1 Chapter 3. Information Technologies applications for Construction Information Technologies applications for Construction 3.1. Introduction Computing and communication technology, also commonly known as Information Technology (IT) have been radically transforming the way we live, learn, work and play (Capron 2000). Many companies in the construction industry do not generally appear to have appreciated the positive changes and advantages that the new technology was providing to companies in other sectors of the economy. During the 1980s PCs were only used in few construction companies. Throughout the 1980s, although most building firms were using computer technology for many of their core functions such as accounting, wages, and salaries, very few of them evolved formal policies or strategies concerning the use of information technology. By the latter part of the 1980s, about eight years after the introduction of reliable PC equipment, some companies had reached a situation in which their staffs on many of their larger projects were experiencing the advantages of the new technology through the use of planning, drawing, spreadsheet and word-processing software packages. Today, a large number of software packages are available to all the disciplines of the construction team at every stage of the construction process. They provide support for a broad range of activities such as computer aided design and drafting, building visualization, design appraisal, project management, information storage and retrieval, cost estimation, structural analysis, on-site management, facilities management, etc. In this Chapter all the specific software applications for different purposes along the life cycle of a project will be exposed, with the consequent necessity to organize and manage all the information arising from these tools.
2 38 Chapter 3. Information Technologies applications for Construction 3.2. The development of Information and Communication Technology in Construction The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the construction industry is generating new opportunities for collaboration, coordination and information exchange among organizations that work on a construction project. Complex technical systems do not evolve fully formed, but rather as localized developments. In the development of automated systems for the transfer and transformation of materials, this unbalanced evolution leads to the problem of islands of automation, where highly automated materials flows are mixed in with completely manual ones. The same problem exists in the development of computerized information systems. The development of computing technology has meant that tools for analysis involving data manipulation have tended to develop earliest and in isolation. These tools play to the enormous strengths of computers in the rapid analysis of complex data sets analysis which is frequently impossible if manually attempted. Thus standalone applications dependent on numerical analysis, ranging from finite element analysis to critical path analysis, had been developed by the 1960s. Information flows between these types of application continued to use traditional information technologies such as the paper-based engineering drawing. During the 1970s, a new form of graphical manipulation developed to aid the creation of engineering drawings computer aided design (CAD). Again, the output from these systems largely relied on traditional technologies for communication between different applications. The construction industry was at the forefront of these developments. By the fourteenth century, scaled technical drawings probably the most important information technology of the last millennium after the printed book itself- were well established for use on religious and royal building projects. During the 1970s, large public sector projects usually relying on extensive standardization and prefabrication- offered the opportunity to develop CAD systems. However, the demise of the large public sector construction programmes which have been essential to the development of ICT applications in every industrial sector meant that this initial momentum was lost (Howard 1998). The 1980s saw the development of the personal computer (PC) which dramatically reduced the cost of computing power, and enabled a much wider diffusion of computers within the industry, while the processing power of computers continued to grow exponentially. Most importantly, site offices could now be equipped with computers.
3 Chapter 3. Information Technologies applications for Construction 39 The development of communication technologies has taken an independent path. In comparison to computer technologies, developments were earlier and more profound. The telegraph and, more importantly, the telephone, greatly improved communication capabilities. The fax and photocopier are more recent innovations which have had a significant impact. Nonetheless, these communication technologies did not allow any further manipulation of the received data. It was not until the 1970s that they began to be connected to computers to provide integrated systems for the direct communication of information between computer systems. The development of Local and Wide Area Networks (LANs and WANs) proceeded steadily, but interconnectivity between computers was transformed by the breathless diffusion of the internet during the 1990s. It is this rapid development of the interconnection between communication and information technologies over the last 20 years that has both opened up tremendous new opportunities and posed new technical challenges Current Information Technologies for the Construction Sector Information technologies or Software applications are available to support most aspects of a construction project. They have been designed largely as solutions to specific problems. These applications can be grouped into the following categories (Sun & Howard 2004): Computer Aided Design and Visualization Building Engineering Applications Computer Aided Cost Estimation Planning, Scheduling, Site Management Computer Aided Facilities Management Integration Business and Information Management Figure 7 is a roadmap showing where and when these applications are being used along the construction process. The main purpose of the diagram is to indicate the main application areas for the existing discrete software packages in the construction supply chain.
