1 Repair, Modify or Replace?? What is the right answer?? By : Joe Mozeika
2 First you have to determine what s really wrong with what you have? Analyze how old your unit is? What are really trying to achieve with your decision? What makes the most sense financially?
3 Repair!! This should be your first line of defense when trying to save your budget. There are several circumstances when performing a detailed tune up with minor repairs can save you thousands
4 Fouled tubes can appear as a major problem. Reality is, you a good cleaning and burner tune up!! Linkages are a major culprit of a fouled boiler Tube cleaning removes all the fuel Impurities that buildup over the Course of a heating season More than a dozen set screws and pivot points
5 Inches The effects of a fouled boiler that is needing repair 34.3% 31.4% 28.2% 24.8% 20.7% 16.4% 11.6% 6% 7/32 3/16 5/32 1/8 3/32 1/16 1/32 efficiency loss per inch of scale 1/4 60.8% 16.2% 27.9% efficiency loss per inch of soot 57.6% 53.8% 49.2% 43.7% 36.8%
6 Modify!! Your boiler is still in good structural condition, but some of the mechanical attributes are starting to tire and are beyond a cost efficient repair. Out with the old. In the with the new.
7 Opting to upgrade or modify your boiler Changing out the current burner for a new, linkage less burners Higher turndown rates with constant O2 levels Separate your gas turndown from your oil turndown Add controls to your modifications. O2 trim kits Turbulators
8 Linkageless Burners 1.Easily adapts to existing burner mountings. 2.Allows for finer tuning over entire combustion range. Can be anywhere from 7 to 18 points throughout modulation that can be tuned in vs. 3 points on a linkage burner. 3. Can adapt more technologically advanced controls to burner control. 4. Tighter tolerances yield better combustion process over entire heating season and reduce annual maintenance costs.
9 Linkageless Burner Add-ons 1.BMS integration 2. O2 trim allowing the highest level of combustion efficiency 3. Independent curves for dual fuel burners 4. Variable Frequency Outputs
10 Turbulators 1.Increases flue gas turbulation, reducing laminar flow in tubes. 2.Easy to install, but does require burner to be re-tuned 3. Increases overall boiler efficiency.
11 Outdoor Reset Controls!! Allows for the water temperature to be turned down when there is a light demand. Determines demand based on outdoor design temperature vs design day temperature.
12 Adding just a few of these features could have a rather dramatic effect on fuel savings. Just changing out the burner could easily save 3-5% in energy consumption. Reset controls, turbulators, trim kits and other accessories just add to the savings
13 Replace!! When this decision is made, that is the time to design and implement the replacement system to give the greatest return on investment.
14 How does your current system operate? Does your current boiler plant ever run at full fire? Has there been any other building envelope upgrades since the old boiler was put in? Can you utilize an outdoor reset control to lower water temperatures based on outside air? Do you really need to replace the whole boiler plant?
15 Spending money where it counts Utilize what still works. Only replace what absolutely must be replaced and what financially makes sense. Work with your utility to review your gas volume history or help provide a natural gas energy analysis. Find out what you real load is. If your system can t be lowered to temperatures below 140 degrees F, look at replacing only one boiler with a smaller condensing boiler rather than entire boiler plant.
16 Upgrading to high efficiency! In todays world, efficiency is all the hype! We want the most efficient anything because it will pay for itself and save us in the long run. That may be true for some things, but with boilers, that is a big variable. Physics tells us how well our boiler will operate based on the conditions we run it at. The key thing to remember about high efficiency boilers is that if we can t run them cold, they are not high efficiency! There are ways to utilize both the condensing and non condensing technologies if your system needs to have the warmer water in the dead of winter to keep the building warm
17 Condensing High Efficiency Boiler Upgrade This is a very popular type of new or upgraded mechanical room. But if you can t run low water temperatures the boiler is only going to run at a typical efficiency of about 85%. That certainly is not the efficiency you hoped for when you bought the equipment. So while this system has the potential to be the most efficient it is only going to be the most efficient if it is applied correctly, and that can be difficult.
