1 REVISED &APPROVED NOVEMBER 19, 2001 GRADUATE FACULTY COUNCIL DOC. NO. 868 TABLED OCTOBER 15, 2001 RECOMMENDATION OF THE GRADUATE CURRICULUM COMMITTEE AND THE FACULTY OF THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION AND THE DEPARTMENT OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION FOR A PRELIMINARY ENTITLEMENT TO PLAN A PROPOSAL FOR A MASTER OF SCIENCE IN INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY DEGREE PROGRAM I. PROGRAM IDENTIFICATION 1.1 Title of Proposed Program: M.S. in Instructional Technology 1.2 Department Sponsoring the Program: Curriculum and Instruction 1.3 School: School of Education/School of Information Studies 1.4 Institution: University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee 1.3 Timetable: Semester 1, 2002 II. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The M.S. degree program in Instructional Technology at the University of Wisconsin- Milwaukee (UWM) will be a collaborative effort between the School of Education and the School of Information Science to address the dynamic needs of urban school districts in their efforts to integrate technology into the school curriculum. Qualified students who possess a Wisconsin teaching or administrative license will be considered for admission. The M.S. program will focus on school wide applications of technology in advancing students learning, the administration of a technology curriculum, and staff development of technology competencies. Coursework in this program may apply towards the State of Wisconsin 908 Technology Coordinator License. Students will be required to enroll in courses in three core areas: instructional systems, curricular foundations, and technology systems. The instructional systems core area will address instructional design, learning theory, curriculum
2 Graduate Faculty Council Doc No. 868 p. 2 Tabled October 15, 2001 planning, principles of measurement and evaluation, accessible instructional design, and cognition and learning. The curricular foundations core will address principles of curriculum design, curriculum and instruction in urban settings, school technology curriculum, and staff development. The technology systems core will focus on distance based learning using emerging technologies, and hardware and software applications for enhancing learning or student productivity. The content of each of the core areas should be considered dynamic and evolving in an effort to represent the rapidly development in technology and its application to education. Drawing upon the Wisconsin Model Academic Standards for Technology and the International Society for Technology in Education s National Educational Technology Standards, the following competencies will serve as the outcomes of the Instructional Technology Masters Degree program: Understand educational technology is the theory and practice of design, utilization, management and evaluation of processes and resources for learning. Understand the potential risks in the use of technology with diverse populations, recognize and locate resources that will minimize these risks, and advance instructional design and school district policies that address these risks. Possess knowledge of the use of telecommunications and on-line resources (e.g., , online discussions, web environments) to develop problem-solving instruction to develop solutions or products for diverse audiences inside and outside the classroom. Determine when technology is useful and select the appropriate tool(s) (including assistive technologies) and technology resources to address a variety of tasks and problems in multicultural, urban classrooms. Evaluate the accuracy, relevance, appropriateness, comprehensiveness, and bias of electronic information sources. Apply strategies for identifying and solving routine hardware and software problems that occur within the classroom. Possess knowledge of on-line distance education tools and be capable of constructing instructional activities that serve as an adjunct to classroom learning. Possess knowledge of problem-based learning and construct instructional activities that allow students to apply emerging technologies for research, information analysis, and decision-making that recognize diverse points of view.
