1 Scottish Enterprise OPPORTUNITIES IN ENERGY Offshore Wind Power: Priorities for Research and Development (R&D) and Innovation Supporting a globally competitive Scotland
2 Introduction Successful offshore wind power generation depends upon the need to: 1. reduce the cost of producing energy from offshore wind resources; and, 2. speed up deployment of offshore wind power generation projects to help achieve both time-bound government commitments (Scotland and UK) and a market advantage for Scottish-based companies. Given this context a number of commissioned foresighting and desk-based research exercises were undertaken, the results of which are fully discussed in a more detailed Scottish Enterprise report: Innovation in Offshore Wind Insights on Strategic Direction, Priorities & Approach. The purpose of this paper is to summarise the detailed report, clearly setting out the R&D and Innovation Priorities for Offshore Wind Power Generation in Scotland as identified by the work of Scottish Enterprise. Comments and feedback from interested parties and industry are welcome on the suggested priorities identified. To meet and exploit the challenges of developing an offshore wind industry for Scotland and achieve a globally competitive position, a reduction in lifecycle cost and a significant increase in the pace of industrialisation for offshore wind are needed. 1
3 OPPortunities 1 R&D and Innovation Priorities Using data and descriptions from two main sources (Douglas-Westwood 2 and Garrad Hassan 3 ) we produced a table that separated the lifetime costs of offshore wind power generation into components. 4 A visualisation of this in included in Appendix A. This was then cross-referenced with a long list of innovations 5 to produce a list of potential areas for innovation Appendix B. Next, based on knowledge of existing players and capability in Scotland, Scottish Enterprise (SE) staff working in the sector suggested a basic rating of the capability in Scotland within each innovation theme. These ratings were added to the shortlist. 6 This shortlist was then sorted so that items where innovation had the potential to produce the highest percentage reduction on the lifetime cost of energy (LCOE) and that had the highest Scottish capability (with respect to R&D & Design and Prototyping) rose to the top. The resulting sorted shortlist 7 is shown in Appendix C. Table 1 below shows the top eight innovation items as these account for more than 80% of the potential reduction in LCOE; and, highlights the top six items as these have the potential to produce more than a 30% reduction in LCOE, a stated Scottish Enterprise objective. 8 Item Potential reduction in LCOE Next generation turbine designs 12.3% Jacket or Alternative support structure & foundations 5.2% Operation & maintenances strategies 5.0% Alternative drivetrain 3.8% Foundation installation 3.8% Improved production quality assurance 3.2% 33.3% Turbine heavy item (2-20 tonnes) installation and repair access; 2.6% vessels and other access equipment Blades 2.5% 38.4% = 80.3% of Other items 9.4% TOTAL 47.8% Table 1: Innovation items sorted for potential impact on cost of energy However, because there is, in many respects, a trade-off between innovation and speed of introduction it may be that innovation items more likely to be introduced in the short term should be given additional priority i.e. prior to 2015 when there will be a reduction in offshore wind power revenues from Renewable Obligation Certificates.
4 2 OPPortunities Table 2 below shows a revised top eleven shortlist, where the time to deployment and Scottish capabilities take precedence over potential reduction in LCOE (see Appendix D). These eleven items make up more than 80% of the potential reduction in LCOE; and, the ten items highlighted could deliver more than the 30% objective. Item Time to deployment R&D and Design Prototype/ Low Volume Potential Reduction in LCOE Operation & maintenances strategies Short High High 5.0% Array (farm) design and control Short High High 2.0% Controller/ condition based monitoring Short High High 0.3% Improved production quality assurance Short High Med 3.2% Cable laying (vessels and other equipment) Short High Med 1.2% Inspection and light repair access (0-2 tonnes); helicopters, Short High Low 2.3% vessels and other access equipment Jacket or Alternative support structure & foundations Med High High 5.2% Alternative drivetrain Med High Med 3.8% Offshore substation & local power network Med High Med 2.1% Next generation turbine designs Med High Low 12.3% 37.4% Foundation installation Med High Low 3.8% 41.2% = 86.2% of Other items 6.6% TOTAL 47.8% Table 2: Innovation items sorted with respect to time to deployment and fit with Scottish capabilities These eleven items include the top six items from Table 1, and thus Scottish Enterprise suggest that these should be considered as priorities for R&D and innovation the Offshore Wind sector. One item, Next generation turbine design, is unlikely to appear, in whole, from any Scottish organisation and the development of these turbines is likely to be driven by the OEMs currently in this market (especially those turbines that are essentially incremental improvements to the existing design with respect to generating capacity, efficiency and reliability). It may be that market entry here is only possible with a radical or disruptive design (e.g. vertically mounted rotor). It should also be noted that where the capability for prototyping and low volume manufacture is low, this is a changing situation as businesses develop capability and others set up Scottish sites.