18 N O N - C O N D E N S I N g S u p p l y W a t e r T e m p Retrofit Building Equipment Design 180 deg. F supply temperature Shows boiler able to condense only 64% of the time at best Shows boiler able to condense only 74% of the time at best Shows boiler able to condense only 97% of the time at best 36% 64% Outside Air Temperature Typical reset curve shows that boiler only condenses 64% of the time. 80 Represents the time spent in each range of outside temperatures
19 Potential savings using a new high efficiency boiler with average seasonal efficiency of 92%.
20 Hybrid System A mix of condensing and non-condensing boilers. The condensing boiler controls are smart enough to protect the non condensing boilers and only run them when it is safe to do so. This saves you up front cost, can sometimes yield a higher overall efficiency and reduced maintenance costs.
21 Hybrid System Using Your Existing Boiler Still a mix of condensing and non-condensing boilers. In this scenario we use your existing boiler/boilers with the addition of a new condensing boiler sized for the appropriate boiler load for the time periods in which it would be in a low water temperature zone( below 140 ) Condensing boiler controls existing boiler and only runs it when needed and safe to do so. Existing non condensing condensing
22 Potential savings using a new Hybrid boiler plant with average seasonal efficiency of 92%.
23 Lets sum it up to see what really makes the most sense!!
24 Repair! Repair A detailed boiler tune up should consist of 1-2 days of labor and approximately $300 - $500 in parts. Estimated cost of $2,500. Take into consideration your Boiler Tune Up Rebate from CenterPoint Energy ( in this case $ every other year ) and your looking at $2, Based on potential savings from getting your boiler repaired and back to its intended efficiency your still on track to save almost $9,000 the next heating season. Do keep in mind though that your boiler is now running at peak efficiency of 80-82% efficiency. That s the best its ever going to get. ( based on the 3 million BTU example from earlier slide. )
25 Modify! Modify An upgraded linkageless burner with outdoor reset is going to be approximately $25,000. Take into consideration your Boiler System Upgrade Rebate from CenterPoint Energy (in this case $3,150 ) and your out of pocket is now $21,850!!! Based on potential savings from getting your boiler modified your on track to save several thousands each year have a return on investment of less than 5 years. Do keep in mind though that your boiler is now running at peak efficiency of 83-85% efficiency. That s the best its ever going to get and that your boiler is already 20 plus years old. It can t be more efficient and it certainly isn t getting any younger. ( based on the 3 million BTU example from earlier slide. )
26 Replace! Replace An upgraded condensing boiler will cost somewhere in the range of $75,000 for equipment and installation Take into consideration your Boiler System Upgrade Rebate from CenterPoint Energy (in this case $10,500 based on 92% eff.) and your out of pocket is now $64,500!!! Based on potential savings from replacing your boiler your on track to save several thousands each year have a return on investment of less than 8-10 years. Do keep in mind though that you have now purchased a very efficient product. Efficiency has its own costs aside from just initial install price. Newer boilers are well built machines, but they are not intended to last as long as your old boilers did. These are year boilers at best. ( based on the 3 million BTU example from earlier slide. )
27 Replace with Hybrid! Replace An upgraded condensing/non condensing boiler plant will cost somewhere in the range of $60,000 for equipment and installation Take into consideration your Boiler System Upgrade Rebate from CenterPoint Energy (in this case $10,200 ) and your out of pocket is now $49,800!! Gained redundancy of a 2 boiler system instead of just one. Based on potential savings from replacing your boiler your on track to save several thousands each year have a return on investment of less than 6-8 years. Do keep in mind though that you have now purchased a very efficient product. Efficiency has its own costs aside from just initial install price. Newer boilers are well built machines, but they are not intended to last as long as your old boilers did. These are year boilers at best. ( based on the 3 million BTU example from earlier slide. )
