Three new species in Asplenium (Aspleniaceae) from the eotropics

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1 MES ISSN Vol. 3 (1): Three new species in Asplenium (Aspleniaceae) from the eotropics ALEXANDER. F. ROJAS-ALVARADO 1 1 Jardín Botánico Lankester. Universidad de Costa Rica. Apdo , Cartago, Costa Rica. RESUMEN. Estudios recientes en el género Asplenium L. para el Netrópico han resultado en la descripción de las siguientes tres especies nuevas: A. palasiosii, A. sessilipinnum and A. vareschianum. La primera especie es caracterizada por frondas simples, venas y soros marcadamente ascendentes y margen de la lámina entero. La segunda especie particularmente tiene pinnas sésiles con las pínnulas basales traslapadas al raquis, las pínnulas son pequeñas y lobuladas y crece en hábitat epifítico. La tercera especie es diferente a A. monodon Liebm. en raquis alado y pinnas sésiles. PALABRAS CLAVE: Asplenium, Aspleniaceae, especies nuevas, helechos, neotrópico. ABSTRACT: Recent studies on the genus Asplenium L. from the neotropics have resulted in the description of the following three new species: A. palasiosii, A. sessilipinnum and A. vareschianum. The first species is characterized by single fronds, strongly ascendent veins and sori and entire blade margin. The second species particularly have sessile pinnae with the basal pinnules overlaping to rachis, the pinnules are small and lobulate and grow in epiphytic habitat. The third species is diferent to A. monodon Liebm. in winged rachis and sessile pinnae. KEY WORDS: Asplenium, Aspleniaceae, new species, ferns, neotropics. INTRODUCTION Asplenium L. is characterized by usually clathrate rhizome scales, stipes containing two vascular bundles basally and sori elongate to linear with indusium (Moran, 2003). Asplenium is diferent from the similar genus Diplazium Sw. by (vs ) cells in the annulus of sporangia, one (vs. 2 or 3) rows of cells in the stalk of the sporangium and vascular bundles in X-shaped (vs. two separate and elliptic strands) in the distal part of the stipe. In the Aspleniaceae family from the neotropics, Asplenium is diferent from Holodictyum Maxon by its free (vs. net) venation; Phyllitis Ludwig and Schaffneria Fée are diferent because have paired sori facing each other from adjacent veins. In the last two decades several new species of Asplenium have been described from the Neotropics, for example: Asplenium chimantae and A. cowanii (Smith, 1990), A. barclayanum and A. seileri (Adams, 1992), A. ortegae and A. volubile (Murakami and Moran, 1993), A. basiscopicum (Moran and Sundue, 2004), A. ayopayense, A. bolivianum, A. micropaleaceum, A. mosetense and A. tunquinense (Kessler and Smith, 2006); Asplenium eutecnum (Smith, 2006). Here three new species are described. Asplenium palaciosii A. Rojas, sp. nov. TYPE. ECUADOR. Zamora-Chichipe: Nangaritza Cantón, Río Nangaritza, Miazi, en la confluencia de los ríos Chumbiriatza y Nangaritza, 4º18 S, 78º40 W, 1100 m, 9 Dec

