1 URL de la Revista: URL del Documento: ISSN Fecha de recepción: 03/04/12 Fecha de recepción: 04/05/12 SOCIAL LEGITIMACY VERSUS BUSINESS PERFORMANCE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY POLICIES OF ANDALUSIAN GOLF COURSES Francisco José, Riquel Ligero; Alfonso, Vargas Sánchez GEIDETUR, Universidad de Huelva Facultad de CC. Empresariales, Plaza de la Merced, Huelva, España SUMMARY This paper attempts an analysis of organizational motivations when developing policies for environmental liability. Specifically, to compare the production of social legitimacy to the improvement of organizational performance, we proceeded to test two models in a sector which in recent years has opened a wide debate on environmental sustainability. We refer to golf tourism in Andalusia, in which there has been a considerable increase in such facilities. We have used the statistical technique Partial Least Square (PLS). KEYWORDS: Environmental Responsibility; Golf Tourism; Performance; Social Legitimacy; Partial Least Square. INTRODUCTION Numerous studies have attempted to analyze the different motives that the companies or organizations have done to implement environmental policies of social responsibility. On one hand we can identify those who have linked these practices to improve organizational
2 Social Legitimacy versus Business Performance in the Environmental Social Responsibility Policies of Andalusian Gorlf Courses performance, among which we find Porter and Van der Linde (1995a, 1995b); Aragon (1996); Russo and Fouts (1997); Sharma and Vrenderbug (1998); Claver and Molina (2000); Del Brio and Junquera (2001); Del Brio et. al. (2005); or Vargas and Riquel (2010) (2005); or Vargas and Riquel (2010). On the other hand we have identified in the search for social legitimacy of the main motivations, for the development of such practices. In this group we find Jennings and Zanderbergen (1995); King (1995); Schuman (1995); Hoffman (1999); Basal and Kendall (2000); Bansal and Clelland (2004). In this paper we will use the theoretical framework of institutional theory to analyze the main objective which the golf courses have to implement political practices of environmental responsibility. The selection of these organizations is mainly due to the broad social debate that has developed in recent years about the environmental impact of such facilities. Especially after the strong increase in which Andalusian golf courses have had mainly due to increase in this type of tourism. In the Autonomous Community of Andalusia there has been developed an entire tourist industry around golf, having become in the Andalusian region of Spain, leader in receiving this type of tourism, thereby increasing the number of golf courses. Therefore, we are talking about an activity that produces important economic synergies for the economy of a country or region. Hosteltur 1 indicates that in 2009 Andalusia was visited by 360,000 golf tourists, which left an income of 500 million Euros, half of which was generated in Spain by this product. We were mainly visited by British and Germans, the average stay was of more than 9 days and had an average daily cost of 92 Euros, 12 Euros more than a conventional tourist. Golf tourism is therefore a major tourism resource nom had by this Autonomous Community. Bosch et. al. (1998) stated that the "quality of tourism product or service in the strict sense one must add the environmental quality to achieve customer satisfaction and loyalty" [Bosch, R et. al., 1998, p. al., 1998, p. 14] (1). So for this paper, we analyze which are the main 1
3 Francisco José, Riquel Ligero; Alfonso, Vargas Sánchez reasons that these organizations have to develop environmental practices if it is to improve the organizational performance or if not the obtaining of social legitimacy. DEVELOPMENT 1.1. The environmental institutionalism, between social legitimacy and organizational performance Following Oliver (1991), organizations can provide different responses to institutional pressures. Bansal and Kendall (2000) say that the main argument that explains the behavior of organizations towards sustainability is the quest for legitimacy in the institutional context, but this does not necessarily lead organizations to be understood as passive entities. In this vein, the work by Bansal and Clelland (2004) show that companies are able to change their relationships issuing information on their commitment to the environment and establishing voluntary environmental policies. Therefore, the institutionalization of a corporate organizational field of sustainable practices carries with it a process of institutionalization of practices that are less sustainable, they weaken and disappear giving way to new ones (Scott, 2001). Bansal and Kendal (2000) proposed a model of ecological response organization. In their study they analyzed 53 companies in the UK and Japan. At first, the authors proposed a model of organizational response in which there are four sources of institutional pressure to companies. A first source of pressure is the law, secondly the pressure of stakeholders, thirdly economic opportunities in the environment, and fourthly the enterprise ethics. The following figure (1) represents the first model proposed by the authors.
4 Social Legitimacy versus Business Performance in the Environmental Social Responsibility Policies of Andalusian Gorlf Courses Figure 1: A preliminary model of ecological response of the organizations Legislation Lobbies Ecological values of leading organizations Economic Opportunities Ethical Motivations Organizational Ecological Response Source: Bansal, P. y Kendal, R. and Kendal, R. (2000) (2000) This model served as their starting off point in their research, concluding that there are three main motivations for companies to adopt ecological responses (Bansal and Kendall, 2000): The first of these motivations is the competitiveness, understood as the contribution which ecological responses may have on profits. The second motivation refers to the legitimacy, understood as the desire of the firm to improve the appropriateness of their actions, by establishing a set of norms, values and beliefs (Suchman, 1995). As a final motivation is their own environmental responsibility, which is related to the existence in the company's values concerning social obligations. Therefore, we can state, as stated by Oliver (1991), that institutional pressures lead to different responses in organizations. Thus the regulatory components, normative and coercive pressures produce cognitive, normative and mimetic ones (DiMaggio and Powell, 1983), introducing the organization into an institutional context, which can promote or inhibit change. Because these processes are causing organizations to adopt certain structures, programs, routines and procedures (Meyer and Rowan, 1977; DiMaggio and Powell, 1983; Scott, 1977; Greenwood et. al., 2002) leading to a homogenization of practices and responses.