5 OPPortunities 3 More detailed outlines of the state of art, challenges and opportunities for many of the items in Table 2 can be found in the aforementioned detailed report. 9 Table 3 below presents a summary of these: Examples of challenges Examples of solutions Est. 'cost of energy' saving from innovation Wind turbine arrays Support structure and foundations Support structure and foundations installation Wind turbine Turbine installation Electrical systems Cabling Operations and maintenance Increase overall yield from projects Speed up manufacturing rates, extend depth envelope, reduce mass per MW and per metre of water depth Speed up installation rates Need to reduce weight, raise reliability and performance Speed up installation rates, extend operating envelope of installation vessels Conventional generation power electronics, reliability, power losses, integration with National Grid Speed up deployment, minimise rework Rates of failure offshore, wave and weather access restrictions Apply other industry operational management techniques New designs, mass manufacturing techniques Multi-piling techniques, float out of structures Scale up size, faster tip speeds, gearless drive, 2 bladed rotors, new blade designs New vessels, new installation methods like single unit skidding Raise voltages, desynchronise from grid, use HVDC Faster, more accurate ploughing methods New vessel/ access systems, more remote management, new O&M strategies 2.0% 5.2% 3.8% 23.6% 1.1% 2.1% 1.2% 8.8% 47.8% It should be noted that similar R&D and Innovation opportunities have been explored at the UK level where, for example, the Carbon Trust Offshore Wind Accelerator scheme 10 has chosen to focus on non-turbine innovation; namely: Developing new turbine foundations and installation techniques. Facilitating access to distant turbines for maintenance. Finding the best wind farm array layouts to optimise yield. Researching ways to reduce electricity transmission losses. Although these are suggested in terms of UK deployment, the design constraints within the Scottish context (e.g. water depth, sea-bed conditions, weather etc.) may produce different solutions particularly with respect to foundations; support structures; installation techniques; and, access methods, vessels and equipment.
6 4 OPPortunities Summary R&D and Innovation is required in a number of aspects in Offshore Wind deployment to overcome common challenges such as cutting the cost of energy, higher levels of reliability, mass deployment to deliver economies of scale and generally reducing the risk and uncertainty with projects. Whilst industry initiatives are required to overcome all of these challenges, it is suggested that the priorities for R&D and Innovation as outlined in this paper could represent the greatest opportunities for adoption within the market. AUTHOR(S) Alan Kerr, Senior Executive, Operations Sector Innovation Services David Butler, Manager, Operations Foresighting, Energy & Low Carbon Technologies Appendices A. Visualisation of the Components of Lifetime Cost of Energy B. Innovations (Scored Long List) C. Shortlist of Innovations, Ranked and Sorted (by %reduction in LCOE then Scottish capability then Time to deployment) D. Shortlist of Innovations, Ranked and Sorted (by Time to deployment then Scottish capability then %reduction in LCOE) E. References
7 OPPORTUNITIES 5 Appendix A VISUALISATION OF THE COMPONENTS OF LIFETIME COST OF ENERGY Tower (8.91%) Blades (7.13%) Gearbox (5.35%) Other Wind Turbine costs (5.35%) Controller (3.56%) Rotor hub (1.78%) Generator (1.43%) Transformer (1.43%) Nacelle (0.71%) Cabling, on and offshore (9.78%) Offshore substation (3.99%) Support Structure & Foundations (12.96%) Cable laying (4.99%) O&M CAPITAL Foundation installation (3.33%) Turbine installation (1.11%) Commissioning (1.11%) Consenting (3.54%) Technical & commercial Management (2.53%) Project Development (1.01%) Testing & Commissioning (1.01%) Equipment (10.07%) Grid Maintenance, Lease & insurance (4.56%) Personnel Access (1.71%) Labour (1.52%) Installation/Repair Vessels (1.14%)
8 6 OPPortunities Appendix B INNOVATIONS (Scored Long List) Support Structure Installation Turbine Support Structures Wind Turbine Array Component/ area Component/ innovation Remote operation of an array to optimise performance Reduce uncertainty through improved wake modelling Develop new support structure concepts Oil and gas sector remote monitoring Improve WTG foundation standards through better validation Standardise support structure selection and design Automated welding of cast or forged jacket nodes Floating build and installation Subsea rock piledrilling Implementation of floating lifts of foundations (i.e. towing) Multi-pile installation Piling noise control New installation techniques Synopsis Coordinated supervisory control of wind farms building on process industry controls used in more mature industries could significantly improve the overall performance of large wind farms Turbine wakes are a major consideration in the layout of the project, and are currently not well understood in offshore conditions. Better understanding could