28 Replace Partial with Condensing! Replace An upgraded condensing boiler for partial load would cost somewhere in the range of $ 40,000. Take into consideration your Boiler System Upgrade Rebate from CenterPoint Energy (in this case $6,150 ) and your out of pocket is now $33,850!! Gained redundancy of a 2 boiler system instead of just one. Based on potential savings from replacing your boiler your on track to save several thousands each year have a return on investment of less than 6-8 years. Do keep in mind though that you have now purchased a very efficient product. Efficiency has its own costs aside from just initial install price. Newer boilers are well built machines, but they are not intended to last as long as your old boilers did. These are year boilers at best. ( based on the 3 million BTU example from earlier slide. )
29 Breakdown of Repair Calculator.. Repair - $ rebate from CenterPoint Energy. CenterPoint Energy pays 25% of the cost or $ which ever is greater. ( based on the 3 million BTU example from earlier slide. )
30 Breakdown of Modify Calculator.. Modify - $3, rebate from CenterPoint Energy. CenterPoint Energy pays $1,350 for modulating burner, $900 for linkageless controls, $750 for turbulators and $150 for outdoor reset control. ( based on the 3 million BTU example from earlier slide. )
31 Breakdown of Replace Calculator.. Replace - $10,500 rebate from CenterPoint Energy based on 92% efficiency. CenterPoint Energy pays $8,100 for equipment 88% and greater, $2,400 for difference in efficiency between 88 and average efficiency of new boiler, in this case 92%. ( based on the 3 million BTU example from earlier slide. )
32 Breakdown of Replace with Hybrid System Calculator Replace - $10,200 rebate from CenterPoint Energy based on 95% efficiency and 88% efficiency. CenterPoint Energy pays $4,050 for equipment 88% and greater, $2,100 for difference in efficiency between 88 and average efficiency of new boiler, in this case 95%. ( condensing boiler, but higher claimed efficiency because I will only run in condensing mode and in seasons with partial load which increases boiler efficiency. ) CenterPoint Energy pays $4,050 for equipment 88% and greater for non-condensing boiler. ( based on the 3 million BTU example from earlier slide. )
33 Breakdown of Replace Partial with Condensing Calculator. Replace - $6,450 rebate from CenterPoint Energy based on 95% efficiency. CenterPoint Energy pays $4,050 for equipment 88% and greater, $2,100 for difference in efficiency between 88 and average efficiency of new boiler, in this case 95%. ( condensing boiler, but higher claimed efficiency because I will only run in condensing mode and in seasons with partial load which increases boiler efficiency. ) ( based on the 1.5 million BTU example from earlier slide. )
34 Like everything in life, there are several ways to accomplish what you are trying to do. Today s intent was to potentially open new thought processes and show you examples of how thinking outside of the box may provide a better net result
Effects of Ultra-High Turndown in Hydronic Boilers By Sean Lobdell and Brian Huibregtse January 2014 Today, hydronic boilers are producing greater efficiencies than previously thought possible, all due
HOW TO SELECT A LOW VOLUME (L.V ) BOILER FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS ON BOILERS Dear Potential Customer: Low Volume Operator Exempt boilers have been marketed in Ontario to eliminate the requirement
Common Boiler Excess Air Trends and Strategies to Optimize Efficiency Kevin Carpenter and Chris Schmidt, Energy & Resource Solutions Kelly Kissock, University of Dayton ABSTRACT Boilers are among the most
Centauri Condensing Fire Tube Water Boiler 399 to 1000 MBH Pre-mix surface burner with up to a 7-to-1 turndown NOx levels as low a 5 ppm at full rate Operates on 4" gas pressure shown with optional gauges
Printing and Publishing Energy Savings Guide Oregon printing and publishing plants face challenges of rising operating costs, environmental and other regulations, outdated equipment and customer demand
UNITED TECHNOLOGIES CARRIER CORPORATION HVAC System Optimization MAXIMIZING PERFORMANCE, ENERGY SAVINGS & COMFORT Revitalize Your Building s System Sometime between the initial purchase and the need to
s.doty 10-2014 White Paper #30 Hybrid (Dual Fuel) - Gas Heat and Air Source Heat Pump System Switches Fuels Automatically for Economy. What is an Air-Source Heat Pump? A heat pump is a modified air conditioning
Design guidelines for hybrid boiler systems. The first element of designing a hybrid boiler system is to employ a multiple boiler control that incorporates both an outdoor reset function and the ability