4 40 Chapter 3. Information Technologies applications for Construction Business and Information Management Computer Aided Facilities Management Conception Of Needs Design CAD and Visualisation Building Engineering Applicatons Maintenance COLLABORATION WORKSAPCE Tendering Computer Aided Cost Estimating Construction Integration Planning, Scheduling, Site Management Figure 7. Construction Process and IT application Computer Aided Design and Visualization Computer Aided Design (CAD) software is widely used by design professionals, and AutoCAD has the largest share of the CAD market (Howard 1998). Other popular CAD software include Microstation, ArchiCAD, MiniCAD, FastCAD, etc. These CAD programs have largely replaced the traditional drawing board at the production information stage. The basic function of CAD tools is allowing the user to build up drawings by manipulating lines, circles, rectangles and texts interactively on the screen. The clear advantage of CAD software is the ability to allow editing, which means delete, move, copy, rotate, scale mirror, etc.
5 Chapter 3. Information Technologies applications for Construction 41 Furthermore, since the drawing can be saved at any stage, the designers are able to keep various versions of the building layout for later study. Once the geometrical information of the building design is stored in a CAD package, different views of the building can easily be produced. Visualization and animation systems, like 3D studio, can produce photo-realistic, static, and moving images, so that the clients can view the final appearance of the building at the design stage. The emerging Virtual Reality technology even allows the user to interact with the design model and experience the building in simulated reality settings Building Engineering Applications Nowadays, construction industry clients have ever-higher expectations. They want their buildings to look good, to be safe, to provide comfortable living environments for their occupants, to consume less energy in operation, etc. The ever more complex demands on the building design process have given rise to the need for a new approach to building engineering design based on computer software. Once a building is constructed, it is very costly to correct any design defects. It is, therefore, important to simulate accurately the building s performance at the design stage so that problems can be identified and solved. Over the years, a variety of methods and algorithms have been developed to predict building performance in thermal, lighting, acoustics, and structural aspects. Because of the complex and tedious calculations that involve these simulations, it was nearly impossible to carry them out before computers. During the last two decades, a range of building engineering applications have been developed for energy analysis, HVAC design, structural analysis, lighting simulation, etc. The benefit of these applications is that they allow designers to evaluate alternative design solutions in order to reach optimum design. Examples of this software are: ATEAN from Carrier, and CARGASW from Climasoft, that offer comprehensive range of software options for climatic energy design; CALCULUX for lighting and building services design, CYPE INGENIEROS S.A. for structural design, COSMOS for finite elements analysis, DUCTSIZE from Elite Software for electricity and water nets design.
6 42 Chapter 3. Information Technologies applications for Construction Computer Aided Cost Estimation Controlling costs is one of the most important requirements during a construction project. To achieve this, contractors and subcontractors must first make accurate cost estimation. Rigorous project accounting must then be used to control the spending. Today, there are sophisticated computer software packages, such as Esti-Mate, Manifest, FBS-Estimator, and PRESTO from Soft, GO from Star, ITEC and ARQ from AM2, which allow project managers to make estimations and to keep track of project spending. Other software can help to measure, count, compute and tabulate quantities, lengths, areas, volumes, etc., of objects found in plans and specifications. Furthermore, most cost estimating programs can be integrated with databases of costs for labour, materials and equipment. The advantage is that cost data do not need to be re-entered, thus improving the celerity in estimating and avoiding errors. Computer based estimation of costs archives and retrieves large volumes of resource, cost and productivity information, makes fast and accurate calculations and presents results in an organized, neat and consistent manner Planning, Scheduling and Site Management Construction works require careful planning and skilful management of human and physical resources. Computer systems can assist on-site managers to plan ahead, evaluate different options and adopt and execute the most efficient construction operation. Besides the widespread use of planning packages such as Microsoft Project, Primavera, Power Project, etc., to plan and schedule detailed construction activities, some applications like JobMaster, ICON, GEST, and Presto Control, are designed to log and track internal processes during the construction phase. Site operation simulation programs can emulate what happens in a real construction site by representing workers, machines, and materials, and computing the cycle of each step taking into consideration many uncertain factors (Paulson 1995).
