Introduction To VRF: System Overview, Applications, & Savings Opportunities

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1 Introduction To VRF: System Overview, Applications, & Savings Opportunities

2 System Overview

3 What is VRF? Zoning System Two-Pipe / Three Pipe System Packaged DDC Control Operates as a Heat Pump Simultaneous Cooling & Heating Inverter Technology / Variable Speed Compressor Multiple Indoor Units Up to 50 Indoor Units Per System Connected Diversity Up to 150% Variable Capacity Indoor Units EMS / BMS Compatibility Variable Refrigerant Flow High Turn Down Ratios Below 10% In Many Cases

4 INVERTER Technology Changes electrical frequency from 60 Hz (line Power) to a varying range (10 Hertz to 110 Hertz depending on the system)

5 INVERTER Technology Room Temperature SETPOINT VRF VRF CONVENTIONAL VRF Automatically adjusts compressor speed to meet load Sizing flexibility with variable capacity Strives to run long periods at lower speeds. Reduced / eliminated cyclic losses Improved temperature control No more minimum cycle timers no temperature overshoot. Time

6 AHRI Standard 1230 VRF HAS ARRIVED! 3.27 VRF Multi-Split System. A split system air-conditioner or heat pump incorporating a single refrigerant circuit, with one or more outdoor units, at least one variable speed compressor or an alternative compressor combination for varying the capacity of the system by three or more steps, multiple indoor fan coil units, each of which is individually metered and individually controlled by a proprietary control device and common communications network. The system shall be capable of operating either as an air conditioner or a heat pump. Variable refrigerant flow implies three or more steps of control on common, inter-connecting piping.

7 The Evolution VRF Example (Mitsubishi City Multi): Japan 20+ Years, Tried and Proven! Europe 15+ Years, depending on the country Latin America 10+ Years, from Mitsubishi US Bermuda 10+ Years USA since 2002!

8 Simultaneous Systems Components OUTDOOR UNIT + BC / Branch CONTROLLER + INDOOR UNITS + Remote Controllers or WATER-SOURCE UNIT

9 Typical Simultaneous 2-Pipe VRF System Layout

10 Changeover Systems Components OUTDOOR UNIT + INDOOR UNITS + CONTROLS or WATER-SOURCE UNIT

11 Typical Changeover VRF Systems Layout HEATING COOLING

12 Controls Example PC Control TG-2000 TG-2000 LAN Hub Central Controllers Power Supply Power Supply Remote Controllers

13 Building Management Systems Building Management System (BMS) BACnet LonTalk May Be A Hardware Interface Hub Ethernet Central Controller

14 Applications & System Capabilities

15 Target Commercial Applications Universities Banks Multi-Story Office Buildings Hotels Churches Buildings where zoning is required Applications where sound is important Historic Renovations

16 Additional Applications BANKS Hospital Admin Areas / MOB Non Procedure RESIDENTIAL SEACOAST PROTECTION

17 Cooling Diversity 3 Types Solar Load Occupant Load Building Use

18 VRF Excels at Heat Recovery Applications! Typical Winter Loads Heat CHILLER, COOLING TOWER, & PUMPS $ Heat Why Spend Money On Both? Heat BOILER & PUMPS $

19 BTU/$ - VRF Makes Good Sense!

20 Diversity - Heating Minimal Diversity Available! Ambient Modification Charts Available capacity decreases Both outdoor and indoor units de-rated Defrost Operation Evaluation of De-ratings Important! Use tools available from VRF manufacturer to accurately access de-ratings. Auxiliary Heating Changeover Point Try and maximize heat pump hours depends on climate. Columbus Ohio: 90% of heating hours above 25 Deg F based on Hourly Average Weather Data. Evaluation of De-ratings Important! Use tools available from VRF manufacturer to accurately access de-ratings.

21 Typical Range Of Available VRF Systems Air Cooled 6 24 Ton (Simultaneous) 6 30 Ton (Change Over) 208/230, 460 Volt 3 Phase 62 db(a) Operating Sound Level Water Cooled 6 20 Ton (Simultaneous) 6 30 Ton (Change Over) 208/230, 460 Volt 3 Phase Single Phase 3, 4 Ton (Change Over) 208/230, 1 - Phase

22 Partial Back-up Operation Partial Backup capability with multiple / twinned units. The remaining one or two units will perform backup operation Twinned Units Typically Required above 12 Tons

