaller and Cheaper 32 REFERENCE 33 APPENDIX Appendix A The Flow Chart: Car Lock Indicator Process 34 Appendix B MC68HC11A1 Bootstrap Mode Circuit 35 Appendix C The Transmitter Circuit 36 Appendix D The Receiver Circuit 37 Appendix E The Circuit of Remote Unit 38
9 x Appendix F The Program of Remote Unit 39 Appendix G The Circuit of Car Unit 42 Appendix H The Program of Car Unit 43 Appendix I MC68HC11A1 45 Appendix J - MAX Appendix K - PT Appendix L - PT Appendix M Manuals JBug 11 61
10 xi LIST OF FIGURE FIGURE TITLE PAGE 1.1 The increasing numbers of car theft in Malaysia A Standard Remote Keyless Entry Unit Product Comparisons The Methodology for the Car Lock Indicator Project The Microcontroller MC68HC11A8 pin assignments The Transmitter Module PT 2262 pin assignments The Receiver Module PT 2272 pin assignments IC MAX 233 and DB9 Connection The Functional Diagram of the Car Lock Indicator The Design Process MC68HC11A1 in Bootstrap Mode The Transmitter Circuit Table of Transmitter circuit results The Receiver Circuit Table of Receiver circuit results The Remote Unit Circuit The Car Unit Circuit 28
11 xii LIST OF ABBREVIATION LED - Light Emitting Diode LCD - Liquid Crystal Display uc - Microcontroller PC - Personal Computer Tx - Transmitter Rx - Receiver RAM - Random Access Memory ROM - Read Only Memory
12 xiii LIST OF APPENDIX APPENDIX TITLE PAGE Appendix A The Flow Chart: Car Lock Indicator Process 34 Appendix B MC68HC11A1 Bootstrap Mode Circuit 35 Appendix C The Transmitter Circuit 36 Appendix D The Receiver Circuit 37 Appendix E The Circuit of Remote Unit 38 Appendix F The Program of Remote Unit 39 Appendix G The Circuit of Car Unit 42 Appendix H The Program of Car Unit 43 Appendix I MC68HC11A1 45 Appendix J - MAX Appendix K - PT Appendix L - PT Appendix M Manuals JBug 11 62
13 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background This chapter explains the background of modern cars, the security of the cars, the car lock system and the introduction to the car lock indicator. Currently the car lock system is the main preventive measures taken to avoid car theft and the indicator is the device that alerts the car owner about the status of the car. This chapter also explains the overview of the Car Lock Indicator project, the objective of the project, the project scope and finally the research methodology to conduct the project The Modern Cars There are many prestigious car manufacturers in the world manufacturing prestigious car for the automobile market in the world such as Mercedes-Benz, Honda, Bavaria Motor Works (BMW), Ferrari and many other car manufacturers. They have gone through many years of experience and so that their product is well known all over the world. In Malaysia, we also have our very own car manufacturers like Proton and Perodua. They also have produced their own car model, like Proton come with it first Proton Saga then followed by Iswara, Satria, Wira, Perdana, Waja, and many other
14 2 improvement models and meanwhile Perodua comes with it first Kancil then followed by Kenari, Kelisa, Kembara, and finally MyVi. The technology in the automotive industry becomes more advance and competitive because the demands for performance, designs, safety, and price have been the concern among Malaysians The Security Today, the security of the car has been an important matter. According to the statistics made by Polis DiRaja Malaysia (PDRM), the total numbers for the car theft that have been reported from year 2000 to year 2005 is 51,214. Below is the graph showing the figure of the cases divided into years from 2000 to PDRM Car Theft Statistics Year 2000 to 2005 Numbers of Car Theft Years Figure 1.1: The increasing numbers of car theft in Malaysia. There are many causes which can contribute for the car theft and one of them is the attitude of the car owner. The modern lifestyles have made people become rushing in doing everyday activities and sometimes they become careless and irresponsible to their own property, such as a car. Sometimes when people is rushing to do their daily chores they easily forget to lock their car and then uncertain about
15 3 their car have been locked or not. This could lead to the increasing figures of the car theft statistics Car Lock System Car lock consists of the process of locking and unlocking process. There are several ways to lock and unlock the car such as: i) By using the Car Key. ii) By pressing lock or unlock button inside the car. iii) By using the combination lock on outside of the door. iv) By pulling up or pushing down the knob on the inside of the door. v) By using keyless-entry remote control vi) And by the signal from the control centre. Meanwhile, the car lock system consists of the lock and unlocks mechanism, then the central lock mechanism and finally the car alarm mechanism. The conventional car lock system only provides minimal security features for the car. In order to improve the reliability of the car lock system, the Car Lock Indicator comes into the picture to act as a double-confirmation about the car status The Car Lock Indicator As mentioned previously, the car lock indicator is a feature to improve the reliability of the car lock system by acting as the double confirmation about the car status. There are many electronic devices that could be used as an indicator and in this case LED is used as the indicator. LED is selected because this component is cheap, easy to find, reliable, need less maintenance, and small voltage consumption makes the battery life span longer.