7 Chapter 3. Information Technologies applications for Construction Computer Aided Facilities Management Facilities Management is a relatively new discipline that emerged in the early 80s. It is based on the operation, maintenance, and impact of the building operations on the life cycle costs. The available software for Facilities Management is a combination of CAD and database management systems. Special routines enable blocking and stacking studies to be carried out to explore different layouts or to reflect organizational changes. Databases are the most important part of Facilities Management Software. It holds data from people and their services so that when they move, their services can follow them. ITE (Inspección Técnica de Edificios), for example, is a tool that makes possible to create a report of the state of the building Business and Information Management The construction process is an information intensive one during which a huge amount of information in generated and consumed by all the professionals involved. The common type of information includes site survey, cost analysis, design drawings, documents, correspondence, fax, computer files or s. Electronic Document Management Systems can create an environment in which disparate forms of information can be linked together, within the context of a project or organization, to achieve easy access and control. All the previous tools and software for cost estimating, planning, scheduling, etc., are generated in a specific stage of the project. Sometimes this information is updated, modified, consulted, etc., at any moment of the project. Consequently, Document Management Systems are tools that comprise whatever information throughout the life cycle of the project, from the conception of the need to the maintenance. Electronic Document Management Systems are applications that can be linked to Web Based Project Management Systems for to improve communication among partners and between them and the management of the project. In addition, Web Based Project Management Systems have other functionalities like project coordination, scheduling, etc.
8 44 Chapter 3. Information Technologies applications for Construction Integration From the first software applications, many different tools were developed. They use their own data formats, which are not compatible with each other. As a result, data cannot be electronically exchanged between them. In recent years, there is an increasing awareness of the need for integrated construction processes and many research projects are investigating related issues. During the last two decades, advances in object oriented programming, database systems and product data modelling technologies have provided a solid platform for integration. Data standards are being developed first by the International Standards Organizations (STEP), and then by the International Alliance for Interoperability (IFC). At present, these standards are still evolving. An integrated project database covering the whole life cycle of construction projects remains a future prospect Current Communication Technologies for the Construction Sector Communication technologies are the technologies dealing with the transmission of information. They support the process by which information is exchanged. Figure 8 shows the evolution of some information technologies (mainly, communication technologies) in construction. They are positioned according to their complexity (vertical axis) and construction specifics (horizontal axis). Notice that the most specific services tend to use or rely upon the generic ones, and that the most complex services tend to integrate simpler ones. The first services were generic and included networked file archives, communications and text-based group conferencing. The web provided a much friendlier navigation and presentation of the files on remote machines. It was as that time when first construction related content appeared. Out of the first 1000 websites only two were related to construction. The first construction specific services used the web to publish information such as scientific papers, building codes, product specifications, etc. The next generation services were staring to use the Internet as a collaboration platform for the companies involved in a construction project (Turk & Cerovsek 2003).
9 Chapter 3. Information Technologies applications for Construction 45 generic AEC wide AEC specific simple internet access virtual libraries on-line literature web space AEC portals discussions, chat complex terminal server product database foundation design encripting video conferencing document management regulation checking digital signatures ecommerce B2B project management scheduling, workflow virtual companies Product data management B2B for AEC integrate use Figure 8. Evolution of Internet related communication technologies Since 1998, however, construction has been following trends of general service supplied on the Internet. A business model of the providers of various kind of Internet related software (e.g. for managing mailing lists, discussion forums, help desks, photo albums, etc.) has evolved from the sale of software for the users to install on their servers, to the offering of a service on their Website, that offers the same functionality to the end user. In the construction context there are now dozens of companies providing collaboration tools such as document managing, project coordination and scheduling.
10 46 Chapter 3. Information Technologies applications for Construction 3.5. Summary Construction industry has lagged behind other sectors in terms of applying Information Technologies. In the main, the boards of operating construction companies are dominated by engineers and surveyors whose knowledge of computing is very often limited to what systems have been implemented at head office, and whose interaction with computer is limited to occasional meetings with senior computer professionals rather than fellow engineers. Their general view is that the implementation of any new system takes a long time, is expensive and involves outsiders, and this is aggravated by with the degree of scepticism in terms that it s generally believed that the end product will in any case not achieve its initial specification. Nevertheless, many software is currently being used by the construction sector like CAD tools, Spreadsheets, Word Processing and so on. Information is used and should be managed from the conception stage, design, and execution, to the facilities management stage. With the growth in the use of information technologies by construction companies, the increasing availability of electronic documents, manual classification becomes impractical. With such amount of information, Document Management Systems which are considered as a glue or integration of all the other software for cost estimating, planning, scheduling, etc., generated in a specific stage of the project, are an indispensable tool for the current Project Management activities.
