# More on Market-Making and Delta-Hedging

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1 More on Market-Making and Delta-Hedging

2 What do market makers do to delta-hedge? Recall that the delta-hedging strategy consists of selling one option, and buying a certain number shares An example of Delta hedging for 2 days (daily rebalancing and mark-to-market): Day 0: Share price = \$40, call price is \$2.7804, and = Sell call written on 100 shares for \$278.04, and buy shares. Net investment: (58.24 \$40)\$ = \$ At 8%, overnight financing charge is \$0.45 = \$ (e 0.08/365 1) Day 1: If share price = \$40.5, call price is \$3.0621, and = Overnight profit/loss: \$29.12 \$28.17 \$0.45 = \$0.50(mark-to-market) Buy 3.18 additional shares for \$ to rebalance Day 2: If share price = \$39.25, call price is \$ Overnight profit/loss: \$ \$73.39 \$0.48 = \$3.87(mark-to-market)

3 What do market makers do to delta-hedge? Recall that the delta-hedging strategy consists of selling one option, and buying a certain number shares An example of Delta hedging for 2 days (daily rebalancing and mark-to-market): Day 0: Share price = \$40, call price is \$2.7804, and = Sell call written on 100 shares for \$278.04, and buy shares. Net investment: (58.24 \$40)\$ = \$ At 8%, overnight financing charge is \$0.45 = \$ (e 0.08/365 1) Day 1: If share price = \$40.5, call price is \$3.0621, and = Overnight profit/loss: \$29.12 \$28.17 \$0.45 = \$0.50(mark-to-market) Buy 3.18 additional shares for \$ to rebalance Day 2: If share price = \$39.25, call price is \$ Overnight profit/loss: \$ \$73.39 \$0.48 = \$3.87(mark-to-market)

4 What do market makers do to delta-hedge? Recall that the delta-hedging strategy consists of selling one option, and buying a certain number shares An example of Delta hedging for 2 days (daily rebalancing and mark-to-market): Day 0: Share price = \$40, call price is \$2.7804, and = Sell call written on 100 shares for \$278.04, and buy shares. Net investment: (58.24 \$40)\$ = \$ At 8%, overnight financing charge is \$0.45 = \$ (e 0.08/365 1) Day 1: If share price = \$40.5, call price is \$3.0621, and = Overnight profit/loss: \$29.12 \$28.17 \$0.45 = \$0.50(mark-to-market) Buy 3.18 additional shares for \$ to rebalance Day 2: If share price = \$39.25, call price is \$ Overnight profit/loss: \$ \$73.39 \$0.48 = \$3.87(mark-to-market)

5 What do market makers do to delta-hedge? Recall that the delta-hedging strategy consists of selling one option, and buying a certain number shares An example of Delta hedging for 2 days (daily rebalancing and mark-to-market): Day 0: Share price = \$40, call price is \$2.7804, and = Sell call written on 100 shares for \$278.04, and buy shares. Net investment: (58.24 \$40)\$ = \$ At 8%, overnight financing charge is \$0.45 = \$ (e 0.08/365 1) Day 1: If share price = \$40.5, call price is \$3.0621, and = Overnight profit/loss: \$29.12 \$28.17 \$0.45 = \$0.50(mark-to-market) Buy 3.18 additional shares for \$ to rebalance Day 2: If share price = \$39.25, call price is \$ Overnight profit/loss: \$ \$73.39 \$0.48 = \$3.87(mark-to-market)

6 What do market makers do to delta-hedge? Recall that the delta-hedging strategy consists of selling one option, and buying a certain number shares An example of Delta hedging for 2 days (daily rebalancing and mark-to-market): Day 0: Share price = \$40, call price is \$2.7804, and = Sell call written on 100 shares for \$278.04, and buy shares. Net investment: (58.24 \$40)\$ = \$ At 8%, overnight financing charge is \$0.45 = \$ (e 0.08/365 1) Day 1: If share price = \$40.5, call price is \$3.0621, and = Overnight profit/loss: \$29.12 \$28.17 \$0.45 = \$0.50(mark-to-market) Buy 3.18 additional shares for \$ to rebalance Day 2: If share price = \$39.25, call price is \$ Overnight profit/loss: \$ \$73.39 \$0.48 = \$3.87(mark-to-market)

7 What do market makers do to delta-hedge? Recall that the delta-hedging strategy consists of selling one option, and buying a certain number shares An example of Delta hedging for 2 days (daily rebalancing and mark-to-market): Day 0: Share price = \$40, call price is \$2.7804, and = Sell call written on 100 shares for \$278.04, and buy shares. Net investment: (58.24 \$40)\$ = \$ At 8%, overnight financing charge is \$0.45 = \$ (e 0.08/365 1) Day 1: If share price = \$40.5, call price is \$3.0621, and = Overnight profit/loss: \$29.12 \$28.17 \$0.45 = \$0.50(mark-to-market) Buy 3.18 additional shares for \$ to rebalance Day 2: If share price = \$39.25, call price is \$ Overnight profit/loss: \$ \$73.39 \$0.48 = \$3.87(mark-to-market)