5 Francisco José, Riquel Ligero; Alfonso, Vargas Sánchez A large majority of institutional theorists agree that the three pillars or systems that support this theory are the regulatory, normative and cognitive ones. From them they built the framework of this theory, so we proceed then to analyze each of these components The regulatory system Scott (1995) states that any institution involves regulation of behavior through explicit regulatory processes such as standards, controls and sanctions. In this framework, all parties implied pursue their interests, so that they prevail as the main mechanisms controlling the coercive (DiMaggio and Powell, 1983). In this constitutive system of the institutional framework it is dominated by force, fear and convenience. It is necessary, in many situations, the presence of a rule processor agent. The historical economists attribute this role to the State, which must also serve as a reference and to enforce them (North, 1990). This statement is in line with those who defend the political institutionalism, which assumes that actors, including the State, have natural interests pursued rationally, through a cost-effective utility logic Thus, the rules are obeyed because the agent in question is interested to pursue his own interests, given the potential rewards and sanctions that exist in this regard The regulatory system This pillar emphasizes the normative rules that introduce a prescriptive dimension, evaluating and of obligation. In regulatory systems both rules and values are included. For Scott (1995), values are conceptions of preferences or desires along with the construction standards that can compare and assess existing structures and behaviors. Instead, the rules specify how we should do things; define the legitimate methods to prosecute the securities. Thus, the regulatory system specifies to us both the targets and goals as a way to reach them. While some values and norms are applied to the whole community, others apply only to a
6 Social Legitimacy versus Business Performance in the Environmental Social Responsibility Policies of Andalusian Gorlf Courses type of individuals. There appear, therefore, limited roles. In this respect, Berger and Luckman (1967) claim that all behavior involves institutionalized roles, which may arise in a formal or informal way The cognitive system To this system belong mainly anthropologists and sociologists such as Geertz, Berger, Meyer, Zucker, Powell and DiMaggio (Navarro and Ruiz, 1997). These include the cognitive elements of institutions, i.e. the rules that constitute the nature of reality and the ways through which meaning is made. They are introduced into the cognitive dimension of the person. They claim that what mediates between external stimuli and the response of individuals is the interaction of a series of symbols, which determine the meaning we attach to objects and actions (D'Andrade, 1984). These meanings arise in interaction and are associated with several behaviors. The cognitive rules should be noted, which involve the construction of typifications, i.e., incorporation into individual application of specific rules, subjectively unique The social legitimacy It is Jennings and Zanderbergen (1995), in the monograph article published on environment and enterprise of the Academy Management Review, the main authors mentioned in the scientific literature when using the institutional theory to explain the influence of environmental aspects in organizations. Alongside these authors we also find King (1995), in the monograph mentioned, another pioneer in treating author institutional principles as a means of explaining environmental practices that can be extrapolated to today's organizations. Hoffman (1999) is another paradigmatic example of the application of this theory by studying how it has evolved the environmental factor in the organizations 2. His ideas were reinforced by Basal and Kendall (2000), who point to the quest for legitimacy as the main 2 It studied the chemical industry sector in America.
7 Francisco José, Riquel Ligero; Alfonso, Vargas Sánchez motivation for adopting these practices. For Bansal and Clelland (2004) legitimacy is the main factor of pressure, because of a loss of legitimacy due to environmental sanctions which cause an increase in the risk associated with the company, this being a negative factor in this assessment. Understanding legitimacy, as Suchman does (1995), as "a generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, suitable, appropriate within some socially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs and definitions" [Suchman, M., 1995, p. 574] (2). For Meyer and Scott (1983), legitimacy is the ultimate goal of organizations in the institutional approach. Enterprises need to be socially accepted in their organizational fields. So we can agree with Ashford and Gibbs (1990) when these authors claim that legitimacy is a status that is conferred on organizations by social actors. It will be the search for legitimacy which leads organizations to adopt certain structures or policies (Schuman, 1995). Following Scott (1995), we can define the legitimacy as "the condition that reflects the social alignment, normative support, or consonance with relevant rules and laws," [Scott, R., 1995, p. 45] (3). For him each institutional pillar of liberalism generates a source of legitimacy. Thus, in the case of the regulatory pillar, the organizations try to be legitimate organizations to adapt to the legal requirements imposed by the institutions. According to the normative pillar, legitimate organizations will be those that take action by a moral obligation and thus meet the standards set. Finally, for the cognitive pillar, legitimate organizations will be those which intend to adopt successful behaviors as correct, which are known as rational myths (Scott, 1995). Within institutionalism there are plenty of authors who have legitimacy, among which Brint and Karabel are highlighted, 1991; DiMaggio, 1991; Elsbach, 1994; Galaskiewicz, But without a doubt the definition that has gained greater importance in this approach is that proposed by Suchman (1995), who defines it as "a generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, suitable, or appropriate within socially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs and definitions "[Suchman, M., 1995, p. 574] (4), as discussed