allow closer turbine spacing or lighter turbine designs. Support structures, and their installation, are major cost components. New concepts could offer lower mass and cost benefits. For example, soft support structures have low natural frequencies and greater deflections, and it is necessary to avoid structural resonances at sensitive frequencies. For example via ROVs but also other monitoring mechanisms for cabling/support structures - assume gains as Condition based monitoring (CBM) (below) As for turbine design standards, better validation could allow conservatism in design standards to be reduced, thus saving cost. Standardisation could offer dramatic reductions in cost and construction time. The difficulty is to achieve a range of standard designs suitable for a wide range of site conditions, soil conditions and turbine sizes. This could dramatically reduce the cost and time for jacket construction. Prefabricated nodes simplify the welding required to the point where automation may be justified. Floating build (i.e. in sheltered water, without needing a major port or onshore construction facility) was used in the oil and gas industry, and the technique could be revisited for batch production of gravity bases (or other structures), which are then floated direct to site. In some sites, particularly Scottish waters, the soil is not suitable for conventional piling. Techniques for drilling rock at sea will be required. New techniques for foundation installation could reduce the cost of the vessels required and the time on site. Pile installation is a major cost and weather risk for foundation concepts based on multiple piles. Techniques could be developed to install several piles at once. Piling noise may affect marine life, and could become a major restriction on the construction timetable. Reducing the transmitted noise could reduce the problem considerably. There is an over reliance on oil and gas installation techniques that may not be appropriate for offshore turbines. New surveying, handling, positioning and installation techniques for foundations could reduce the cost of the process or the cost of vessels required or time on site. This could include the development of specialist vessels, equipment and electromechanical control systems for installation work. Overall project cost of energy improvement Timescale to deliver: S = Short (<5yrs); M = Medium (<10yrs); L = Long (>10yrs) 1.0% S 1.0% S 2.0% 2.4% M 0.3% S 0.5% S 1.0% M 1.0% S 5.2% 1.3% M 0.5% M 0.5% M 0.5% M 0.5% M 0.5% M 3.8%
9 OPPortunities 7 Turbine Condition based monitoring (CBM) Improve turbine design standards through better validation Identify key components for targeted reliability improvement Develop new offshore specific wind turbine design Increase project design life - structural integrity management measures Novel drive train sub system improvement Novel drive train design integration Superconducting generator Low cost blade High specification blade Improved manufacturing methods Automated ultrasound capability (factory or field) Advanced tower manufacturing OW quality assurance schemes Already established but further application to OW an opportunity given challenges of offshore operation and scale up of turbines Design standards for offshore wind turbines have developed from onshore. Validation by measurements on operating offshore turbines could identify areas of conservatism. Detailed analysis of operational data has proved valuable for onshore wind turbines, and the same exercise offshore could identify components or component classes which are having a disproportionate effect on availability. This knowledge would assist Scottish firms win equipment refurbishment work. It has long been recognised that, freed from constraints of noise emissions and visual appearance, the optimum design of offshore wind turbine could look very different from present concepts. High rotor speed, two blades, downwind machines are concepts worth investigating, but this category could also include highredundancy concepts, floating turbines, and other ideas. Project economics may benefit from an increase in design life, for example to match design life of major turbine components to the foundation design life. It should also be beneficial to establish means of increasing structure lifetime in service, should it prove to be required in particular locations. Additional support is likely to be needed to enable core concepts to be commercialised. For example, direct drives rely on power electronics (PE) instead of gears but PE has the highest failure rate of any component in turbines. Similarly, hydraulic transmission uses components that commonly fail in marine devices Novel drive trains could significantly improve efficiency and cut costs but they have a knock on effect on all parts of a turbine design. Established manufacturers are looking to incrementally improve their own designs which they have sunk significant money into. Support to enable the integration of novel drive train designs into new turbines would facilitate market entry. High voltage superconducting generators are extremely efficient however they are