98 Chapter 6. Conclusions and Research Methodology 6. Conclusions and research methodology 6.1. Introduction This Chapter discusses the conclusions from the literature review with the aim to define the
The ASCE 8th International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building EngineeringStandford University California, USA, August 14-17, 2000, pp130-137 Integrated Information Management and Exchange for
ICT STRATEGY AND IMPLIMENTATION FOR A HOSPITAL Introduction and background The Hospital ICT Strategy and implementation has the overall goal of establishing a strong ICT infrastructure to support hospital
CAD and Creativity K C Hui Department of Automation and Computer- Aided Engineering Contents Various aspects of CAD CAD training in the university and the industry Conveying fundamental concepts in CAD
Building Information Modelling (BIM); How it Improves Building Performance R.P. Kumanayake Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering R.M.P.S. Bandara Lecturer, Department of Mechanical Engineering Faculty
Charting Your Course: Charts and Graphs for IT Projects Dawn Li, Ph.D. and Gary McQuown Data and Analytic Solutions, Inc. Fairfax, VA ABSTRACT This paper describes the most common types of charts and graphs
Messaging Solutions IT Solutions White Paper #1 on enterprise messaging First in a series on enterprise messaging and building corporate information services. IT Solutions I N F O R M A T I O N T E C H
BIM: FOR PROJECT MANAGERS ANA BAKER BRANDON GARRETT 2011 CSI Southwest Region Conference Program 1B 8:45am 11:00am 1 2 3 4 BIM Overview BIM Level of Development Evolution of the Drawing Process BIM Workflow
http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos268.htm Computer Support Specialists and Systems Administrators * Nature of the Work * Training, Other Qualifications, and Advancement * Employment * Job Outlook * Projections
ISTANBUL TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE DEPARTMENT OF DESIGN COMPUTING BIM 2037 / BUILDING INFORMATION MODELS INSTRUCTOR: Salih OFLUOĞLU A WORKFLOW ANALYSIS FOR BIM SOFTWARE: ARCHITECTURAL
CAD/CAM DESIGN TOOLS Software supplied with all new and upgraded Boxford Lathes, Mills and Routers The Boxford CAD/CAM Design Tools software is a unique suite of integrated CAD and CAM tools designed specifically
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Introduction In general, a Computer Aided Design (CAD) package has three components: a) Design, b) Analysis, and c) Visualization, as shown in the sketch. A brief description
White Paper Unified Communications: The Layman s Guide Contents Introduction....2 What can you expect in return?....2 How Unified Communications Works....2 Challenges Ahead....2 Are you ready?....3 About
218 Chapter 11. Conclusions 11. Conclusions 11.1. General conclusions The final objective of whatever research is to improve the knowledge and provide tools to improve it. In whatever company and in whatever
PackeTV Views Fast, Simple Setup for IPTV Channels White Paper Created by Visionary Solutions, Inc. October, 2013 http://www.vsicam.com http://www.linkedin.com/company/visionary- solutions- inc. http://www.facebook.com/vsiptv
A New Generation in ERP Mike Ehrenberg Technical Fellow Microsoft Corporation April 2011 Microsoft Dynamics AX 2012 is not just the next release of a great product. It is, in fact, a generational shift
IYOPRO Improve your Processes Highlights Business Process Management Suite involving the following components Process modeling & documentation Process execution & workflow Companies across all industries
ENTERPRISE DOCUMENTS & RECORD MANAGEMENT DOCWAY PLATFORM ENTERPRISE DOCUMENTS & RECORD MANAGEMENT 1 DAL SITO WEB OLD XML DOCWAY DETAIL DOCWAY Platform, based on ExtraWay Technology Native XML Database,
A Real Time, Object Oriented Fieldbus Management System Mr. Ole Cramer Nielsen Managing Director PROCES-DATA Supervisor International P-NET User Organisation Navervej 8 8600 Silkeborg Denmark firstname.lastname@example.org
Vantage Product Lifecycle Management Abstract PLM enable companies to manage all information regarding a product, from the initial design and engineering through to manufacture, sourcing, support and run
School of Computing and Technology We offer employment-focused education and research in computing, the built environment and engineering, which gives our students industry-relevant skills and knowledge.