8 Social Legitimacy versus Business Performance in the Environmental Social Responsibility Policies of Andalusian Gorlf Courses previously. However, this has been a term that has been developed from a theoretical rather than empirical one given the difficulty of measurement. In this line of empirical studies that purport to measure legitimacy, it is noteworthy that that one conducted by Deephouse (1996), who argues that legitimacy can be measured by examining the level of assessment or acceptance of two actors, the government and the general public. In our model we look at the social research proposed by Deephouse (1996), on one side within the awareness of stakeholders in the model we propose 3 we include the regulatory agencies (State) and on the other hand, within the concept of the general public, include customers, suppliers, shareholders, employees, ethics policy, ecological associations, citizens and media The organizational performance Numerous studies linking the development of corporate environmental practices and performance and organizational performance (Porter and Van der Linde, 1995; Aragon, 1996; Russo and Fouts, 1997; Sharma and Vrenderbug, 1998; Claver and Molina, 2000; Del Brio and Junquera, 2001; Del Brio et. al., 2005; Vargas and Riquel, 2010). Thus, while some authors as Walley and Whitehead (1994) believe that environmental practices have negative impacts on levels of economic profitability of the companies, others establish a positive relationship between these two variables (Porter and Van den Linder, 1995; Shrivastava, 1995; Russo and Fouts, 1997; Sharma and Vrendenburg, 1998; Judge and Douglas, 1998; Klassen and Whybark, 1998). Regarding the possible motivations of organizations to the development of these environmentally responsible practices, we have found in the institutional theory a theoretical basis which helps to explain the spread of green practices, on which in many cases, as we have seen, has highlighted the ambiguity of its goals and results. We understand that the analysis of 3 See proposed research model.
9 Francisco José, Riquel Ligero; Alfonso, Vargas Sánchez the institutional context of the Andalusian golf helps reduce organizational field in the ambiguity of its impact on the results, and we've dedicated this work. 2. Research models and hypotheses From the literature review on Institutional Theory and their relationship to social legitimacy and organizational performance have proposed two structural models relating the institutional pressures of environmental with the development of environmental practices, obtaining social legitimacy and to organizational performance. The assumptions we have raised relate constructs of our research model, as shown in figures below. Figure 2: Graph of Model Performance PresCor PresNorm PresMim HD.1.a HD.1.b Desemp Pracamb HD.2.a HD.1.c Figure 3: Graphical representation of the model Legitimacy
10 Social Legitimacy versus Business Performance in the Environmental Social Responsibility Policies of Andalusian Gorlf Courses Where PresNorm = Pressure Regulations. Prescor = Coercive Pressures. PresMim = Mimetic Pressures. Pracamb = Development of Environmental Practice. Legitm = Social Legitimacy. Desemp = Organizational Performance Hypothesis Models Hypotheses related to the institutional environment The research hypotheses raised in both the model in relation to the institutional environment arising from the review of scientific literature on environmental institutionalism has developed in the previous section. Therefore we can state the following research hypotheses that are similar for the two proposed models: HL.1.a = HD.1.a: Coercive pressure produced by laws and other applicable regulations positively influence the adoption of sustainable environmental practices. (+) HL.1.b = HD.1.b: Acceptance of values and norms stemming from regulatory pressures positively influence the adoption of sustainable environmental practices. (+) HL.1.c = HD.1.c: Imitation of environmental practices of successful organizations perceived as having a positive influence on the adoption of sustainable environmental practices. (+) These assumptions are justified to the extent that institutional pressures promote different types of motivations for the adoption of models. Kostova and Roth (2002) have established these approaches, arguing that regulatory components, normative and cognitive triggers coercive pressures, normative and mimetic respectively, involve the organizations in their institutional context, promoting the development of policies for change. In this way, organizations can voluntarily adopt practices in response to pressures to conform to accepted standards, or even involuntarily in response to the coercion of powerful institutional forces (DiMaggio and Powell, 1983; Scott, 1987; Tolbert and Zucker, 1996; Barringer and Milkovich, 1998).
11 Francisco José, Riquel Ligero; Alfonso, Vargas Sánchez The contrast of these hypotheses will allow us to highlight which of the three institutional mechanisms exert greater pressure on the environmental performance of golf courses in Andalusia and whether there is an institutional environment that has a role in these practices Performance-related hypothesis Sharma (2000) stands as the main motivation for environmental awareness of companies' perception of these better results (including economic) compared to its competitors. Previously, the work of Russo and Fouts (1997), Waldock and Graves (1997a, 1997b), Ranson and Lober (1999) and Reinhart (1999) reached similar conclusions. More recent work, such as Stanwick and Stanwick (2000) and Thomas (2000), reaffirmed this virtuous circle of performanceenvironmental practices, environmental practices, in which, no doubt, we cannot ignore society and the different pressure groups. Regarding the above argument we can state the following research hypothesis, which completes the causal relationships of our model: HD.2.a: The development of environmental practices have a direct and positive effect on organizational performance Assumptions regarding the legitimacy Following Bansall and Kendall (2000), the pursuit of social legitimacy in the institutional context is the main argument in explaining the behavior of organizations towards sustainability Thus, according to the arguments in section 1.5 of this work, we are able to state the following hypothesis related to this concept: HL.2.a: The development of environmental practices have the effect of increasing social legitimacy.