also likely to be extremely challenging to operate at sea An economy blade designed to withstand the offshore wind regime for 20+ years at the lowest possible cost. These cost savings may be achieved by lowering the labour input at the manufacturing stage, alternative materials, which provide sufficient (or even improved) structural strength, reducing the part count and laminate complexity to a minimum, reduce material used, design for ease of change out. A high performance lightweight blade, designed to take maximum advantage of the offshore wind regime. Produced using the most advanced manufacturing techniques and high performance materials. Size increases to offshore turbines could be constrained without new blade designs that having a much higher power/weight ratio. Blade manufacturing is still relatively labour intensive and low tech. Automated processes, which guarantee key composite parameters including fibre placement and resin content could be developed. Quality control in blade manufacture could be improved by automated ultrasound examination of the entire blade for subsurface defects. The same technique could be used in service, for detecting incipient failures. 0.3% S 2.3% M 3.0% S 4.5% M 2.5% M 1.9% S 1.9% S 1.0% L unknown M 0.9% M 0.8% M 0.8% S Improvements in design, manufacturing, QA - assume 5% saving 0.5% M Already in use in oil and gas industry - develop and use approved suppliers / QA of components 3.2% S 23.6%
10 8 OPPortunities Operation & Maintenance Cable Installation Electrical Turbine Installation Implementation of floating lifts of WTGs Implementation of single unit skidding of WTGs Minimise offshore commissioning requirements Implement high voltage collection systems Develop specific HVDC components Develop HVDC to mature standard configuration Subsea cable burial depth surveying Improve submarine cable installation techniques Test and prove next generation of all weather access solutions Purpose designed heavy lift/deep water O&M vessels Strategic solution for far offshore O&M As for floating lifts of foundations, new techniques could reduce the cost of the vessels required and the time on site. Installation of complete turbines (as at Beatrice) would shorten the installation period, reduce the need for offshore installation staff and their transfers, and perhaps reduce the vessels required. Reducing commissioning activities offshore would reduce costs and the need for staff transfers, and shorten the construction programme. Currently intra-array electrical systems operate at around 33 kv. This limits the total capacity of wind turbines connected on one cable. The use of higher IEC voltage levels such as 72 kv could reduce overall cost, especially for projects relatively close to shore where an offshore substation could be avoided. HVDC components specifically designed for the offshore wind market could offer benefits, partly through standardisation, partly through sizing, packaging and control functions appropriate to the application. HVDC technology development has aimed at its use in large transmission systems. Standard sizing and rating for the offshore wind market could bring down cost, as could inter-operability of different suppliers equipment. Electrical system design is often driven to some extent by the thermal rating of the cables as installed. Knowledge of the depth as installed could allow some conservatism in cable rating to be reduced, and it would also give confidence in the protection achieved against cable damage. Improvements may be possible in the accuracy, depth, speed and weather-sensitivity of offshore cable laying, both for export cables and inter-array cables. Access for technicians, tools and replacement parts is a major determinant of availability, and this will become more important as distance offshore increases. There is no shortage of possible future concepts: the important step is to prove performance in order to give confidence to wind farm developers and O&M contractors. Solutions will be defined mainly by the lift requirements t for personnel and light equipment but improving the weather window of operation is also important for Scottish sites (e.g. 2m mean wave heights) A new class of vessels able to operate in 35m+ depth and do floating (i.e. not jacked-up) lift-outs of heavy equipment (gearboxes, blades) is likely needed. Requires co-operation between device suppliers and service companies, vessel suppliers and marine warranty surveyors to develop. Improving their weather window of operation is vital. Far-offshore wind farms may achieve higher availability with new approaches to O&M, especially crew access and accommodation. Detailed analysis and costing of the alternatives is needed. 0.5% M 0.5% S 0.1% S 1.1% 0.2% M 0.5% M 1.4% M 2.1% 0.2% S 1.0% S 1.2% 2.3% S 1.5% M 5.0% M 8.8%