23 Typical Outdoor Temperature Operating Range NOT your typical Heat Pump Technology! Cooling Can be extended with low ambient options (as low as -10 F) 23 F Single Phase Air Cooled 115 F 23 F Simultaneous & Changeover Air Cooled 115 F 23 F Extended Heat Capacity Air Cooled 115 F Heating Outdoor Temperature o CDB 122 o FDB 0 F Single Phase Air Cooled 60 F -4 F Simultaneous & Changeover Air Cooled 60 F -13 F Extended Heat Capacity Air Cooled 60 F Outdoor Temperature o CWB 104 o FWB

24 Extended Range Heat Pump Technology Not Your Typical Heat Pump! 120 % Heating Capacity % 87% 50% 100% 70 o F entering air temp Outdoor Temperature o FWB Extended Rang VRF Standard VRF

25 Water-source VRF Units - Changeover Systems Heat Recovery In Water Loop Only Cooling Heat is recovered between the units within the water loop PQHY Unit A Cooling Cooling Cooling System A in COOLING Mode (refrigerant absorbing heat) Heating PQHY Unit B Heating Water Circuit Heating Heating System B in HEATING Mode (refrigerant discharging heat)

26 Water-source VRF Units Simultaneous Systems Heat Recovery In Two Locations Heat is recovered between the units within the water loop PQRY Heat recovery Heat recovery Cooling Cooling Cooling Heating Indoor units Heating PQRY Heating Heating Indoor units Water circuit Cooling

27 Water-source VRF Units Installations not allowed! Directly Coupled to a Lake or Pond Open Loop NO Directly Coupled to Ground water Open Loop NO NO

28 Water-source VRF Units Installations allowed YES Coupled to a Lake or Pond Closed Loop Coupled to Ground Water Closed Loop HX YES HX YES Heat Exchanger Isolation Heat Exchanger Isolation

29 Water-source VRF Units Installations allowed Coupled to Earth Vertical Closed Loop YES YES Coupled to Earth Horizontal Closed Loop YES Closed Piping Loop Closed Piping Loop

30 Indoor Equipment Flexibility

31 Indoor Unit Flexibility Multiple styles ranging from 6,000 to 96,000 Btu/h Typically single phase below 6 Nominal Tons Linear Expansion Valve Variable Capacity Operation Mode: Fan, Cool, Dry, Auto, Heat Built in or accessory condensate removal options from factory. Typical Ventilation Air options most models Average operating sound levels around 35 db(a) +/-

32 Indoor Unit Flexibility Wall Mounted 6-30 MBtu/h Ceiling Suspended MBtu/h Floor Standing 6 24 MBtu/h Product Review CITY MULTI VRF

33 Indoor Unit Flexibility 4 Way Large Cassette MBtu/h 4 - Way Small Cassette 8 15 Mbtu/h One Way Cassette 6 15 Mbtu/h Product Review CITY MULTI VRF

34 Air Vanes 4 Way Cassettes Independent Vane Control Horizontal Enhanced air distribution by independent vane settings Fixed Vanes can be independently adjusted by a remote controller

35 Indoor Unit Flexibility Ducted Units Medium Static 6 54 Mbth/h High Static Mbtu/h Low Profile Mbtu/h Vertical Ducted Mbtu/h Product Review CITY MULTI VRF

36 Recessed Unit St. Xavier Cathedral

37 Refrigerant Piping & Refrigerant Leakage

38 Refrigerant Piping Flexibility 2 Pipe Example PIPING LENGTH` Simultaneous Air Cooled 2-Pipe Simultaneous Water Cooled 2-Pipe Changeover Air Cooled 2-Pipe Changeover Water Cooled 2-Pipe Single Phase Air Cooled Total Piping Length 1,804 ft.-2,625 ft. 1,804 ft.-2,460 ft. 3,280 ft. 984 ft ft. 393 ft. Farthest Indoor unit 541 ft. 541 ft. 541 ft. 541 ft. 262 ft. PIPING HEIGHT Simultaneous Air & Water Cooled 2-Pipe Changeover Air & Water Cooled 2-Pipe Single Phase Air cooled Outdoor Unit HIGHER than Indoor Unit 164 ft.* 98 ft. Outdoor Unit LOWER than Indoor Unit 131 ft. 65 ft. Indoor Unit to Any BC Controller 49 ft. n/a n/a

39 Two Pipe Example 12 indoor-unit system Heat Recovery Soft Copper BC to IU Reducers possible at BC

40 Three Pipe Example 12 indoor-unit system Heat Recovery Hard copper from OU to BS Reducer fittings

41 Refrigerant Leakage Concentration Levels What is RCL? Refrigerant Concentration Limit (RCL): the refrigerant concentration limit, in air, determined in accordance with this standard and intended to reduce the risks of acute toxicity asphyxiation and flammability hazards in normally occupied, enclosed spaces RCL typically expressed as lbs/1000 ft 3

42 Determination of RCL Referenced Codes/Standards International Mechanical Code Previously set RCL for R-410A at 10 lbs/mcf 2009 Revisions raises RCL to 25 lbs/mcf ISO-5149 ISO-5149 sets R-410A RCL as 18.7 lbs/mcf ASHRAE ASHRAE establishes the R-410A RCL as 25lbs/MCF through reference to ASHRAE 34.