12 Social Legitimacy versus Business Performance in the Environmental Social Responsibility Policies of Andalusian Gorlf Courses 3. Specifications of the sample To measure the different variables using a structured questionnaire, which was subjected to a pretest in four golf courses (not included in the final sample) and administered between December 2008 and February 2009, with three re-sendings and telephone support, as shown in Table 1. Table 1: Specifications of the research model Field of research Golf courses located in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia. Geographical location Andalusia. Methodology Structures questionnaire, Likert-type scale from 1 to 5. Universe 96 golf courses in Andalusia. Sample Size Sample = universe, 96 golf courses. Valid responses 31 Replies rejected 2 Software for data treatment 15.0, Visual PLS, Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and SAS. First forward in January Second forward in February Data Data collection period processing in February and March To measure the different constructs have adapted scales which have been extensively validated in previous studies. Along these lines, to measure institutional pressures (coercive, normative and mimetic) the scales proposed by Kostova and Roth (2002) and Llanas (2005). have been used In the case of development of environmental practices on golf courses have used the scale proposed by Romero (2005), and measurement of social legitimacy the scales used by Deephouse (1996), Fernandez (2001) and Llanas (2005). 4. Analysis of data by PLS We used the software Visual-PLS for estimating the path coefficients, the composite reliability, variance extracted average, R 2 and Stone-Geisser, using the Bootstrap technique. The reasons that led us to use this method are that it is oriented to prediction, while allowing us to analyze models of some complexity, exploratory analysis, and also can be used in the confirmation of a particular theory. PLS technique is based on an iterative combination between the principal component analysis and regression analysis with the primary aim of explaining the variance of the
13 Francisco José, Riquel Ligero; Alfonso, Vargas Sánchez constructs in the model (Chin, 1998). Thus, the coefficients are estimated simultaneously and the load path of the item in the context of the proposed models, thus avoiding bias and inconsistency in the estimation of the parameters, while allowing us to check the iterations (Chin et. al. 2003) Analysis of measurement models At this stage we will explore whether the theoretical concepts are correctly measured by observed variables for which we will study the validity and reliability. In a PLS model individual item reliability is analyzed, internal consistency and convergent and discriminated validity (Chin, 1998). The reliability of individual items for constructs with reflective indicators is assessed by the PLS model to examine the charges, or simple correlations of the indicators with the construct they purport to measure. The standardized value of the loads must be equal to or greater than 0.505, following Falker and Miller (1992). Scales used in most of the indicators present loads exceeding However, after successive re-specifications model, we are left with 21 of the 34 items making up the initial scale. The reliability of a construct allows us to check the internal consistency of all indicators to measure the concept, i.e. that the rigorously evaluated manifest variables are measuring the same latent variable. To measure this parameter we will have to set the composite reliability for the advantages of Cronbach's alpha. We follow Nunnally (1988), who suggests 0.7 as a level sufficiently reliable early on in the research. The convergent validity is tested through the medium extracted variance, which provides the amount of variance that a construct obtains from its indicators in relation to the amount of variance due to measurement error. To do this, Fornell and Lacker (1981) recommend to us values higher than 0.5, since with these values at least 50% of the variance of the construct is due to its indicators. The following table shows the values of the medium variance extracted obtained in the proposed model research.
14 Social Legitimacy versus Business Performance in the Environmental Social Responsibility Policies of Andalusian Gorlf Courses Table 2: Evaluation of mid measurement models Legitimacy CONSTRUCT CHARGES LOADS ITEMS COMPOSITE RELIABILITY MEDIUM EXTRACTED VARIANCE PRESCOR Conoley Orgregul PRESNORM Obligmor Congrval Normsoci PRESMIM Imipac Conoexit PRACAMB Numgrup Porpact Costemed Emplefor Horafor Provecert Compcert Diflogro LEGITIMACY Recosoci Valorg Clielegi Asoclegi Proflegi Realgurp Table 3: Evaluation of Performance measurement models CONSTRUCT CHARGE ITEMS RELIABILITY COMPOSITE RELIABILITY MEDIUM EXTRACTED VARIANCE PRESCOR Conoley Orgregul PRESNORM Obligmor Congrval Normsoci PRESMIM Imipac Conoexit PRACAMB Numgrup Porpact Costemed Emplefor Horafor Provecert Compcert Diflogro DESEMP Rtdeco Rentabil
15 Francisco José, Riquel Ligero; Alfonso, Vargas Sánchez Numeren Cuotamer Num Cuota To assess the discriminate validity of a construct we prove if the mean variance extracted is greater than the squared correlations between that construct and others that make up the research model (Fornell and Lacker, 1981), indicating that one construct is different from another. To make the calculation simpler, we performed the reverse, that is, calculate the square root, having to be greater than the correlations presented with other constructs. These values are shown in Tables 4 and 5, in which the diagonal elements correspond to the square roots of the medium extracted variance. Table 4: Discriminant validity of the constructs of the research model Legitacy Constructs PresCoer PresNorm PresMIm Pracamb Legtimi PresCoer PresNorm PresMIm Pracamb Legtimi Table 5: Discriminant validity of the constructs of the research model performance Constructs PresCoer PresNorm PresMIm Pracamb Desemp PresCoer 0,733 PresNorm -0,380 0,760 PresMIm -0,055 0,296 0,759 Pracamb -0,428 0,439-0,326 0,758 Desemp -0,463 0,159-0,160 0,516 0, Analysis of the structural model The following figures (4 and 5) represent the results of the estimation of structural models. Along with the arrows showing the causal order it shows the standardized path coefficients and
16 Social Legitimacy versus Business Performance in the Environmental Social Responsibility Policies of Andalusian Gorlf Courses the value of the corresponding T-Students, for which we used the Bootstrap re-sampling technique that allowed us to verify the significance of the relationships represented by the hypotheses. Figure 4: Results of the structural model Legitimacy Significance levels: * P <0.1, ** P <0.05, *** P <0.001 (based on t (499) two-tailed). Figure 5: Results of the structural model Performance Regarding the above statements we can make a test of the strength of the hypothesis we raised in both models.
