REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEM PROGRAMMING-II: II: Windows CE, OSEK and Real time Linux. Lesson-12: Real Time Linux

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1 REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEM PROGRAMMING-II: II: Windows CE, OSEK and Real time Linux Lesson-12: Real Time Linux 1

2 1. Real Time Linux 2

3 Linux 2.6.x Linux is after Linus Torvalds, father of the Linux operating system Linux latest version of real time Linux (January ) Linux 2.6.x provides functions for preemptive scheduling High resolution timers Preemptive interrupt service handler threads 3

4 Linux 2.6.x All scheduler functions as O(1), which means size of input to a function is linearly correlated with function run time Task scheduler support spin lock 2 30 process IDs 4095 device types 4

5 Linux for Embedded Systems Process Management functions. Memory Management functions. [For example, allocation, de-allocation, pointers, creating and deleting the tasks. File System Functions. 5

6 Linux for Embedded Systems Shared Memory functions Networking System Functions Device Control Functions for any peripheral present into a system (computer) System call functions are also like an IO device open ( ), close ( ), write ( ) and read ( ) functions. 6

7 2. Processes in Linux 7

8 Processes in Linux Linux uses POSIX processes and threads. Linux header files Linux/ types.h and Linux/ shm.h, if included support the system programming for forking processes and shared memory functions in the kernel. For shared memory functions the POSIX map are used in Linux. 8

9 Processes in Linux A process always creates as child process in the process that uses fork ( ) function. A child creates as the copy of the parent with a new process ID fork () returns a different process structure pid for the parent and pid number of child becomes = 0. 9

10 Processes in Linux The child process is made to perform different functions than the parent by overloading function of the parent process using execv ( ) function. 10

11 Processes in Linux execv ( ) has two arguments, the function_name for the child function and function_arguments for the child functions. Each process has its own memory and cannot directly call another process. There is no lightweight process as in UNIX 11

12 3. Linux Devices 12

13 char device Character and block devices. char device parallel port, LCD matrix display, or serial port or keypad or mouse. Character access byte-by-byte and analogous to the access from and to a printer device. 13

14 Block device block device a file system (disk). Linux permits a block device to read and write byte-by-byte like a char device or read and write block-wise like a block device. A part of the block can be accessed 14

15 net device A net device is a device that handles network interface device (card or adapter) using a line protocols, for example tty or PPP or SLIP. A network interface receives or sends packets using a protocol and sockets, and the kernel uses the modules related to packet transmission. 15

16 Input, and media devices An input device is a device that handles inputs from a device, for example keyboard. An input device driver has functions for the standard input devices. The media device drivers have functions for the voice and video input devices. Examples are video-frame grabber device, teletext device, radio-device (actually a streaming voice, music or speech device). 16

17 video device A video device is a device that handles the frame buffer from the system to other systems as a char device does or UDP network packet sending device The video drivers for the standard video output devices. does. A sound device driver has functions for the standard audio devices. A sound device is a device that handles audio in standard format. 17

18 4. Registering and De-registering and related functions of Linux Modules 18

19 module initialization module initialization, handling the errors, prevention of unauthorized port accesses, usage-counts, root level security and clean up. A module creates by compiling without main ( ). A module is an object file. For example, object module1.o creates from module1.c file by command $ gcc c {flags} module1.c 19

20 init_module() Called before the module is inserted into the kernel. The function returns 0 if initialization succeeds and ve value if does not. The function registers a handler for something with the kernel. Alternatively it replaces one of the kernel functions by overloading. 20

21 insmod Inserts module into the Linux kernel. The object file module1.o, inserts by command $ insmod module1.o. 21

22 rmmod A module file module1.o is deleted from the kernel by command $ rmmod module1 22

23 cleanup A kernel level void function, which performs the action on an rmmod call from the execution of the module. The cleanup_module() is called just before the module is removed. The cleanup_module() function negates whatever init_module() did and the module unloads safely 23

24 Registering modules register_capability A kernel level function for registering unregister_capability A kernel level function for deregistering register_symtab A symbol table function support, which exists as an alternative to declaring functions and variables static 24

25 5. IPC functions 25

26 IPC functions Linux/ipc.h included to support IPCs signals on an event Linux header file Linux/signal.h, included to support multithreading Linux/pthread.h included mutex and semaphores Linux/sem.h included Message queues Linux/msg.h 26

27 Linux functions for the thread properties and signal 27

28 Linux functions for the POSIX threads 28

29 Linux functions for the semaphore IPCs 29

30 Linux functions for message-queue IPCs 30

31 Linux functions for timers 31

32 Linux functions for shared memory 32

33 Summary 33

34 We learnt Linux 2.6.x is for real time system Preemptive scheduler Linux 2.6.x provides functions for preemptive scheduling High resolution timers Preemptive interrupt service handler threads 34

35 We learnt Linux uses POSIX processes, threads, shared memory, POSIX mmap, and POSIX queues. Linux has number of interfaces for user. For example, X-Windows for GUI and csh (for C shell). Linux has number of character, block and network interface devices and has device drivers for user programming environment. 35

36 We learnt Linux supports a module initialization, handling the errors, prevention of unauthorized port accesses, usage-counts, root level security, insert, remove and cleanup functions 36

37 End Lesson-12 on Real Time Linux 37

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