3 Graduate Faculty Council Doc No. 868 p. 3 Tabled October 15, 2001 Acquire knowledge of professional growth and development resources available through software, and on-line resources. Acquire knowledge of multiple approaches to evaluating students; use of technology and construct evaluation measures for students. Plan for the development, management, and evaluation of technology resources in classrooms. Acquire knowledge of approaches to support learner-centered strategies that address the various cultural, social, and economic backgrounds of students as well as the application of technology for students with special needs. Recognize issues related to equitable access and applications of technology in urban communities and advocate approaches that address issues of equitable access. Coordinate the use of instructional technologies with the School Library Specialist and other related service personnel. Degree Requirements The Masters of Science Degree in Instructional Technology will be 33 credits beyond the bachelor s degree. Among these credits, three will be in an internship program in an educational setting that will serve as the context for the production of a master s paper. The remaining 30 credits will consist of coursework in three core areas. Students will be required to maintain a cumulative grade point average of 3.0 for all coursework in the program. Core Courses Instructional Technology Systems (12 credits as follows:} 272-XXX Research and Theory of Instructional Technology Environments (3 credits) 272-XXX Construction and Evaluation of Technology Based Instructional Technology Environments (3 credits) 272-XXX Educational Technology Systems Design ( 3 credits)
4 Graduate Faculty Council Doc No. 868 p. 4 Tabled October 15, Credits Electives from the Following: Seminar: Doctoral Issues in Educational and Media Technology (3 credits) Applications of Learning Theories to Computer Based Instruction (3 credits) Instructional Design and Teaching Strategies (3 credits) Analysis of Instruction (3 credits) Technology and Instruction (3 credits) Curricular Foundations (9 credits as follows): 6 Credits from the Following: Curriculum Planning (3 credits) 272-XXX Design and Implementation of School Technology Curriculum (3 credits) Coordination of Staff Development & Training Programs (3 credits) 3 Credits Electives from the Following: Curricular Applications of the Internet (3 credits) Assistive and Instructional Technology for Students with Disabilities (3 credits) Ethics and the Information Society (3 credits) School Library Media Programs and Resources (3 credits) Special Topics in Information Science: Copyright for Educators (1 credit) Special Topics in Information Science: Legal Issues in Library and Information Science (3 credits) Information Systems: Analysis and Design (3 credits) Seminar in Intellectual Freedom (3 credits)
5 Graduate Faculty Council Doc No. 868 p. 5 Tabled October 15, 2001 Technology Systems (9 credits as follows:) 272-XXX Emerging Technologies: Software and Hardware Applications for School Based Learning (3 credits) 272-XXX Leadership and Integration of Technology in Educational Settings (3 credits) 3 Credits Electives from the Following: Special Topics in Information Science: Networking with Microsoft NT (3 credits) Microcomputers for Information Resources Management (3 credits) Special Topics in Information Science: Information Sources and Services in Distance Education (3 credits) Distance Education for Adults (3 credits) Using Technology with Adult Learners (3 credits) Fieldwork in Assistive Technology (3 credits) Assistive Technology Service Delivery in Schools (3 credits) Issues in Ergonomics: Epidemiology (1 credit) Technology Based Internship (3 credits) III. RATIONALE Access to technology in the classroom has increased rapidly during the past five years. During 1998 alone, the number of computers in our schools increased by 13% to a total of 6 million. Schools connectivity to the Internet has increased from 35% in 1994 to 88% in While the technology and it s accompanying tools are increasingly becoming available in the classroom, concerns have been raised as to the extent that teachers have been prepared to effectively integrate technology into their daily instruction. In a 1999 report on the qualifications and preparations of teachers, the U.S. Department of Education noted that only 20% of classroom teachers reported being comfortable with the integration of technology in their classroom. Given the pace at which technology and its instructional applications change any effort to provide professional development in technology must be
6 Graduate Faculty Council Doc No. 868 p. 6 Tabled October 15, 2001 viewed as an on-going, long-term commitment. Technology holds great promise for success when educators come to realize the possibilities for creative integration of computers and telecommunications within their teaching practices. The critical element is the teacher s ability to incorporate technology into instruction and what types of instruction are best suited to the use of technology. Toward that end, the State of Wisconsin distributed $62 million as direct allocations to school districts in with an additional $100 million in loans to upgrade electrical wiring and computer wiring. As a result of these funds and district expenditures, virtually all schools now have Internet access and 67% of all classrooms are connected to the Internet. While the State s financial assistance for the acquisition of computer hardware and connectivity has expanded the availability of technology resources in the school, training of teachers in the use and integration of this technology remains a formidable task. In addition, school districts throughout the State are creating new positions for individuals to serve as district technology coordinators. These individuals serve in administrative roles to set district policy on the use of technology, generate or update district technology plans, assess technology needs and provide staff development in the use of technology, coordinate maintenance and acquisition of hardware and software, and infusing the Department of Public Instruction s K-12 Technology Standards into the district curriculum. During the past several years the increased expenditures on