Mitra Innovation Leverages WSO2's Open Source Middleware to Build BIM Exchange Platform May 2015 Contents 1. Introduction... 3 2. What is BIM... 3 2.1. History of BIM... 3 2.2. Why Implement BIM... 4 2.3.
www.cadac.com White Paper Microsoft SharePoint for Engineering Document Management and Control Microsoft SharePoint is a powerful platform for document management and project collaboration. Many project-driven
Uses and Benefits of BIM Project Life Cycle Owner - understand project needs Design team - analyse, design and develop the project Contractor - manage the construction of the project Facility manager -
Classification and Qualification STANDARDS The California State University System Information Technology Series Information Technology Consultant CLASSIFICATION OVERVIEW Positions in this classification
VCE Word Template Table of Contents www.vce.com MANAGEMENT AND ORCHESTRATION WORKFLOW AUTOMATION FOR VBLOCK INFRASTRUCTURE PLATFORMS January 2012 VCE Authors: Changbin Gong: Lead Solution Architect Michael
SharePoint for Engineering Document Management & Control Managing and controlling engineering documents and drawings with SharePoint A white paper by Cadac Organice BV Date: 01-03-2012 Table of contents
KNOWLEDGE AUTOMATION SYSTEM: OVERVIEW Vanguard Knowledge Automation System Turn routine processes into easy-to-use Web Apps Vanguard Knowledge Automation System lets you capture routine business processes
September 2012 WHITE PAPER. for Managing design data is a key concern for every organisation in design and construction. Poor control can result in increased costs and greater risks. This white paper looks
Workflows as Applications Applications in Workflows DD Web based graphic designer for SharePoint workflows DD Central administration for processes and permissions DD Powerful capabilities with and without
InternationalLabourOrganization OrganisationinternationaleduTravail OrganizaciónInternacionaldelTrabajo Updating the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) Draft ISCO-08 Group Definitions:
ISSN 1726-4529 Int j simul model 8 (2009) 2, 102-113 Professional paper WEB-BASED SIMULATION OF MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS Kehris, E. Technological Education Institute of Serres, Terma Magnisias, 621 24 Serres,
Workflow The key to streamlining the production printing process Contents Workflow Summary 3 What is a workflow? 4 Workflow Where did it come from and where is it going? 6 What s so important about a Workflow?
Glossary of terms used in the survey 5 October 2015 Term or abbreviation Audio / video capture Refers to the recording of audio and/or video. API Application programming interface, how a computer program
Trends in the Library Profession and the Impact of Technology at the Montgomery College Libraries Prepared by David Orenstein, MLS, MS The technology revolution has brought many changes to the way librarians
Following are the Contractor Site and Government Site Labor Categories for SIN 736-1, SIN 736-1, and SIN 736-5. Please do not hesitate to contact us at email@example.com if you have any questions ADMINISTRATIVE
CRANFIELD UNIVERSITY João Pedro Rodrigues de Almeida Visualising defects in source code School of Engineering MSc in Computational Software Techniques in Engineering MSc Academic Year: 2011-2012 Supervisor:
Chapter 5 Regression Testing of Web-Components With emergence of services and information over the internet and intranet, Web sites have become complex. Web components and their underlying parts are evolving
Bitrix Intranet Portal Business Process Guide Introduction Bitrix Intranet Portal includes modules providing teamwork functions enabling to handle documents in the context of an intranet portal. The Business
PREPARING A BUINDLING INFORMATION MODEL FOR FACILITY MAINTENANCE AND MANAGEMENT Anoop Sattenini, Salman Azhar*, and Joseph Thuston McWhorter School of Building Science, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama,