ALFEA HYBRID DUO GAZ New Model 2011 1 Context Market: The renovation market for heat pumps stagnates since 2 years whereas the gas condensing market remains dynamic Interest of Alfea Hybrid Duo Gas: Regarding
Condensing Boiler Efficiency Date: July 17, 2012 PRES E NT ED BY DO N L E O NA RDI LE O N A RD I I NC. HV AC T RAI N I N G & C ON SU LT IN G Concepts 1 The current state of evolution in boiler design 2
BRYAN FLEXIBLE WATER TUBE AB SERIES STEAM AND WATER BOILER 900,000 TO 3,000,000 BTUH FORCED DRAFT GAS, OIL OR DUAL FUEL FIRED Water Boiler AB120-W-FDGO Steam Boiler AB250-S-150-FDG Originators of the Flexible
Boiler NOx Emissions and Energy Efficiency Prepared For: Boiler Operators and Facility Managers Prepared By: 100 Montgomery Street, Suite 600 San Francisco, CA 94104 AGENDA Introduction Boiler NOx Formation
CT556 Boiler Efficiency Modern Controls for Package Boiler Operations Marc L Hunter Vice President 25 & 26 March 2015 PUBLIC www.rockwellautomation.com www.us.endress.com 2 Agenda Boiler Operations Overview
Principals of Condensing Boiler System Design Dennis Jones, P.E. Member ASHRAE ABSTRACT Condensing boilers can provide significant energy savings due to operating efficiencies as high as 98% as compared
PART 11: START-UP PROCEDURES FOR THE INSTALLER NOTICE It is important to note that the user can adjust the heat curve down by adjusting the central heating temperature to a lower setting. 212 CENTRAL HEATING
Hybrid heat pumps saving energy and reducing carbon emissions Bart Aspeslagh Product planning and new technology manager, Daikin Europe NV. firstname.lastname@example.org Stefanie Debaets Design engineer,
Energy Efficient Operations and Maintenance Strategies for Boilers Large, complex and widely used, industrial boilers are major consumers of fuel. Proper operations and maintenance (O&M) procedures must
Dr. Albrecht Kaupp Page 1 The soot and scale problems Issue Soot and scale do not only increase energy consumption but are as well a major cause of tube failure. Learning Objectives Understanding the implications
Energy Saving Fact Sheet Boilers Turn a burning issue into real energy savings You need a boiler to heat your premises and provide hot water or to generate steam for use in industrial processes. Unfortunately,
Technical Papers supporting SAP 2009 Boiler efficiency for community heating in SAP Reference no. STP09/B06 Date last amended 26 March 2009 Date originated 28 May 2008 Author(s) John Hayton and Alan Shiret,
Consumer Information Guide to Gas Fireplaces A Gas Fireplace gives you all the ambiance, warmth and comfort of a traditional wood-burning fireplace. They are convenient, easy to use and cost effective.
High Efficiency Condensing Boilers Proven Reliability, American-Made Home Heating Comfort. Look for this logo throughout this literature to see the unique features that set U.S. Boiler Company apart from
RESIDENTIAL HEATING OIL SERVICE CONTRACT This service contract covers all routine service and maintenance of your residential oil fired furnace or boiler. In addition this contract covers all service calls
High Efficiency Copper Finned Tube Boilers 750,000-2,000,000 BTU/HR The heat transfer innovators. THE RELIANCE COPPER FINNED TUBE HYDRONIC BOILER FEATURES Copper Fin-Tube Heat Exchanger Up to 88% Thermal
What really matters Your guide to the ErP Ecodesign Directive 4800908_Leitfaden_Oekodesignrichtlinie_EXPORT_eng_11-14.indd 1 27.01.15 13:09 Well informed and ready for action with Wolf Ecodesign Directive
5 Factors For Finding Your HVAC Comfort Zone A Homeowner s Guide To Selecting The Right Heating And Air Conditioning System Whether you re a new home buyer selecting an HVAC unit for the first time, or
Daikin Altherma hybrid heat pump The natural combination Why choose Daikin? As an industry leader, Daikin combines broad experience, technical innovation and responsive customer service to help you meet
1 April 2015 - Version 1.0 Energy Company Obligation (ECO2) Boiler Assessment Checklist This Boiler Assessment Checklist ( the checklist ) is designed to assess whether a boiler should be repaired or replaced
Natural Gas Energy Efficiency Opportunities for Commercial & Industrial Customers Michael Pace Lead Engineer C & I Efficiency Programs Agenda Energy Efficiency Opportunities for Small/Mid Commercial Facilities
VivintSolar Steve Hellman 1-844-217-7010 phone/fax Steven.email@example.com BY DOING THIS: My job is Super Simple. I do 3 things: 1. First, I explain the Program to you. 2. Second, I Answer All of