17 Francisco José, Riquel Ligero; Alfonso, Vargas Sánchez Table 6: Contrast of model assumptions Legitimacy Hipothesis Relationship Constructs Coefficients β T-Students (bootstrap) HL.1.a PresCoer->Pracamb * Significance level and contrast Accepted for a significance level of p<0.1. HL.1.b PresNorm>>Pracamb Rejected HL.1.c PresMim>>Pracamb Rejected HL.2.a Pracamb>>Legitmit *** Significance levels: * P <0.1, ** P <0.05, *** P <0.001 (based on t (499) two-tailed). Accepted for a significance level of P<0,001. Table 7: Assumptions Contrast of model Performance Hypothesis Relationship Constructs Coefficients β T-Students (bootstrap) HD.1.a PresCoer->Pracamb ** Significance level and contrast Accepted for a significance level of P<0.05. HD.1.b PresNorm>>Pracamb Rejected HD.1.c PresMim>>Pracamb Rejected HD.2.a Pracamb>>Desemp *** CONCLUSION Significance levels: *P<0.1; **P<0.05; ***P<0.001 (based on t (499) two-tailed). Accepted for a significance level of P< From the information obtained from the golf courses in Andalucía we can make some important considerations for development of environmental practices by such organizations. The first conclusion leads our empirical work to refers to both obtaining social legitimacy as the improvement of organizational performance which are intended outcomes for these businesses when developing their environmental accountability measures. More specifically, obtaining improved organizational performance shows a little more strength, though slightly, that obtaining legitimacy, as we see in the tables that show the contrast of hypotheses of both models. It remains to verify the possible relationship between both types of results.
18 Social Legitimacy versus Business Performance in the Environmental Social Responsibility Policies of Andalusian Gorlf Courses Considering the institutional environment, in both models is the coercive pressure which has a greater influence in the development of sustainable environmental practices. This finding differs from some work of institutionalism called green; in this line, Jennings and Zandebergen (1995) argue that regulatory pressure has a greater impact on the dissemination of concepts and practices related to sustainability. However, there are many papers that reach our own conclusion on the strength of the coercive pressures in the development of environmental practices, including most notably King and Lenox (2000), Palmer and Richard (2001), Timothy and Rodney (2005) or Vargas and Riquel (2010). For the business sector of the golf courses in Andalusia, coercive pressures take center stage in shaping the institutional environment mainly due to the existence of numerous regulatory agencies that promote such practices, and characterization of such facilities in an 85% of the sample are part of another offer complementary of tourism and leisure, making the legal regulation which is subjected to be more diversified. When we relate this institutional environment with obtaining social legitimacy, we can say that while, as expounded by Scott (1995), each pillar of institutionalism generates a source of legitimacy, in the case of the Andalusia golf it is the mainstay regulator which supports a greater voice in obtaining social acceptance. That is, for the managers of these facilities one cannot achieve social acceptance without enforcing the law and applicable regulations affecting them. Similarly, this work reinforces the findings of Bansal and Kendal (2000), who advocate the pursuit of legitimacy in the institutional context as the main argument in explaining the environmental performance of organizations. We understand, therefore, that this work demonstrates that institutional pressures of the environment must be taken into account in understanding the environmental performance of all types of organizations, particularly golf courses and the growing interest in developing environmentally sustainable practices that report to them social legitimacy. This interest in the environment is reinforced by the sector in which it is framed to the
Which competitive advantages can firms really obtain from ISO14001 certification? Josefina L. Murillo-Luna; Juan C. Ramón-Solans-Prat University of Zaragoza (SPAIN) email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
INVESTIGATING BUSINESS SCHOOLS INTENTIONS TO OFFER E-COMMERCE DEGREE-PROGRAMS Jean Baptiste K. Dodor College of Business Jackson State University HTUjeandodor@yahoo.comUTH 601-354-1964 Darham S. Rana College
INTERNAL MARKETING ESTABLISHES A CULTURE OF LEARNING ORGANIZATION Yafang Tsai, Department of Health Policy and Management, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taiwan, (886)-4-24730022 ext.12127, email@example.com