11 OPPortunities 9 Appendix C SHORTLIST OF INNOVATIONS, RANKED AND SORTED (by %reduction in LCOE then Scottish capability then Time to deployment) Potential %Reduction in LCOE (2) Capability Make: Prototype/ Low Volume (4) Manufacture: Batch/ High Volume (4) Time to deployment (3) %LCOE R&D Item (1) and Next generation turbine designs (7) 35.65% 12.3% High Low Low Med Jacket or Alternative support structure & foundations (6) 12.96% 5.2% High High Med Med Operation & maintenances strategies 5.0% High High Short * or Alternative drivetrain (X + generator) (5) 6.78% 3.8% High Med Low Med Foundation installation 3.33% 3.8% High Low Med Improved production quality assurance 3.2% High Med Short Turbine heavy item (2-20 tonnes) installation and repair access; vessels 2.25% 2.6% High Low Med and other access equipment * Blades 7.13% 2.5% Med Low Low Med Inspection and light repair access (0-2 tonnes); helicopters, vessels and other 1.71% 2.3% High Low Short access equipment Offshore substation & local power network 3.99% 2.1% High Med Med Med Array (farm) design and control 2.0% High High Med Short Cable laying (vessels and other equipment) 4.99% 1.2% High Med Low Short Superconducting generator 1.0% High Low Low Long * Tower 8.91% 0.5% Med Med Low Med * Controller/ condition based monitoring 3.56% 0.3% High High Med Short * Nacelle 0.71% High High Med Cabling (on and offshore) 9.78% High Med Low * Conventional drivetrain (gearbox + generator) 6.78% Med Med Low * Rotor hub 1.78% Med Low Low * Transformer 1.43% Med Low Low * Other wind turbine costs 5.35% Other (mostly non-physical) expenditure items 25.36% 1. %LCOE is the percentage of the Lifetime Cost Of Energy attributed to this item 2. How much reduction, as a percentage of LCOE, could be achieved through innovation in this item 3. Short is innovation deployed before 2015; Medium (Med) is innovation deployed between 2015 and 2020; Long is innovation deployed beyond High is capability (existing or similar) present in Scottish companies and Higher Education Institutes (HEIs)/ Research Institutes (RIs); Medium (Med) only present in Scottish companies or HEIs/RIs - not both; Low is negligible capability in Scottish companies or HEIs/RIs. 5. For example, direct drive solutions, fluid coupling power transmission. 6. For example, gravity bases, floating structures. 7. Here %LCOE is the sum of %LCOE from individual items marked *
12 10 OPPortunities Appendix D SHORTLIST OF INNOVATIONS, RANKED AND SORTED (by Time to deployment then Scottish capability then %reduction in LCOE) Potential %Reduction in LCOE (2) Capability Make: Prototype/ Low Volume (4) Manufacture: Batch/ High Volume (4) Time to deployment (3) Item %LCOE (1) R&D and Operation & maintenances strategies 5.0% High High Short Array (farm) design and control 2.0% High High Med Short * Controller/ condition based monitoring 3.56% 0.3% High High Med Short Improved production quality assurance 3.2% High Med Short Cable laying (vessels and other equipment) Inspection and light repair access (0-2 tonnes); helicopters, vessels and other access equipment 4.99% 1.2% High Med Low Short 1.71% 2.3% High Low Short Jacket or Alternative support structure & foundations (6) 12.96% 5.2% High High Med Med or Alternative drivetrain (X + generator) * (5) 6.78% 3.8% High Med Low Med Offshore substation & local power network 3.99% 2.1% High Med Med Med Next generation turbine designs (7) 35.65% 12.3% High Low Low Med Foundation installation 3.33% 3.8% High Low Med Turbine heavy item (2-20 tonnes) installation and repair access; vessels and other access equipment 2.25% 2.6% High Low Med * Tower 8.91% 0.5% Med Med Low Med * Blades 7.13% 2.5% Med Low Low Med Superconducting generator 1.0% High Low Low Long * Nacelle 0.71% High High Med Cabling (on and offshore) 9.78% High Med Low Conventional drivetrain (gearbox + * generator) 6.78% Med Med Low * Rotor hub 1.78% Med Low Low * Transformer 1.43% Med Low Low * Other wind turbine costs 5.35% Other (mostly non-physical) expenditure items 25.36% 1. %LCOE is the percentage of the Lifetime Cost Of Energy attributed to this item 2. How much reduction, as a percentage of LCOE, could be achieved through innovation in this item 3. Short is innovation deployed before 2015; Medium (Med) is innovation deployed between 2015 and 2020; Long is innovation deployed beyond High is capability (existing or similar) present in Scottish companies and Higher Education Institutes (HEIs)/ Research Institutes (RIs); Medium (Med) only present in Scottish companies or HEIs/RIs - not both; Low is negligible capability in Scottish companies or HEIs/RIs. 5. For example, direct drive solutions, fluid coupling power transmission. 6. For example, gravity bases, floating structures. 7. Here %LCOE is the sum of %LCOE from individual items marked *
13 OPPortunities 11 Appendix E - REFERENCES 1. Offshore Wind Industry Group (OWIG), SCOTLAND S OFFSHORE WIND ROUTE MAP - Developing Scotland s Offshore Wind Industry to 2020, p Douglas-Westwood Ltd, Offshore Wind Innovation 3. Garrad Hassan Partnership Ltd, Techno-Economic Foresighting for Offshore Wind Phase I Report 4. Scottish Enterprise, Innovation in Offshore Wind - Insights on Strategic Direction, Priorities & Approach, Appendix B As 4, Appendix C As 4, Appendix D As 4, Appendix D2. 8. Scottish Enterprise, SE Offshore Wind Strategy Updated , Slide As 4, Appendices E1 E Carbon Trust Offshore Wind Accelerator (
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