Hot Water Boilers and Controls Why Condensing Boilers are Different Presented Oct. 14, 2008 Long Island Chapter, ASHRAE H.W. Boilers and Controls Major types of boilers Advantages and disadvantages Resistance
The natural ombination DAIKIN ALTHERMA HYBRID HEAT PUMP 2 A new pportunity in residential heating! There is a growing demand from home owners to replace heating systems, especially replacing of gas boilers,
For the user Instructions for use ecomax Wall hung room sealed fan assisted condensing boilers ecomax 63/ E ecomax 68/ E ecomax 6/ E ecomax 635 E ecomax 84/ E ecomax 88/ E ecomax 835 E GB Table of contents
Energy Efficiency E-module - Guidance Efficient Operation of Low Temperature Hot Water Boilers in the Public Sector Efficient Operation of Low Temperature Hot Water Boilers in the Public Sector 2 Contents
Advanced Heating & Hot Water Systems A Trailblazing Energy Star Listed Boiler that Installs like a Mid-Efficiency Boiler with the Performance of a High-Efficiency Product Ultra High Efficiency Energy Star
Boiler Tune-up Guide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers What is a boiler tune-up? 40 CFR Part 63 Subpart JJJJJJ
Walnut Drying Design and Operation Don Osias Jim Thompson Selecting Dryer Type Tray Drying Before 1920 1 Stack Dryer Energy efficient High capital cost Pothole For small lots High labor cost Hopper-bottom
Reducing Energy Cost Through Boiler Efficiency Charles Stark Department of Poultry Science North Carolina State University firstname.lastname@example.org Use of trade names in this publication does not imply endorsement
ELECTRODE BOILERS WITH JET-FLO Technology VAPOR POWER INTERNATIONAL ELECTRODE boilers The Electrode Steam Boiler with Jet-Flo technology consists of an insulated pressure vessel and is fully enclosed in
GAS CONVERSION PROJECT ˆAn Alternative to Oil Presented to: MORTON CIVIC ASSOCIATION Franklin Square/West Hempstead Presented by: Scialli Plumbing & Heating 130 Stewart Avenue Hicksville, NY 11801 516.334.6701
Continuous flow direct water heating for potable hot water An independently produced White Paper for Rinnai UK 2013 www.rinnaiuk.com In the 35 years since direct hot water systems entered the UK commercial
Energy Efficiency Energy Efficient Home Cooling: Choosing an air conditioning system is an important decision. A poor choice may be costly to purchase and operate and yet fail to provide the desired cooling
Using Energy Wisely for a Better Future An Overview of the Nicor Gas Energy Efficiency Program Purpose of the Program Help Nicor Gas customers save energy and money Increase consumer / contractor awareness
s.doty 06-2015 White Paper #10 Energy Efficiency in Computer Data Centers Computer Data Centers use a lot of electricity in a small space, commonly ten times or more energy per SF compared to a regular
Daikin Altherma Hybrid Heat Pump Smart technology for the best of both worlds NATIONAL HEAT PUMP 19 JUNE 2014 ICC BIRMINGHAM WINNER Forward thinking Now is the time to rethink the way we heat our homes
DURR Thermal Oxidizer Research History of Research A small group consisting of community members Steve Martinez and Edward Pineda along with Intel employees Peter Clugston, Heath Foott and Bill Westmoreland
1. How do solar panels work? FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Your solar panels capture sunlight and convert it to DC electricity Your solar system converts that energy to an AC current that can power your home
ROTEX gas hybrid heat pump A strong team. The new ROTEX HPU hybrid gas hybrid heat pump always selects the most favourable heating mode automatically. For a long time the general opinion was that a heat
Heating and air-conditioning industry Innovative solutions for your success Dear Readers, We all prefer a nice warm room. As manufacturers of heating and air-conditioning systems, you know just how important
Provider: Conference for Catholic Facility Management Provider Number: G460 Course Title: Hiring a Mechanical Engineer or a Mechanical Design-Build Contractor: HVAC, Mechanical and Boiler Issues, and Implementing
Boiler control Tips for burner modulation, air/fuel cross-limiting, excess-air regulation, oxygen trim and total heat control Boilers are often the principal steam or hot-water generators in industrial
Home Energy Audit TEACHER GUIDE Students will learn about energy conservation and energy efficiency. By conducting an audit of their own homes, they will learn to identify energy-efficient features and
