1 Collaborators: Dr Colin Milligan, Dr Anoush Margaryan, Lou McGill, Dr Pia Fontana Glasgow Caledonian University, UK Self Regulated Learning in Massive Open Online Courses A keynote presentation at Kings College London, May 2013 Allison Littlejohn Director, Caledonian Academy Chair of Learning Technology
3 Scenario 4 Why MOOC? Online courses aiming at large-scale participation & open access. May represent a pedagogical approach ideally suited to the network age. Yet little known about how learners learn in MOOCs
4 Scenario 4 Why MOOC? Massive Open Online Course
5 Scenario 4 Why MOOC? xmooc Learning goals defined by instructor Learning pathways structured by environment Limited interaction with other learners
9 Scenario 4 Why MOOC? Mackness et al (2011) tensions across autonomy, diversity, openess, connectedness Fini (2009) digital literacies critical to learning in a MOOC Kop et al (2011) critical literacies required to learn in MOOCs Littlejohn et al (2009, 2011 & 2012) learners have to self regulate their learning
10 Scenario 4 Why SRL? Our times are characterized by immaterial labour......labour that is not restricted to material production but penetrates also the political, the social, the cultural, and ultimately life itself. Multitude, Hardt and Negri, 2004
11 Scenario 4 Why SRL? Telepresence Multi-site micro expertise Networked innovation Crowdsourcing Multi site data analysis
12 Trends Key challenge: in work patterns continual learning From... To... Large organisations Smaller units of production Single site base Permanent employment Silos of knowledge In-house idea generation Local/ national focus Multi-site working as the norm Consultancy Open knowledge Crowdsourcing ideas Global / networked reach
13 Scenario 4 Why SRL? Self-regulated Learning Self-generated thoughts, feelings and actions that are planned and cyclically adapted to the attainment of personal learning goals.
14 Questions 1 How do people share and use knowledge while learning? 2 How do people selfregulate their learning? 3 How might technology tools support SRL?
15 Question How do people share and use knowledge while learning?
23 Sensemaking Charting occurs when each learner maps his/ her learning pathway through planning, implementing & reflecting on learning goals Builds individual & collective knowledge Contribute Connect CHARTING Create Consume
24 Question How do professionals self regulate their learning?
25 Scenario 4 SRL SRL MOOC Study Hypothesis People who exhibit a high degree of Self-Regulation in their learning will use qualitatively different strategies to plan, monitor and reflect on their learning than individuals who exhibit a low degree of Self-Regulation in their learning
27 Scenario 4 SRL Zimmerman, B. J. (2005). Attaining self-regulation: a social cognitive perspective. In Boekaerts, M., Zeidner, M., and Pintrich, P.R (eds) Handbook of self-regulation, pp Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
28 Scenario 4 SRL Zimmerman, B. J. (2005). Attaining self-regulation: a social cognitive perspective. In Boekaerts, M., Zeidner, M., and Pintrich, P.R (eds) Handbook of self-regulation, pp Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
29 Scenario 4 SRL task analysis goal setting self-instruction help-seeking self-monitoring self-judgement self-evaluation Zimmerman, B. J. (2005). Attaining self-regulation: a social cognitive perspective. In Boekaerts, M., Zeidner, M., and Pintrich, P.R (eds) Handbook of self-regulation, pp Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
30 SRL: questionnaire
31 SRL: questionnaire Principal component exploratory factor analysis highlighted 8 SRL factors: F1 occupational self-efficacy belief in one s ability/capacity to have some control over/cope in their role. F2 strategic planning - purposive personal processes and actions directed at acquiring or displaying skill. F3 goal-setting use of goals a mechanism for planning and achieving F4 task interest/value disposition to focus on the task and its wider value rather than merely the outcome (intrinsic motivation), P1 elaboration disposition to relate task to wider practice. P2 help-seeking seeking help from others or info sources. S1 self-satisfaction - motivation does not stem from goals, but on whether individuals feel they are achieving them. S2 self-evaluation- comparing performance against an external goal
32 SRL: questionnaire Multiple linear regression analysis highlighted 3 factors influencing SRL: F4 task interest/value disposition to focus on the task and its wider value rather than merely the outcome (intrinsic motivation), P1 elaboration disposition to relate task to wider practice. S2 self-evaluation- comparing performance against an external goal
33 SRL: MOOC design Q: How might these factors be supported in course design? F4 task interest/value disposition to focus on the task and its wider value rather than merely the outcome (intrinsic motivation), P1 elaboration disposition to relate task to wider practice. S2 self-evaluation- comparing performance against an external goal
35 SRL: forethought Participation: low level (eg experience a MOOC ) (20/ 26) Performance: measurable and concerned participation eg blog once per week. (13/ 26) Network: sub- goal for participation (7/ 26) Learning: three categories: (1) learning tools (2) learning about specific topics (3) applying knowledge back into practice. (10/24)
36 SRL: forethought Learning to learn in a MOOC 15/24 changed their goals: most were new to MOOCs 9/24 did not change their goals: (8/9) had studied on a MOOC
38 Q: MOOC design Q: How might MOOCs be designed to encourage learners to contribute their ideas and knowledge? Q: How might MOOCs be designed to encourage learners to connect & consume ideas from others and embed these ideas into their own knowledge?