PUBLIC INFORMATION NETWORK AS COMPUTING AND E-GOVERNMENT INFRASTRUCTURE IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 1 Aiviet Nguyen 2, 3 Standing Office, National Steering Committee on ICT of Vietnam and E-government Architecture
1 WHITEPAPER SharePoint and Office365 with Gimmal can Enable the Modern Productivity Platform 1 Table of Contents 1.1 Overview... 3 1.2 What are the Challenges?... 3 1.3 The Ideal The Modern Productivity
Functional Area 3 Skill Level 301: Applications Systems Analysis and Programming Supervisor (Mercer 1998 Job 011) Description: Supervises activities of all applications systems analysis and programming
Autodesk Vault Professional 2014 Getting More Value from your BIM Process with Autodesk Collaboration and Data Management Products Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a process that relies on intelligent
FITMAN Future Internet Enablers for the Sensing Enterprise: A FIWARE Approach & Industrial Trialing Oscar Lazaro. firstname.lastname@example.org Ainara Gonzalez email@example.com June Sola firstname.lastname@example.org
Chapter 1 AS/400 System Overview 1.1 Major Characteristics of AS/400 1.1.1 High Level of Integration 1.1.2 Object Orientation 1.1.3 Relational and Integrated Database 1.1.4 Data and Program Independence
For Operations Management and Management Information Systems Department School Year First Year First Year First Year Second year Second year Second year Third year Third year Third year Third year Third
1 11.1 Definitions and Motivation Lot of research and papers in this emerging field: Visual Analytics: Scope and Challenges of Keim et al. Illuminating the path of Thomas and Cook 2 11.1 Definitions and
KIP System K Software Print management solutions KIP System K Software Suite provides an enhanced user experience and exceptional productivity for the seamless control of colour and black & white print
General Comparison between 4D Software (Navisworks, Synchro professional, Vico control, itwo and Navigator) Comparison between 4D Software 4D BIM is the next generation of project management, including
COMPUTER SCIENCE High School Standards CONTENT STANDARD 1 1. Components Of A Computer System 1.HS.1 1.HS.2 1.HS.3 1.HS.4 Demonstrate the ability to store data on a variety of storage media, i.e., floppy,
1 Chapter 4 IT Infrastructure: Hardware and Software LEARNING TRACK 1: THE EVOLUTION OF IT INFRASTRUCTURE Evolution of IT Infrastructure: 1950 2005 The IT infrastructure in organizations today is an outgrowth
AUTOMATED CONSTRUCTION PLANNING FOR MULTI-STORY BUILDINGS Tang-Hung Nguyen 1 ABSTRACT This paper outlines a computer-based framework that can assist construction planners and schedulers in automatically
TecTakes Solution Insight Simple Strategies for More Effective Business Collaboration: File Sharing By David Talbott Introduction: The Changing Face of Collaboration Collaboration is an essential aspect
Autodesk Manufacturing Digital Prototyping: Questions and Answers 1. What is a digital prototype? A digital prototype is created with Autodesk Inventor software and is a digital simulation of a product
Introduction 1 Web application basics 2 SIMATIC Information Server V8.0 Update 1 System Manual Office add-ins basics 3 Time specifications 4 Report templates 5 Working with the Web application 6 Working
School of Computing FACULTY OF ENGINEERING MEng, BSc Applied Computer Science Year 1 COMP1212 Computer Processor Effective programming depends on understanding not only how to give a machine instructions
A Framework of Information Management System for Construction Projects Ma Zhiliang and Qin Liang Department of Civil Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org)
UNDERSTANDING BIM A GUIDE FOR CLIENTS Produced by: - Alex Wall Danny Slater David Bird Date: - February 2013 Version: - 1.0 Contents 1. BIM Terminology... 2 2. What is BIM?... 4 3. Why use BIM?... 5 4.