3rd International Conference on Education, Management, Arts, Economics and Social Science (ICEMAESS 2015) The influence of electronic customer to customer interaction on customer loyalty Xue jing1,a and
DOI: 10.7763/IPEDR. 2012. V54. 19 The Online Banking Usage in Indonesia: An Empirical Study Sulistyo Budi Utomo 1 + 1 Indonesia School of Economics (STIESIA) Surabaya Abstract. Many Indonesian banks have
Relationship Quality as Predictor of B2B Customer Loyalty Shaimaa S. B. Ahmed Doma Faculty of Commerce, Business Administration Department, Alexandria University Email: Shaimaa_ahmed24@yahoo.com Abstract
169 EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN & SOCIAL NORMS ON ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS Joshi Pradeep Assistant Professor, Quantum School of Business, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India firstname.lastname@example.org
Experiential knowledge as decision-making factor in international construction business Josip Sertic, M.Eng. C. Eng. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Civil Engineering email@example.com Ivica Zavrski, PhD,
THE LINK BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES: A CASE OF IT COMPANIES FROM ROMANIA Dobre Ovidiu-Iliuta The Bucharest University of Economic Studies (Institute of Doctoral
THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY, MARKET ORIENTATION AND CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT ON PERFORMANCE USING A BALANCED SCORECARD APPROACH (CASE STUDY DAIRY COMPANIES SHIRAZ) Fatemeh Keshavars Pour
, pp.61-66 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/astl.2014.48.12 An Empirical Study on the Effects of Software Characteristics on Corporate Moon-Jong Choi 1, Won-Seok Kang 1 and Geun-A Kim 2 1 DGIST, 333 Techno Jungang
USING MULTIPLE GROUP STRUCTURAL MODEL FOR TESTING DIFFERENCES IN ABSORPTIVE AND INNOVATIVE CAPABILITIES BETWEEN LARGE AND MEDIUM SIZED FIRMS Anita Talaja University of Split, Faculty of Economics Cvite
EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON BUSINESS SCHOOLS INTENTIONS TO OFFER E-COMMERCE DEGREE PROGRAMS Dharam S. Rana College of Business Jackson State University E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: 601-979-2973
2015, TextRoad Publication ISSN: 2090-4274 Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences www.textroad.com Evaluation of the Impact of Change Management Dimensions on Increasing Organizational
2015, TextRoad Publication ISSN: 2090-4274 Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences www.textroad.com SEM Analysis of the Impact of Knowledge Management, Total Quality Management and Innovation
Assessing the Success of ICT s from a User Perspective: Case Study of Coffee Research Foundation, Kenya Michael W. Makokha 1 & Daniel O. Ochieng 1 1 School of Computing and Informatics, University of Nairobi,
«Organization and sustainable development : toward a new form of social responsibility?» Jocelyne Robert et Adeline Goemans With the collaboration of : G. Delhez, M. Frau, M. Pichot HEC-Management School
Visión de Futuro Año 7, Nº1 Volumen Nº13, Enero - Junio 2010 URL de la Revista: www.fce.unam.edu.ar/revistacientifica/ URL del Documento: http://www.fce.unam.edu.ar/revistacientifica/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=184&itemid=51
Board Performance Evaluation: a Case Study of a Private Hospital in Australia Peter MILLER Graduate College of Management, Southern Cross University, Australia Email: email@example.com Abstract Sound
Decision Support Systems 46 (2009) 562 575 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Decision Support Systems journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/dss Communication flow orientation in business process
ROLE OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON PROJECT SUCCESS Hulya Julie Yazici, Lutgert School of Business, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, FL 33965, (239)590-7335, firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT The purpose
Bilgi Ekonomisi ve Yönetimi Dergisi / 2013 Cilt: VIII Sayı: I THE EFFECT OF TECHNOLOGICAL AND COMMERCIAL VIABILITY ON MICROSOFT TAIWAN INNOVATION COMPETENCY Cheng-Ping Shih 1 Ya-Chung Hung 2 Abstract Innovation
Exploring the Drivers of E-Commerce through the Application of Structural Equation Modeling Andre F.G. Castro, Raquel F.Ch. Meneses and Maria R.A. Moreira Faculty of Economics, Universidade do Porto R.Dr.
BAI 2005 Roundtable 1 BAI 2005 Roundtable Summary Linking Socio-Cultural Theories of Learning with an Institutional Theory of Organizations: Implications for Theory, Practice and Collaboration Rodney T.