39 SRL: performance Active learners who set goals & structure their learning Passive learners who expect others to provide structure Lurkers.
40 SRL: performance
41 SRL: performance Active (12/29) Oh there s some people who are everywhere you turn in the Change 11 MOOC: there s this group of people who are inspirational, just phenomenal the way they just keep going and they know their way around it. (P08). You can read the comments of people who are participating from different places and they give links to things that they are doing or they think while you hear what is happening (P20). I have no idea how scattered I am across this MOOC, I have no idea how many contributions I ve made, 30? 50? I ve got a lot of replies I usually end a reply on an open end (P05).
42 SRL: performance Lurkers (13/29) I guess I tend to be a loner and I ve done more lurking & I'm quite happy lurking, I think it s an honourable profession (P21) Lurking is actually hugely beneficial [knowledge is filtered by the course organisers and has] more value than something I randomly come across on the Internet (P18) I'm going out to the MOOC and lurking and getting lots of great interesting ideas [to my] networks (P01). I m more or less like what do you call? A lurker and not very active I'm always invisible and the reason is that the way I ve been using the MOOC is to put into things that I'm doing to be a network mentor (P17).
43 SRL: performance Passive (4/29) Sure, I can read other people s blogs and that s not a problem and I comment occasionally, but as far as really putting my ideas out there in the open in my own blog to be trampled on, you know there s a bit of fear there I think that I have and so that has been difficult for me (P12). I'm not really sure how to find a group of people online who really want to learn about what I most want to learn about. (P13).
44 SRL: performance Factors affecting engagement in a MOOC: Prior Experience Confidence Motivation
45 Scenario 4 SRL: performance Our hypothesis: People with high SRL score use different learning strategies in MOOCs Those with high SRL scores tend towards being ACTIVE Those with low SRL scores tend towards being PASSIVE Lurkers interspersed Some correlation between degree of Self-Regulation and learning BUT not statistically valid.
46 Scenario 4 SRL: self-reflection Zimmerman, B. J. (2005). Attaining self-regulation: a social cognitive perspective. In Boekaerts, M., Zeidner, M., and Pintrich, P.R (eds) Handbook of self-regulation, pp Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
47 Scenario 4 SRL: summary Forethought Learners with high SRL scores set clear goals & can adapt these goals as learning pathways change. Those with low SRL set vague (or no) goals. Performance Learners with high SRL scores & clear goals can adapt these goals as learning pathways change. Reflection Learners with high SRL scores are more likely to reflect on and adapt goals.
48 Q: MOOC design Q: How might MOOCs be designed to accommodate learners with a wide range of SRL abilities?
49 Question How might technology tools support SRL?
50 What/ who structures learning?
58 Q: MOOC design Q: How could the charting toolset support SRL in your context?
59 Questions 1 How do people share and use knowledge while learning? 2 How do people selfregulate their learning? 3 How might technology tools support SRL?
60 Forthcoming book Technology-enhanced Professional Learning: Processes, Practices & Tools Littlejohn & Margaryan (Ed) Routledge Dec 2014
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