technology and the desire to apply technology in school reform efforts have resulted in many school districts in Southeastern Wisconsin moving to a staffing model that places technology specialists within individual schools. Qualifications for these positions generally require either a Masters Degree or advance coursework in instructional technology. The use of technology in schooling is richly varied, complex and full of opportunity for improving the efficacy of schools. Because of technology s richness and complexity, it is essential that several types of professionals be prepared to utilize technology efficiently and effectively in a cost-effective manner. One professional is the School Library-Media Specialist. This individual extends the traditional concept of the school library into the richer and more fruitful library-media center. This professional has competence in selection and utilization of educational resources whether housed in the local collection or retrievable on the Internet. The School Library- Media Specialist teaches students to locate and use resources effectively and educates teachers on emerging opportunities to use information technologies to illuminate the curriculum. A second professional, the one to be prepared in the proposed program, focuses more on the technologies to be used as the main conveyance of curriculum or as a major classroom support for the enrichment of said curriculum. The Instructional Technology Specialist provides inservice training for teachers, administrators, with teachers to set up and maintain technology systems in the classrooms and laboratories of the school. This Specialist also designs and maintains the local area network (LAN) ensuring that it operates efficiently and links properly with the district WAN and the Internet. The Instructional Technology Specialist compares and evaluates new software and materials judging them for their
7 Graduate Faculty Council Doc No. 868 p. 7 Tabled October 15, 2001 educational value. Working with the teaching staff, the Educational Technology Specialist develops and maintains the school technology plan, interfaces that plan with the overall plan of the district, seeks opportunities for funding, maintains the inventory of technology equipment and materials ensuring timely replacement according to the policies of the district and school. The Instructional Technology Specialist works directly with students, primarily an elite cadre of students, to prepare them to be the Technology Kid troubleshooting minor problems and providing assistance to teachers and fellow students on working with the more esoteric software packages. The rationale for having a graduate degree program to prepare Instructional Technology Specialists can be drawn easily from the above description of the nature of this specialization. The Instructional Technology Specialist must be a certified teacher with successful classroom experience so decisions can be made within the context of the needs and constraints of classroom instruction. Technology should not be viewed as an end unto itself. The Instructional Technology Specialist is the guardian to insure that the educational priorities of the curriculum and the instructional needs of the students are always put first. Equitable access, accessibility and universal design are key areas of concern. The multicultural context and issues of the digital divide must be addressed. Secondly, the needs for technological support for teachers are too great for the School Library-Media Specialist to be able to satisfy them alone. Without a division of labor, the teachers themselves become the technologists and begin to find themselves in overload or they begin to neglect important other teaching duties. Thirdly, the Instructional Technology Specialist can focus full attention on the main curriculum delivery system of the school the classroom. No other person is prepared with an explicit focus on serving students and teachers in their classrooms. The Instructional Technology Specialist is uniquely prepared to assist in decisions relating to whether to place computers in classrooms or in laboratories. He/she can also assist teachers in developing teaching strategies that allow for sound pedagogy without having all students doing the same things at the same time. There have been Masters Degree programs in the general field of Educational Technology since the 1930s. Those earliest programs were titled Audiovisual Education. Programs developed or revised in the 1950s were often called Educational (Instructional) Systems. Those of the 1970s, Educational Communications; of the 1980s Educational Communications and Technology or for the computer specialty, Computer Systems Technology; and of the 1990s, simply Educational Technology. There was substantial variety from University to University and State to State with the general coordination of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AETC). This scholarly organization holds national meetings during which scholarly papers are presented and publishes highly regarded scholarly journals. This organization has identified fifteen Masters Degree programs in Educational Technology or Instructional
8 Graduate Faculty Council Doc No. 868 p. 8 Tabled October 15, 2001 Technology throughout the country. These programs are offered at Arizona State University, San Diego State University, San Jose State University, UCLA, University of Northern Colorado, Florida State University, University of Georgia, University of Illinois, University of Iowa, University of Minnesota, Columbia University, Syracuse University, Penn State University, and Utah State University. These programs are equally divided between those that are structured to provide training in the use of technology in educational settings, and those that address learning system designs that may apply to the workplace, software development, or research examining the effects of technology on human learning. Demand for both types of programs is high and enrollments are limited due to the small number of faculty in instructional technology as a given institution. Information from AECT indicates enrollments in Masters Degree programs in Instructional Technology or Educational Technology to average students in residence and students entering the