The role of stakeholder pressure and managerial values in the implementation of environmental logistics practices* Javier GONZÁLEZ-BENITO ** Dpto. Administración y Economía de la Empresa Universidad de
EXAMINING STUDENTS ACCEPTANCE OF TABLET PC USING TAM Omar El-Gayar, Dakota State University, email@example.com Mark Moran, Dakota State University, firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT With the proliferation
MANUFACTURING AND CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT AREAS USING PARTIAL LEAST SQUARE PATH MODELING WITH MULTIPLE REGRESSION COMPARISON Carlos Monge 1, Jesús Cruz Álvarez 2, Jesús Fabián López 3 Abstract: Structural
A Casual Structure Analysis of Smart phone Addiction: Use Motives of Smart phone Users and Psychological Characteristics Dept. of Social Welfare, BaekSeok Culture University, email@example.com Abstract
International Journal of Electronic Business Management, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 213-223 (2012) 213 A COMPARISON ANALYSIS ON THE INTENTION TO CONTINUED USE OF A LIFELONG LEARNING WEBSITE Hsiu-Li Liao * and
The Impact of Electronic Customer Relationship Management on Improving Marketing Performance of Private Banks Esmaeil Malek Akhlagh 1, Allahyar Daghbandan 2, Somayeh Yousefnejad 3* 1 Department of Business
Available online at www.globalilluminators.org GlobalIlluminators Full Paper Proceeding MTAR-2014, Vol. 1, 169-175 FULL PAPER PROCEEDING Multidisciplinary Studies ISBN: 978-969-9948-22-0 MTAR-14 The Model
Analysis of differences in performance appraisal in an international context Jana Cocuľová Prešov University of Prešov, Faculty of Management, Department of Management 17. novembra 1 080 78 Prešov Slovakia
Service Quality Value Alignment through Internal Customer Orientation in Financial Services An Exploratory Study in Indian Banks Prof. Tapan K.Panda* Introduction A high level of external customer satisfaction
1.4 Content and Process Theories of Motivation F O C U S The major motivation theorists and their relevance to the industry. By Rodger Stotz, CPIM, Maritz Inc., and Bruce Bolger, CPIM, Selling Communications,
Global Advanced Research Journal of Management and Business Studies (ISSN: 2315-5086) Vol. 3(10) pp. 473-478, October, 2014 Available online http://garj.org/garjmbs/index.htm Copyright 2014 Global Advanced
Chapter 1: Health & Safety Management Systems (SMS) Leadership and Organisational Safety Culture 3 29 Safety Matters! A Guide to Health & Safety at Work Chapter outline Leadership and Organisational Safety
CIIL An IESE-Mecalux Initiative STUDY-62 February, 2008 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOGISTICS ALLIANCES EUROPEAN RESEARCH ON THE MEASUREMENT AND CONTRACTUAL SUCCESS FACTORS IN LOGISTICS PARTNERSHIPS Joan Jané
Does organizational culture cheer organizational profitability? A case study on a Bangalore based Software Company S Deepalakshmi Assistant Professor Department of Commerce School of Business, Alliance
The Moderating Effect of Employee Commitment on HR Managers Role and HR Performance Indicator Yin-Lin Tsai, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, National Chi Nan University, Taiwan ABSTRACT In the era of increasing
Rivista Italiana di Economia Demografia e Statistica Volume LXVI n 3/4 Luglio-Dicembre 2012 CRUISE TOURISM IN MESSINA: A STUDY ON THE PERCEPTION OF SERVICES 1 Romana Gargano, Giuseppe Avena, Maurizio Mondello
Boletín de la New Asociación approaches de Geógrafos in tourism Españoles management: N.º 66 the - 2014, innovative págs. business 521-527 group programme in Spain I.S.S.N.: 0212-9426 NEW APPROACHES IN
International Journal of Business and Management Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 8028, ISSN (Print): 2319 801X Volume 2 Issue 5 ǁ May. 2013ǁ PP.60-66 A Study on Customer Orientation as Mediator between Emotional
218 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURES, HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (HRM) IN CONSTRUCTION BUSINESS ABSTRACT HOOMAN ABADI*; ROUZBEH ABADI** *Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi
Questionnaire on Analyzing the Degree of Satisfaction Regarding the Professional Skills of the Graduates as Perceived from the Employers Perspective Abstract Cristina BALACEANU Associate Professor, Ph.D,
The Relationship between Types of Tourist and Destination Authenticity Hyojin Kim Nutrition, Hospitality, and Retailing Texas Tech University Howook Sean Chang Dedman School of Hospitality Florida State
1 E-learning: Students perceptions of online learning in hospitality programs Sungmi Song Hospitality Management Iowa State University Robert Bosselman Hospitality Management Iowa State University ABSTRACT
Call topics 2013 SAF RA joint call on Human and organizational factors including the value of industrial safety September 2013 SAF RA is an ERA-NET on industrial safety funded by the European Commission
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY DEGREE Educational Leadership Doctor of Philosophy Degree Major Course Requirements EDU710 (3.0 credit hours) Ethical and Legal Issues in Education/Leadership This course is an intensive
CSR Corporate Social Responsibility Silvana Signori University of Bergamo Department of Management, Economics and Quantitative Methods Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) What does it means? Why? How?
SCIENCE ROAD Journal SCIENCE ROAD JOURNAL Year: 2015 Volume: 03 Issue: 03 Pages: 278-285 Analyzing the impact of knowledge management on the success of customer communications with intermediary role of
Volume 9 No. 1 The real value of corporate governance (c) Copyright 2007, The University of Auckland. Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use
MANAGING THE RELATIONSHIP: DOES TRUST LEAD TO COOPERATION? Jane Roberts and Bill Merrilees Griffith University Track: Market Orientation and Relationship Marketing ABSTRACT This paper examines the relationship
IBIMA Publishing Journal of Internet and e-business Studies http://www.ibimapublishing.com/journals/jiebs/jiebs.html Vol. 2015 (2015), Article ID 197131, 7 pages DOI: 10.5171/2015.197131 Research Article
Impacts and Determinants of Teamwork Michiya Morita Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro Toshima-Ku Tokyo 171-0031, Japan e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Track: Global Operations Management Abstract:
Running Head: HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES AND ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE Human Resource Practices and Enterprise Performance in Small and Medium Enterprises of Pakistan Muzaffar Asad Syed Hussain Haider Muhammad
When policy meets practice - colliding logics and new forms of knowledge production Jacky Swan, Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, UK** Mike Bresnen, Manchester Business School, University
Contemporary Institutional Theory lecture notes for 3 May 2001 Erling Berge Litterature Ingram, Paul, and Karen Clay 2000 "The Choicewithin-constraints new institutionalism and implications for sociology",
Prediction of Business Process Model Quality based on Structural Metrics Laura Sánchez-González 1, Félix García 1, Jan Mendling 2, Francisco Ruiz 1, Mario Piattini 1 1 Alarcos Research Group, TSI Department,
1 Ethics: Organizational Culture and Leadership Introduction Business ethics has been discussed as a very important part of the existence of the business. There are lots of issues surrounding the topic
Economic psychology: from tax compliance and evading to psychological contract Velli Parts, MSc Concepts tax avoidance - an attempt to reduce tax payments by legal means (e.g. by exploiting taxloopholes)
Undergraduate Psychology Major Learning Goals and Outcomes i Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology Demonstrate familiarity with the major concepts, theoretical perspectives, empirical findings, and historical
Global Journal of Management and Business Studies. ISSN 2248-9878 Volume 3, Number 10 (2013), pp. 1085-1090 Research India Publications http://www.ripublication.com/gjmbs.htm Corporate Governance and Business
THE ROLE OF QUALITY INSURANCE SERVICES ON AMOUNT OF INSURED WILLINGNESS BASED ON THE SERVQUAL MODEL Marhamat Hemmat Poor Department of Edecation Management, Islamic Azad University,Rasht Branch, Rasht,
Fit work to people: How can national occupational health regulation work in practise Per Langaa Jensen Professor Department of Management Engineering Technical University of Denmark 13-02-2013 Who am I?