2 MES ISSN Vol. 3 (1): , W. Palacios & D. eill 6686 (Holotype: MO). Fig. 1. Ab Asplenio juglandifolio Lam. frondibus simplicibus (adversus plerumque pinnatas) soris inclinatis minus quam 45º respectu costae et ad maiorem altitudinem distributione differt. Epiphytic; rhizome 3-4 mm in diameter, compact; rhizome scales 3-7 x mm, linear, brown grayish; fronds cm long; stipe cm long, blackish, opaque, scaly in the base, the scales similar to rhizome scales; blade x cm, narrowly lanceolate, basally cuneate ending in attenuate wing, apically acute; veins 2-3 bifurcate, free, leaning less than 45 angle degrees with respect to costa; blade surface very sparsely scaly, the scales mm long, piliform, blackish; sori (3-) 5-22 mm long, linear to arching, whitish, 3-5 mm distant. DISTRIBUTION. Known only from the type collection in Ecuador at 1100 m. The new species differs from Asplenium juglandifolium Lam. by simple fronds (vs. commonly pinnate), sori leaning less than 45 angle degrees with respect to costa (vs. sori perpendicular or too 50 angle degrees with respect to costa and distributed to higher elevation (1100 m vs m). The new species is also diferent from A. haplophyllum Domin by related characters to A. juglandifolium, however A. haplophyllum generaly have 1-4 pinnae pairs or rerely simple in sterile fronds (vs pinnae pairs in A. juglandifolium). A. pearcei Baker have simple to trifoliate fronds, but when its simple, the sori are denser (2-3 mm distant vs. 3-5 mm) and less leaning respect to costa (leaning more than 45 angle degrees vs. leaning less than 45 angle degrees) that in A. palaciosii, also the blade is broader (3-6 cm vs cm). Other species with simple fronds in the neotropics are A. angustum Sw. and A. serratum L. but with serrate margin at less in the apex, and A. pseudoangustum Stolze with shorter fronds and narrower blade. ETYMOLOGY. This species is dedicated to William Palacios, collector of the type material. Asplenium sessilipinnum A. Rojas, sp. nov. TYPE. ECUADOR. apo: Cantón Archidona, faldas al S de Volcán Sumaco, sendero entre la comunidad El Pacto y el Cerro Huahua Sumaco, 0º36 S, 77º35 W, m, 24 Oct 1989, W. Palacios & D. eill 4723 (Holotype: MO). Fig. 2. A Asplenio flavellulato Kunze frondibus bipinnatis, lamina herbacea et habitatione epiphytica differt. Epiphytic; rizome 3-5 mm in diameter, compact, ascending; rhizome scales 3-5 x ca. 1 mm, lanceolate, brown-grayish, clathrate, entire; fronds cm long; stipe 7-13 cm long, atropurpureous to blackish, lustrous, glabrous; blade x 7-15 cm, lanceolate to lanceolate-elliptic; 2-pinnate to 2-pinnate lobulate; basally truncate, few reduced at base, apically not seen; pinnae x cm, linear-lanceolate, basally sessil, apically caudate; pinnules hastate, excavate at basiscopic side, entire to lobulate; indusia x mm, ovate to elliptic, hyaline, marginally entire to erose. DISTRIBUTION. Known from Colombia and Ecuador in the Andean Cordillera at m. PARATYPES. COLOMBIA. Putumayo: 50 km W of El Pepino, 2050 m, 20 Nov 1972, W. Hagemann & Leist (COL). ECUADOR. apo: along road betwen Baeza and Tena, 46.8 km N of Archidona, 2330 m, 21 Dec 1979, T. Croat 49561A (MO).