program each year. AECT also notes that completion rates for these programs can run as low as 25% as many students are recruited by business, industry, and educational institutions before the completion of their degree. The instructional setting for such masters programs has been somewhat varied. In some universities, administration of programs and centers was emphasized and the program resided naturally in educational administration. However, the most prevalent locus has been in departments of curriculum and instruction in which the emphasis was linked to the specialties of those departments. IV. CONTEXT 4.1 History of Program: The proposed M.S. program in Instructional Technology will complement the existing M.S. in Curriculum and Instruction. This is a 33-credit program in which students complete either a mster paper or thesis, a 12 credits block of core area courses addressing urban education, curriculum, and instruction. The remaining 18 credits are selected with an advisor around one of the following four focus areas: 1. Content Area (reading, science, mathematics) 2. Educational Level (Early Childhood, Elementary, Middle School, Secondary Education) 3. General Area (Curriculum and Instruction, Teacher Education) The current M.S. in Curriculum and Instruction is designed to enhance the pedagogical, social, and curricular knowledge of classroom teachers. Graduates of this program typically retain their position as classroom teachers. 4.2 Instructional Setting of Program: The Department of Curriculum and Instruction offers three Undergraduate Degrees, a Masters of Science in Curriculum and Instruction, a Curriculum and Instruction specialization within the Urban Education Doctoral Program, and a post-baccalaureate
9 Graduate Faculty Council Doc No. 868 p. 9 Tabled October 15, 2001 teacher certification program. The Masters of Science Program in Curriculum and Instruction is a 33 credits program with an option for a master s paper or thesis. All students are required to enroll in 12 credits of Curriculum and Instruction core courses, a 3-credit course in which they write a master s paper, and18 credits in a focus area. Over the past three years, the Masters Program has had an average enrollment of 134 students, and 64 degrees conferred. A master s degree in Instructional Technology in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction would provide several advantages over the creation of an area of specialization in Instructional Technology within the existing master s degree program. First, it would offer coursework relevant to the highly specialized roles of the instructional technology coordinator or specialist. Given the program s broad focus on administration, software/hardware applications, learning design, staff development, and a field-based internship the creation of a new focus area within the existing master s degree in Curriculum and Instruction require 30 credits. This focus area plus the 12- credit core course requirement and 3-credit master s seminar would result in a 45-credit degree program. Nationally, master s programs in instructional technology require a total of 25 to 35 credits. In addition, state and regional programs that provide an instructional technology specialization within an existing master s program require a total of credits. As such, a 45-credit degree program within the M.S. in Curriculum and Instruction would not be consistent with degree requirement in competing programs. Another advantage of the creation of M.S. in Instructional Technology is the interdisciplinary nature of the proposed program and the need to administer the program from an interdisciplinary perspective. The proposed program would be administered by a program committee consisting of faculty representatives from Curriculum and Instruction, Exceptional Education, Administrative Leadership and Adult Education, and the School of Information Science. This committee would make recommendations for admissions, oversee the internship program, conduct on-going evaluations of the program, develop new courses, advise students, and establish and mentor program cohorts. Finally, a new M.S. degree would enhance the ability to recruit new faculty. At present, we anticipate hiring three tenure-track faculty in instructional technology over the next three years. Given the extremely limited pool of individuals who have recently received a Ph.D. in instructional technology, recruitment for new faculty will be difficult. The prospect of creating a M.S. in instructional technology will be an incentive for individuals who desire to have personal involvement in the development of an innovative program. The faculty of the Department of Curriculum and Instruction are actively engaged in scholarship, teaching and service activities. During the period of faculty authored or edited 37 books, wrote 42 chapters in books, published 145 articles in national and international journals, made 189 presentations at national and international conferences and received funding for 19 grants totaling $1.5 million.
10 Graduate Faculty Council Doc No. 868 p. 10 Tabled October 15, 2001 The School of Information Studies provides a master s degree program in Library and Information Science, a Certificate of Advanced Studies, and seven coordinated Masters Degree programs with the Departments of History, Geography, Music, Urban Studies, Linguistics, English, and Anthropology. These programs serve a total of 350 students. Currently, SOIS offers over 17 courses at the 500 and 600 graduate/undergraduate level, and over 35 courses at the graduate only level. In light of the increased funding for positions of school or district technology specialists in Southeastern Wisconsin, it is anticipated that the proposed master s degree program would serve approximately fifty students on an on-going basis, with students entering the program each academic year. In addition, on a yearly basis 2-3 students completing this program would likely enter the Urban Education Ph.D. specialization in Educational and Media Technology. 