1 11.1 Definitions and Motivation Lot of research and papers in this emerging field: Visual Analytics: Scope and Challenges of Keim et al. Illuminating the path of Thomas and Cook 2 11.1 Definitions and
ACHIEVING EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION BY PURSUING SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES DUMITRESCU Luigi Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania STANCIU Oana Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania ȚICHINDELEAN Mihai Lucian
THE IMPACT OF EMPOWERMENT AND QUALITY CULTURE ON JOB SATISFACTION *Hakan K TAPÇI **Metin ATE *Sultan Süleyman ÖKTEN *Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey **Marmara University, Turkey ABSTRACT The purpose
Information Management 167 in nigerian companies. Idris, Adekunle. A. Abstract: Keywords: Relationship Marketing, Customer loyalty, Customer Service, Relationship Marketing Strategy and Nigeria. Introduction
Consulting projects: What really matters The factors that influence the success of management consulting projects Case 138: het 'Zwijsen future proof' project met de inzet van GEA Results PhD 2014, Bart
Doctoral School of Economics and Business Administration THE CONTROVERSY OVER GLOBALIZATION A CONSPIRACY THEORY APPROACH -SUMMARY- SCIENTIFIC COORDINATOR: PhD Professor VICTOR PLOAE PhD Student: PÎNZARU
Talking Green: Organizational Environmental Communication as a Legitimacy-Enhancement Strategy Déborah Philippe Department of Strategy and Business Policy HEC School of Management 1 rue de la Libération,
Pak J Commer Soc Sci Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences 2014, Vol. 8 (2), 365-383 Impact of Institutional Forces and Availability of Slack on Corporate Environmental Behavior: Evidence from
DOI: 10.7763/IPEDR. 2013. V67. 9 Enhancing Customer Relationships in the Foodservice Industry Firdaus Abdullah and Agnes Kanyan Faculty of Business Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA Abstract. Intensification
THE ROLE OF MARKETING IN MULTINATIONAL SUBSIDIARIES: STANDARDIZATION VERSUS LOCALIZATION Miroslav Karlíãek, Zuzana Chytková, Nikola Hofiej, Hana Mohelská, Jakub Fischer Introduction In the international
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND ITS IMPACT ON THE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: AN APPLIED STUDY IN INDUSTRIAL COMPANIES (MINING AND EXTRACTION) Dr. Basman Omar Aldalayeen University of Finance and Banking, Faculty
Impact of Customer Relationship Management of Hotel (A Case study Umaid Bhwan) Dr. Tauseef Ahmad Jai Narain Vays University Department of accounting Dr. Omar A.A. Jawabreh Department of Tourism and Hotels
Factors Affecting Customer Attachment in the Marketing Communication and its Implementation on Tourism Sector MEHMET SERDAR ERCİŞ Faculty of Communication Ataturk University, Turkey Abstract This research
Summary of the Master Thesis Masters Degree International Project Management in the Building Process Chain Stakeholder Contribution to the Strategic Direction of a Construction Project Submitted by: Dipl.-Ing.
Page 1 of 8 ANZMAC 2009 The Role of Management Control to Australian SME s Sales Effectiveness Ken Grant, Monash University, Ken.Grant@buseco.monash.edu.au Richard Laney, Monash University, Richard.Laney@lpa.com.au
IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS ON ADOPTION OF CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT IN MELLI BANK BRANCHES IN KHUZESTAN PROVINCE-IRAN Mohammad Ali Enayati Shiraz 1, Elham Ramezani 2 1 Department
Managing Organizational Performance: Linking the Balanced Scorecard to a Process Improvement Technique William K. Hoehn, Ph.D. Raytheon Systems Company Tucson, Arizona Abstract: Numerous researchers have
Universal Journal of Industrial and Business Management 2(2): 31-35, 2014 DOI: 10.13189/ ujibm.2014.020202 http://www.hrpub.org Relationship between Business Intelligence and Supply Chain Management for
International OPEN ACCESS Journal Of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) The Reality of Application of Total Quality Management at Irbid National University from the Perspective of Academicians DR: Abedelmajed
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.