16 4 1.2 Overview of the Car Lock Indicator Indicator is a part of the device that informs the user in many ways, but commonly used is visual indicator such as LED, LCD, and etc. The purpose of the indicator is to indicate whether that device is working properly or not, functioning or failing so that the user will easily understand the status of the device and the proper action can be taken. For the Car Lock Indicator, LED is used to indicate the locking condition of the car. If the check button is pushed and the LED is glowing, that s mean the car is properly locked but if it does not glowing, that s mean the car is not properly locked. So, by looking at the indicator and it does not glowing, the user could take a proper action that is to go back to the car and lock it. The Car Lock Indicator consists of two units, which is the Remote unit and the Car unit. The Remote unit has two functions, which is to lock or unlock the car and to act as an indicator to the car lock status. Then the car unit function is to control the lock and unlock process of the car, and controlling other safety mechanism such as central lock and the car alarm. The development of the Car Lock Indicator is divided into four parts. They are Part 1, Part 2, Part 3 and Part 4. Part 1 of the project concentrates on the development board of the Microcontroller Motorola MC68HC11A1 so that the microcontroller (uc) can communicate with personal computer (PC) and then programmed using JBug and HCLoad software. Part 2 of the project concentrates on the development of the Transmitter (Tx) and Receiver (Rx) unit using Tx and Rx module together with Integrated Circuit (IC) PT 2262 and PT Part 3 of the project concentrates on how to combine together the working uc development board with the Tx and Rx circuits. Finally, on Part 4 of the project concentrates on the programming of the microcontroller to make it work together with the Tx and Rx circuits so it can activate the indicator.
17 5 1.3 Project Objective The aim of this project is to build an indicator that indicates the status of the car whether it is locked or not. The main Objectives are: 1) Improve the car lock system with the lock indicator on the remote. 2) The car owner can self-inform that his/her car was securely locked anytime. 3) The user does not have to come back to his/her car from a distance only to check whether his/her car was securely locked. 1.4 Project Scope The project is expected to have a prototype set complete with indicator button and a LED indicator. The Indicator button is to check whether the car was securely locked or not just by pressing it. Then, the additional LED will react by glowing if the car was securely locked and will not glow if the car is not locked. The MC68HC11 will be programmed to control the sequence of the transmitter and receiver and also the component that store the information about the lock status of the car. 1.5 Research Methodology This part will picture the general idea on how the Car Lock Indicator project will be conducted according to the systematical procedures. They are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Generates idea and the Theoretical design Buying related components for the project Assembling Tx and Rx circuits and their modules Testing the finished Tx and Rx circuits
18 6 (v) Assembling the uc MC68HC11A1 circuit (vi) Testing the finished uc MC68HC11A1 circuit (vii) Combining the Remote unit (Input + uc + Tx + Rx + Indicator) (viii) Combining the Car unit (Rx + uc + Tx) (ix) Programming and Testing the Remote unit (x) Programming and Testing the Car unit (xi) Modeling the Remote unit and the Car unit (xii) Complete prototype of the Car Lock Indicator
19 7 CHAPTER II THE REMOTE KEYLESS ENTRY 2.1 Background This chapter focuses on the remote keyless entry system for the car lock system which has become the standard security features for cars in Malaysia. This chapter also discusses and made comparisons between the car lock system products available in today s market. 2.2 The Remote Keyless Entry System Figure 2.1: A standard Remote Keyless Entry unit. A remote keyless system is a system designed to remotely lock, or unlock, access to automobile, and in this case the automobile is referred to the car. In the case of cars, it duplicates all of the features of a standard car key with the added
20 8 convenience of operating the power door locks, eliminating the need to physically manipulate a key into a lock as well as being able to do so at a distance. A remote keyless system can include both a Remote Keyless Entry system (RKE) and a Remote Keyless Ignition system (RKI). It works on the same principle as some television remote controls, by sending pulses of radio frequency energy on a particular frequency. These pulses are interpreted by the receiver in the automobile, which, in turn, performs the appropriate function. Newer systems implement encryption to prevent car thieves from intercepting and spoofing the signal. For the door locks, the system works in two ways by either providing confirmation of successfully (un-)locking the car through a light or a horn signal. Usually the system offers an option to easily switch between these two variants. While both versions provide almost the same functionality, the light signals are more discrete while horn signals might create a nuisance in residential neighborhoods, in front of office buildings, and other busy parking areas. The functions of a remote keyless entry system are contained on a small, hand-held fob attached to the keychain or built into the ignition key handle itself. Buttons are set aside to lock or unlock the doors, plus open the trunk. Some cars will also close any open windows and roof when remotely locking the car. On many newer cars, the remote keyless fob also contains a button to activate the car alarm. Cars with remote keyless ignition systems can be started by the push of a button on the handheld fob.