4.3 Relation to Mission Statement and Institutional Academic Planning: The proposed master s degree in Instructional Technology is consistent with the goals of the Strategic Vision of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Enrollment Management 21 Planning. This plan acknowledges that as the First Ideas of the Milwaukee Idea are implemented over the next several years, a number of new programs will emerge. According to the Provost, approximately 65% of this growth is projected to result from purposeful growth in nontraditional degree, certificate, and special students. The program recognizes substantial growth in teacher preparation and development programs as the Milwaukee Idea increasingly focuses on the needs of urban students and teachers. Indeed, the development of a master s degree in Instructional Technology is cited as one program that will address the campus commitment to the community and needs of the citizens in southeastern Wisconsin. The June 2000 UWM Report to the Regents, Investing in Wisconsin s Future, specifically identifies the goal of enhancing K-12 education by helping teachers use technology in the classroom. 4.4 Comparable Programs in Wisconsin: There are no master s degree programs in Instructional Technology offered within the UW-System. However, two campuses, UW-Madison and UW-Whitewater offer an area of focus or specialization in instructional technology within their existing M.S. Degree in Curriculum and Instruction. A master s degree program in Instructional Technology is offered at Cardinal Stritch University, a private institution in Milwaukee. The UW-Whitewater M.S. Degree in Curriculum and Instruction with a specialization in instructional technology is a 36-credit program that includes either a thesis or integrative graduate project. The stated emphasis of this program is to prepare individuals to function as technology coordinators within individual school buildings or within districts. Requirements include a 12 credit professional core consisting of courses addressing perspectives in American education, techniques of assessment and research, curriculum development and integration, and either an integrative project seminar or
11 Graduate Faculty Council Doc No. 868 p. 11 Tabled October 15, 2001 thesis research. The technology enhanced curriculum specialization consists of the following courses: Required Courses Current Topics in Instructional Computing Managing and Implementing Instructional Computing Programs Educational Software Implementation K-12 One Course Selected From the Following: Administration of Educational Media Programs Advanced Design and Production of Instructional Materials Hypermedia in School Library Media and Technology Programs Information, Virtual Libraries and the Internet Telecommunications for Educators Microcomputer Applications in the Classroom The UW-Madison M.S. degree in Curriculum and Instruction with an area of emphasis in Educational Communications and Technology requires either 24 or 36 credits. Individuals with a background in education are required to enroll in a minimum of 24 credits, whereas those lacking this background are required to enroll in 36 credits. The following courses are required of all students: Instructional Computing Methods of Instruction with Technology Critical Analysis of Computers in the Curriculum Interactive Media and Computers in the Curriculum OR Introduction to Video Production for Education Seminar in educational Technology and Research Methods Students lacking an educational background are required to enroll in 9 credits of elective courses from Curriculum and Instruction, Educational Psychology, Educational Policy, Educational Administration, or Computer Science. Students are required to complete a Masters Written Examination, a Masters Paper or Thesis, and a Master s Oral Examination. Cardinal Stritch University Cardinal Stritch offers A Master s of Education in Educational Computing that is oriented towards individuals who desire additional knowledge about computers, computer languages, software, and new technologies. The program is design to allow teachers to concurrently obtain a 405 Computer Teacher endorsement. This is a 32- credit program requiring an action research project and a comprehensive program portfolio. Required courses include the following:
12 Graduate Faculty Council Doc No. 868 p. 12 Tabled October 15, 2001 Introduction and Overview (9credits) ClarisWorks Introduction to HTML Computer & Instructional Technology use in Schools Languages and Programming (6 credits) Web Languages Structured C++ Visual Basic LOGO Computer Systems and Information (6 credits) Multimedia Concepts and Authoring Desktop Publishing Computer Education and Methods ( 9 credits) Software Showcase Developing Action Research in Instructional Technology Educational Foundations (3 credits) Course selected in consultation with advisor Culminating Experience-Action Research (2-4 credits) UWM Proposed Master s Degree in Instructional Technology The proposed M.S. in Instructional Technology would be unique in its content, structure, and administration. The coursework would distinguish itself from other programs in the State in several ways. First, the program will provide a balance between theory, instructional applications, administration of instructional technology in school settings, and the hardware/software systems in an educational context. It is the goal of the proposed program to provide a graduate education that will balance theory, practice, and research in an interdisciplinary manner to better meet the needs of those individuals who will assume positions of leadership in instructional technology. Either the existing programs in the State emphasize theoretical issues in instructional technology and learning, or they emphasize software applications. The content of the proposed M.S. in Instructional Technology is unique in its approach and will require a cooperative effort between the Department of Curriculum
13 Graduate Faculty Council Doc No. 868 p. 13 Tabled October 15, 2001 and Instruction, Department of Exceptional Education, Department of Educational Psychology, and the Department of Administrative Leadership as well as faculty in the School of Information Studies. A distinct master s program in Instructional Technology would provide an organizational and administrative structure for collaborative leadership and involvement among faculty in the various Schools and would provide students a degree that recognizes the integration of discipline knowledge.