Een DC stopcontact in je huis

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1 , Een DC stopcontact in je huis dr ir P.J.van Duijsen Learning by Simulation Simulation Research The Netherlands

2 Who is who TU Delft DC systems, Energy conversion & Storage Haagse Hogeschool Gelijkspanning brengt je verder Direct Current bv, Stichting Gelijkspanning Simulation Research Simulation models/libraries for DC Simulatiesoftware voor vermogenselectronika en elektrische aandrijvingen Simulatiepakket CASPOC 1

3 DC grid Promise or Trouble? Cost reduction and Efficiency Troubles Fast charging a Battery Picture courtesy of TU Delft, DCE&S 2

4 HVDC, MVDC and LVDC HVDC Accepted technology MVDC Not decided yet LVDC Development stage Picture courtesy of TU Delft, DCE&S 3

5 What is DC? What is DC HVDC 500kV MVDC 10kV LVDC volt usb 3.1, up to 100 Watt 5 volt, 2 Ampere 12 volt, 5 Ampere 20 volt, 5 Ampere 4

6 Conventional 230V 50Hz Many Transformers Rectifiers Converters 5

7 Coupling via AC grid is inefficient! Use the PFC to connect multiple DC grids to a single AC grid Picture courtesy of Simulation Research 6

8 Replacing the Adapters Chargers Mobile devices Telephones Consumer electronics Toys USB 3 The question is not IF, but WHEN Picture courtesy of Direct Current BV 7

9 Promise or Trouble Saving Energy nearly Reduce amount of copper Yes Infrastructure Example street lighting Picture courtesy of Direct Current BV 8

10 Cost reduction and efficiency Cost reduction (less copper) skin depth 50Hz = 9.3mm Increased Efficiency Less complex power electronics AC 50Hz : skin depth ~ 9.3mm 9

11 Sharing Solar Power Picture courtesy of Simulation Research 10

12 But is everything that simple? Is DC the real solution? Stability Safety at turn off Reliability/lifetime semiconductors Local storage Vehicle2Grid Picture courtesy of Direct Current BV 11

13 Solution? 12

14 Efficiency is the problem! 5% losses 100 Watt 5 Watt losses Try to vaporize it in your wall-socket!!!! Convection & Radiation 13

15 Central DC converter Central DC-DC converter Extra low voltage DC cable 20 volt? No, current to high, losses volt? Yes, less losses Reduction of loss in the wall-socket 14

16 AC - DC conversion? Controlled Rectifier Many Harmonics No power delivery into the grid 15

17 Active Front End Power delivery into the grid Reduction of harmonics 16

18 Power Electronics DC-DC converters Analog control 17

19 Power Electronics DC-DC converters Digital control 18

20 Conclusion Current situation AC 230 Volt 50Hz Near Future situation DC +/- 350 Volt Fixed connections, no wall plugs Extra low voltage cable DCDC converters for USB3 19

21 Simulation Research Questions? Visit our stand for a fee version of 20

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