21 9 2.3 Product Comparisons No. Products Company Remote Indicator Range Frequency Price 1. 2 Door Power A1 ELECTRIC 4 buttons LED - - USD Locks and Keyless Entry 2. 4 Door Power A1 ELECTRIC 4 buttons LED - - USD Locks and Keyless Entry 3. RF- AUTOPAGE 5 LED & - AM/AM - 420LCD buttons LCD 4. Boomerang Alpha INSPECTOR 3 buttons LCD - FM, USD MHz 5. DEI Keyless A1 ELECTRIC 3 buttons LED - - USD Entry 6. Champion Mark 3 AVITAL 3 button / 9 Channel LED 100 Feet - - Figure 2.2: Product Comparisons
22 10 CHAPTER III PROJECT METHODOLOGY 3.1 Background Chapter 3 concentrates on how the project is carry on step by step from the start to the finish of this project. This chapter also explains the hardware and software used in this project. 3.2 Methodology Methodology is the process on how the project is carried out systematically and the figure below show the methodology for the Car Lock Indicator project. Each box presents the components that be used in the project and there are 7 boxes. The transmitter circuit is build based on the transmitter module and IC PT 2262 and the receiver circuit is build based on the receiver module and IC PT The Microcontroller used is Motorola MC68HC11A1. The input for the car lock indicator is using the push buttons and LED is used as the indicating unit. To communicate with PC and programming, IC MAX 233 and DB9 connector was used. Finally, ASM 11 is used to assemble the program and JBug 11 is used to write, erase and then run the program.
23 11 TRANSMITTER CIRCUIT TRANSMITTER MODULE + IC PT 2262 THE MICROCONTROLLER MOTOROLA MC68HC11A1 RECEIVER CIRCUIT RECEIVER MODULE + IC PT 2272 THE INDICATOR LED CAR LOCK INDICATOR THE INPUT UNIT PUSH BUTTONS SOFTWARE Jbug, HCLoad ASM11 PC COMMUNICATION MAX 233 DB9 CONNECTOR Figure 3.1: The Methodology for the Car Lock Indicator project The Microcontroller A microcontroller (uc) is a computer-on-a-chip used to control electronic devices. It is a type of microprocessor emphasizing self-sufficiency and costeffectiveness, in contrast to a general-purpose microprocessor used in PC. A typical uc contains all the memory and interfaces needed for a simple application, whereas a general purpose microprocessor requires additional chips to provide these functions. A microcontroller is a single integrated circuit with the following key features: i) Central Processing Unit (CPU) ii) Input and output interfaces such as serial ports iii) Random Access Memory (RAM) for data storage
24 12 iv) Read Only Memory (ROM) for program storage, and v) Clock Generator, often an oscillator for a quartz timing crystal. This integration reduces the umbers of chips and the amount of wiring and space that would be needed to produce equivalent systems using separate chips. There are many microcontrollers available in the market and the most common uc could be found was Intel and Motorola. The uc used for this project is uc Motorola MC68HC11A1 which is in the 6800 family. Below is the architecture of the MC68HC11A8, which is the same architecture with MC68HC11A1. Figure 3.2: The Microcontroller MC68HC11A8 pin assignments
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