3 MES ISSN Vol. 3 (1): 31 In its blade size and sessile pinnae, the new species is similar to A. flavellulatum Kunze however, A. sessilipinnum differs in its herbaceous (vs. chartaceous) laminar tissue, crenate to lobulate (vs. pinnate) and shorter ( mm long vs cm) pinnules and, epiphytic (vs. terrestrial) habitat. In its short and sessile pinnules is similar to A. dimidiatum Stolze, but differs in glabrous (vs. scaly) axes, ovate (vs. trapezoidal) and more incised pinnules and, different altitudinal distribution ( m vs m). ETYMOLOGY. The name of this species refers to the sessile pinnae. Asplenium vareschianum A. Rojas, nom. et stat. nov. from Asplenium auritum Sw. var. obtusum Kunze ex Mett., Fil. Hort. Bot. Lips. 127, t. 8, f Fig. 3. A Asplenio monodon Liebm. rachidi alatae, pinnis sessiles differt. Epiphytic; rhizome 2-4 mm in diameter, compact, ascending; Rhizome scales x 1-2 mm, ovate to lanceolate, entire, membranaceous, clathrate; fronds cm long; stipe cm long, brown-grayish, scaly on the base, elsewhere glabrous, winged, thhe wing to 0.3 mm broad, gradually reduced to the base; blade x cm, lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, pinnatifid, basally truncate, apicaly narrowly acute; rachis brown-grayish to strawish apically, winged, the wing, mm to each side, sparsely scaly, the scales x less than 0.05 mm, linear, 2 cells in broad, black with lumen of cells hyaline; segments 5-15 x 3-6 mm, oblong-elliptic, sessile, with same broad along it or reduced to middle in the base, apically optuse, margin entire in the base to crenate or dentate in the apex; costae strawish, glabous or scaly in the base; veins simple to bifurcate; sori mm long, withish to pale yellow, entire to crenate. PARATYPES. COLOMBIA. Santander: vicinity of El Roble, about 1500 m, 16 Feb 1927, E. Killip & A. Smith (US). VENEZUELA. Prope Colonia Tovar, , A. Fendler 141 (MO, US). Aragua: Rancho Grande, Parque Nacional, no date, E. García 9 (US); Rancho Grande, 10 Mar 1951, H. Gines 4266 (US); Parque Nacional Henrry Pittier, slopes between trail up Periquito and Fila de Periquito, along upper slopes of Tributary to Quebrada Palo Vaco, on side towards Lago Valencia, opposite Rancho Grande Biological Station, m, 25 Oct 1961, J. Steyermark et al (US); Parque Nacional H. Pittier, Racho Grande, en la pica entre el hotel y la toma de agua, 1100 m, 31 May 1966, J. Steyermark et al (US). Barinas: Distrito Pedraza, E of Carrizal (La Escaza on maps), along the S bank of the Río Canagua, on the trail to Santa Gertrudis, Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada, ca. 8º38 N, 70º46 W, 25 June 1988, L. Dorr et al (MO). Lara: Distrito Morán, entre Agua Amarilla y Santo Domingo, sitio denominado La Mucutia, 9º29 N, 69º39 W, 1600 m, 24 Oct 1987, R. Rivero & W. Díaz 1310 (MO). Portugueza: Distrito Ospino, 20 km W de la Estación, Laguna de San Bartolo and vicinity (turnoff from road to Palma Sola), ca. 9º26 N, 69º38 W, ca m, 10 Nov 1982, A. Smith et al (MO). The new species is similar to A. monodon Liebm. in its lanceolate and pinnate fronds, but differs in its strongly winged rachis (0.5-1 mm broad to each side vs. absent or less than 0.5 mm broad) and sessile (vs. free) pinnae. ETYMOLOGY. This species is dedicated to Volmark Vareschi, who made several important contributions to Venezuelan Pteridophytes. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank Cyril Nelson for the translation of the diagnosis to Latin, the curators of the herbaria of the Missouri Botanical Garden (MO) and

4 MES ISSN Vol. 3 (1): 32 National Museum of Natural History (US), for authorized me to review your specimens and for specimen loans, the curator of University of Costa Rica herbarium (USJ) for request for me the loan specimens and for the space for analyze the material, to Oscar Venegas for his excellent illustrations and the anonymous reviewers for their helpful suggestions. LITERATURE CITED Adams CD Eleven new species, a new variety, and a new varietal combination in the fern genera Asplenium and Diplazium in Central America. Novon Kessler M, Smith AR Five new species of Asplenium (Aspleniaceae) from Bolivia. Candollea 61: Moran RC Los géneros de helechos y licofitas neotropicales. Published by the author. 275 p. Moran RC, Sundue MA Asplenium (sect. Hymenasplenium) basiscopicum, a new species from Bolivia. Brittonia 56: Murakami, Moran RC Monograph of the Neotropical Species of Asplenium Sect. Hymenasplenium (Aspleniaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80: Smith AR Pteridophytes of the Venezuelan Guayana: New Species. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77: Smith AR New Species of Ferns from the Río Cenepa Area, Amazonas, Peru. Novon 16: Recibido: 24 de Marzo, Aceptado: 14 de Abril, 2008.

5 MES ISSN Vol. 3 (1): 33 Figure 1. Asplenium palaciosii (W. Palacios & D. eill 6686, MO). A. Habit. B. Blade detail.

6 MES ISSN Vol. 3 (1): 34 Figure 2. Asplenium sessilipinnum (W. Palacios & D. eill 4723, MO). A. Habit. B. Blade detail.

7 MES ISSN Vol. 3 (1): 35 Figure 3. Asplenium vareschianum (A. Fendler 141, MO). A. Habit. B. Blade detail.

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