43 Critical Concentration Calculation RCL (R410A) = 25 lb./mcf Refrigerant Charge (Rc) of a P72 = 23 lbs 3 oz = lbs MAV = Minimum Applied Volume (cubic feet) MAV = Rc/RCL MAV = ( lbs)/(25 lbs/1000 cu ft) MAV = cu ft

44 Appropriate Solutions Option 3 Option 1 Option 2 Option 1-Locate Equipment within larger space Ducted communicating spaces w/ no closure devices that restrict airflow below 10% of peak airflow. Option 2-Do not use equipment with refrigerant Option 3-Increase room volume through the use of openings Door Undercuts, transfer ducts or grilles.

45 The Efficiencies from VRF System Effect Inverter-driven compressors / part load performance! Variable capacity indoor units! Extended Heat Pump (Air to Air) Capability! Simultaneous cooling and heating!

46 Summary of Refrigerant Management Refrigerant Concentration Limit is a tool to protect the public Informed and educated engineers can incorporate necessary measures to meet the RCL. R410A is of lowest toxicity and is NOT combustible.

47 Energy Standards & Savings

48 AHRI 1230 & IEER AHRI Standard 1230 created a testing standard for VRF equipment above 65,000 Btu/h (below 65,000 Btu/h continues to be rated in accordance with AHRI Standard 210/ ) On January 1st, 2010, IEER superseded IPLV as the testing standard for VRF equipment above 65,000 Btu/h Unlike testing VRF for IPLV (according to AHRI Standard 210/240), testing for IEER involves actual testing at part load conditions and assigning weighted values to each test point Testing VRF for IEER involves testing at four fixed conditions: 100%, 75%, 50%, & 25% load. The equipment is still not allowed to vary compressor speed and indoor unit capacity to meet a varying load as it was designed to do Simultaneous Heating and Cooling Efficiency (Not Yet Tested) SCHE = (Heating Capacity (Btu/h) + Cooling Capacity (Btu/h)) / Total System Power Input (Watts)

49 ASHRAE VRF Benchmarks

50 ASHRAE VRF Benchmarks

51 Energy Star Requirements

52 Energy Modeling EnergyPro Version 5.0 Accepted by the USGBC for Compliance with Energy and Atmosphere Credit 1

53 What Makes Energy Pro Different Sample Building in Part Load: OA Temp 50 o F Cubicle Area 3000 BTU Lobby/ Waiting Room Conference Room BTU 6000 BTU Break Room 3000 BTU Elect 3000 BTU Janitor 6000 BTU Open Work Room 6000 BTU 3000 BTU Office #1 Office # BTU 3000 BTU Men Women PURY-P72 Simultaneous Load: Cooling: BTU Heating: BTU

54 What Makes Energy Pro Different Cooling Power Input PURY-P ,000 BTUH 6.48 KW 5.00 Power Input KW ,000 BTUH 2.38 KW System Load BTUH

55 What Makes Energy Pro Different Outdoor Temperature Power Input Correction (For a 68 Indoor WB Temperature) KW at 95 o F Powe r Input K W KW at 50 o F OA Temperature FDB

56 What does this mean Getting 27,000 BTUH of cooling and 21,000 BTUH of heating, while providing only 1.87 KW to the outdoor unit. This savings cannot be realized without the ability to model simultaneous heating and cooling. For this scenario, Calculated Efficiency of 25.7 EER

57 School Energy Modeling Results School--Percentage Energy Cost Savings V/S Comparable Systems Seattle LA Dallas CM v/s VAV CM v/s 4 Pipe CM v/s WSHP Location Chicago NYC Boston Miami Atlanta 0% 4% 7% 11% 14% 18% 21% 25% 28% 32% Energy Savings

58 Office Building Energy Modeling Results Percentage Energy Savings V/S Comparable Systems Seattle LA Dallas Location Chicago NYC CM v/s 4 Pipe CM v/s VAV CM v/s WSHP Boston Miami Atlanta 0% 4% 7% 11% 14% 18% 21% 25% Energy Savings

59 Questions & Answers Thank You For Having Us Today! We Are Here To Help Make Your VRF Projects Successful!

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