ASSESSING IMPLEMENTATION OF ICT AMONG PROPERTY MANAGEMENT COMPANIES IN MALAYSIA. Muhammad Najib Razali, Dr. David Martin Faculty of Technology Management, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), 86400,
Moving to a fourth generation: SPC that lets you do your work by Steve Daum Software Development Manager PQ Systems, Inc. Abstract: This paper reviews the ways in which process control technology has moved
DISCRETE AND CONTINUOUS SIMULATION OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES Abstract DISKRÉTNA A SPOJITÁ SIMULÁCIA VÝROBNÝCH PROCESOV Ing. Maroš Fill, prof. Ing. Gabriel Fedorko PhD. Technická univerzita v Košiciach
Science Technician Overview The Field - Specialty Areas - Preparation - Day in the Life - Earnings - Employment - Career Path Forecast - Professional Organizations The Field Science technicians use the
Electronic Reference Library, Phase 2 Analysis of Web-Based Content Management Systems for Managing Iowa DOT Engineering Specifications: Assessing Best Practices Submitted to: Prepared by: Principal Investigator:
Storage Guardian Remote Backup Restore and Archive Services Storage Guardian is the unique alternative to traditional backup methods, replacing conventional tapebased backup systems with a fully automated,
SUMMARY DOCTORAL THESIS:,,RESEARCH ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SIMULATED ENTERPRISE IN THE FIELD OF AGRIFOOD. CASE STUDY Doctoral student Engineer RADU (COSTEA-MARCU) DUMITRA, 2011 USAMV-Bucharest; Scientific
Chapter 1 An Introduction to Information Systems in Organizations 1 Principles and Learning Objectives The value of information is directly linked to how it helps decision makers achieve the organization
02 NEW CHALLENGES IN COLLABORATIVE VIRTUAL FACTORY DESIGN Stefano Mottura, Giampaolo Viganò, Luca Greci, Marco Sacco Emanuele Carpanzano Institute of Industrial Technologies and Automation National Research
LLNL-JRNL-653695 A Systems Approach to HVAC Contractor Security K. M. Masica April 24, 2014 A Systems Approach to HVAC Contractor Security Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored
State of the art mechanical design requires state of the art solutions. P. Arras, D. Van Merode, C. Peeters Campus De Nayer, department of Engineering Technology, Lessius university college, Zandpoortvest
WebLearning SAP Best Practice CD-ROM Courseware and e-library Titles SAP Best Practices for Business Intelligence and Warehouse - BW SAP Best Practices for Business Intelligence support the fast and smooth
Release Version 3 The 2X Software Server Based Computing Guide Information in this document is subject to change without notice. Companies, names, and data used in examples herein are fictitious unless
NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND THEIR IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE, ENVIRONMENT AND THE FOOD INDUSTRY Gerhard Schiefer, email@example.com University of Bonn, Germany Abstract: The agri-food sector is facing global challenges
5 Steps to Choosing the Right BPM Suite BPM Suites can deliver significant business benefits and a fast ROI but only if you choose the right one By Laura Mooney, Metastorm Copyright 2009, Metastorm Inc.
Rosetta A white paper on the challenges of sharing observational datasets The Challenges of Sharing Observational Data Observational studies are a critical component of geosciences education and research.
School of Computing FACULTY OF ENGINEERING MEng, BSc Computer Science with Artificial Intelligence Year 1 COMP1212 Computer Processor Effective programming depends on understanding not only how to give
Introduction: Computer Centre has a wide range of service offering to all NUS users. Through an easy-to-use selfservice IT Service Request Portal, selected services are exposed to NUS Community to facilitate
86 Instructional Programs Students will develop the skills and knowledge necessary to select as well as develop engineering careers; produce engineering drawings that conform to industry standards; create
CONSTRUCTION MANUAL AND COMPUTER-AIDED CONSTRUCTION DRAWING HIGHER STUDY GUIDE 4 Computer-Aided construction drawing Construction: Manual and Computer-Aided Construction Drawing (Higher). Study Guide 4
BROCHURE MITEL MiCOLLAB KEEPING PEOPLE CONNECTED AND PRODUCTIVE ANYTIME, ANYWHERE, ON ANY DEVICE Delivering effective collaboration amongst employees, partners and customers is a critical driver to the
Static and Dynamic Websites Static and Dynamic Website Design Presented by: Shawn Cohan, President All Squared Web Design, LLC www.allsquared.com firstname.lastname@example.org 610-351-5416 Static Websites Static
Release Version 4.1 The 2X Software Server Based Computing Guide Information in this document is subject to change without notice. Companies, names, and data used in examples herein are fictitious unless
ONLINE SERVICES Business and ICT Service Delivery Redefined RULES AND ROLES Even ten years ago, the rules and roles which governed the provision of ICT business services were very different. Business demands
The preliminary design of a wearable computer for supporting Construction Progress Monitoring 1 Introduction Jan Reinhardt, TU - Dresden Prof. James H. Garrett,Jr., Carnegie Mellon University Prof. Raimar
7. INDUSTRIAL CENTRE TRAINING In the summer between Year 1 and Year 2, students will undergo Industrial Centre Training I in the Industrial Centre (IC). In the summer between Year 2 and Year 3, they will
Electronic signatures: The enabling technology for insurance ebusiness White Paper April 2007 Introduction Electronic signatures (esignatures) are the enabling technology that fulfills the promise of an