Design Guide Retrofitting Options For HVAC Systems In Live Performance Venues Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are major energy consumers in live performance venues. For this reason,
Data Center Design Guide featuring Water-Side Economizer Solutions with Dynamic Economizer Cooling Presenter: Jason Koo, P.Eng Sr. Field Applications Engineer STULZ Air Technology Systems jkoo@stulz ats.com
Electrical Efficiency Modeling for Data Centers By Neil Rasmussen White Paper #113 Revision 1 Executive Summary Conventional models for estimating electrical efficiency of data centers are grossly inaccurate
Making heating systems efficient and cost-effective: boilers, heating controls & more WHAT WE USE ENERGY FOR IN OUR HOMES DECC Energy Consumption in the UK, 2010: Table 3.3 Heating building & hot water
High Efficiency Heating Mike Pace Senior Engineer National Grid C&I Efficiency Programs Prescriptive Controls Energy Star Programmable Thermostats A thermostat that is able to be programmed to set back
0 7 / 1 4 SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURING FEATURES BOEING CANADA WINNIPEG RECOGNIZED FOR COMPRESSED AIR PROJECT By Ron Marshall for the Compressed Air Challenge Boeing Canada Winnipeg (BCW) has been recognized
Steam System Best Practices Condensate System Piping Summary The best method for improving steam system energy efficiency, reducing chemical costs, and reducing make-up water costs is to return the maximum
your comfort. our world. Daikin Altherma Hybrid Heat Pump The natural combination Heating Integrated Solutions Ventilation Air Conditioning Refrigeration About Daikin Forward thinking... Daikin has a worldwide
M&V of Hot Water Boiler Plant Boban Ratkovich, P. Eng, CEM, BESA, LEED AP President CES Engineering Ltd AIA Quality Assurance Learning Objectives 1. Case study examples of procedures and obstacles in measuring
your comfort. our world. Daikin Altherma Hybrid Heat Pump Smart heating technology for the best of both worlds Heating Integrated Solutions Ventilation Air Conditioning Refrigeration Forward thinking About
Energy Edge A NEWSLETTER FOR MEMPHIS LIGHT, GAS AND WATER DIVISION GENERAL POWER CUSTOMERS MAY 2010 Test your business energy efficiency smarts! Smart business means efficient business, and energy is one
Tankless Water Heater A Primer for Contractors, Installers, Builders and Homeowners Your Questions Answered Common applications Benefits of performance How to select, size and install Efficient water heating
1 1. What percent of a commercial business s energy usage comes from their HVAC system? A. 13% B. 23% C. 33% D. 43% E. 53% 2. How much money do commercial facilities spend per square foot on energy costs
Rainwater Harvesting With climate change now a reality rather than a speculated possibility, the demand on water resources has gone up, whilst the amount of water available for supply has gone down. Forth
EVALUATION OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY AS HEAT SOURCE OF DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS IN TIANJIN, CHINA Jingyu Zhang, Xiaoti Jiang, Jun Zhou, and Jiangxiong Song Tianjin University, North China Municipal Engineering
Practical Management for Plant Turnarounds Chapter 1 Plant Turnaround Owners of commercial facilities, manufacturing processes, and industrial plants recognize that maintenance of their equipment assets
Fossil fuel heating equipment principles and troubleshooting techniques Application Note This application note was written to provide you with an understanding of the basic principles of fossil fuel heating
Beware of Exaggerated Claims and Uncertified Manufacturers Ratings Regarding Commercial Boiler Efficiency For many years competent professional HVAC engineers have been aware of exaggerated or deceptive
Carbon Dioxide Membrane Separation for Carbon Capture using Direct FuelCell Systems DFC Technology Used as Electrochemical Membrane for CO 2 Purification and Capture during Power Generation FCE s Direct
EVALUATING SCHOOL BOILERS: BEST REPLACEMENT OPTIONS Bruce Snyder, CEM, LEED AP BD+C October 8, 2013 Integrated Design Solutions Architecture, Engineering, Interiors & Technology Agenda Background Common
Guide to Getting Loans on Investment Properties Mark Ferguson Table of Contents Guide to Getting Loans on Investment Properties... 1 Should you get a loan for investment properties?... 3 Why are the returns
Wood Pellet Stove 101 By Eric J. Kacvinsky Kinsman Stoves, LLC. And Brookfield Stoves & Supply With assistance from Mark D. Manley Painesville Pellet and Stove, LLC Wood pellets are made mainly of sawdust,