8 What do market makers do to delta-hedge? Recall that the delta-hedging strategy consists of selling one option, and buying a certain number shares An example of Delta hedging for 2 days (daily rebalancing and mark-to-market): Day 0: Share price = \$40, call price is \$2.7804, and = Sell call written on 100 shares for \$278.04, and buy shares. Net investment: (58.24 \$40)\$ = \$ At 8%, overnight financing charge is \$0.45 = \$ (e 0.08/365 1) Day 1: If share price = \$40.5, call price is \$3.0621, and = Overnight profit/loss: \$29.12 \$28.17 \$0.45 = \$0.50(mark-to-market) Buy 3.18 additional shares for \$ to rebalance Day 2: If share price = \$39.25, call price is \$ Overnight profit/loss: \$ \$73.39 \$0.48 = \$3.87(mark-to-market)

9 What do market makers do to delta-hedge? Recall that the delta-hedging strategy consists of selling one option, and buying a certain number shares An example of Delta hedging for 2 days (daily rebalancing and mark-to-market): Day 0: Share price = \$40, call price is \$2.7804, and = Sell call written on 100 shares for \$278.04, and buy shares. Net investment: (58.24 \$40)\$ = \$ At 8%, overnight financing charge is \$0.45 = \$ (e 0.08/365 1) Day 1: If share price = \$40.5, call price is \$3.0621, and = Overnight profit/loss: \$29.12 \$28.17 \$0.45 = \$0.50(mark-to-market) Buy 3.18 additional shares for \$ to rebalance Day 2: If share price = \$39.25, call price is \$ Overnight profit/loss: \$ \$73.39 \$0.48 = \$3.87(mark-to-market)

10 What do market makers do to delta-hedge? Recall that the delta-hedging strategy consists of selling one option, and buying a certain number shares An example of Delta hedging for 2 days (daily rebalancing and mark-to-market): Day 0: Share price = \$40, call price is \$2.7804, and = Sell call written on 100 shares for \$278.04, and buy shares. Net investment: (58.24 \$40)\$ = \$ At 8%, overnight financing charge is \$0.45 = \$ (e 0.08/365 1) Day 1: If share price = \$40.5, call price is \$3.0621, and = Overnight profit/loss: \$29.12 \$28.17 \$0.45 = \$0.50(mark-to-market) Buy 3.18 additional shares for \$ to rebalance Day 2: If share price = \$39.25, call price is \$ Overnight profit/loss: \$ \$73.39 \$0.48 = \$3.87(mark-to-market)

11 What do market makers do to delta-hedge? Recall that the delta-hedging strategy consists of selling one option, and buying a certain number shares An example of Delta hedging for 2 days (daily rebalancing and mark-to-market): Day 0: Share price = \$40, call price is \$2.7804, and = Sell call written on 100 shares for \$278.04, and buy shares. Net investment: (58.24 \$40)\$ = \$ At 8%, overnight financing charge is \$0.45 = \$ (e 0.08/365 1) Day 1: If share price = \$40.5, call price is \$3.0621, and = Overnight profit/loss: \$29.12 \$28.17 \$0.45 = \$0.50(mark-to-market) Buy 3.18 additional shares for \$ to rebalance Day 2: If share price = \$39.25, call price is \$ Overnight profit/loss: \$ \$73.39 \$0.48 = \$3.87(mark-to-market)

12 Self-Financing Trading: Discrete Time Let X k denote the value of the hedging portfolio at time k Let k denote the number of shares of stock held between times k and k + 1 At time k, after rebalancing (i.e., moving from a position of k 1 to a position of k ), the amount we hold in the money market account is X k S k k The value of the portfolio at time k + 1 is X k+1 = k S k+1 + (1 + r)(x k k S k )

13 Self-Financing Trading: Discrete Time Let X k denote the value of the hedging portfolio at time k Let k denote the number of shares of stock held between times k and k + 1 At time k, after rebalancing (i.e., moving from a position of k 1 to a position of k ), the amount we hold in the money market account is X k S k k The value of the portfolio at time k + 1 is X k+1 = k S k+1 + (1 + r)(x k k S k )

14 Self-Financing Trading: Discrete Time Let X k denote the value of the hedging portfolio at time k Let k denote the number of shares of stock held between times k and k + 1 At time k, after rebalancing (i.e., moving from a position of k 1 to a position of k ), the amount we hold in the money market account is X k S k k The value of the portfolio at time k + 1 is X k+1 = k S k+1 + (1 + r)(x k k S k )

15 Self-Financing Trading: Discrete Time Let X k denote the value of the hedging portfolio at time k Let k denote the number of shares of stock held between times k and k + 1 At time k, after rebalancing (i.e., moving from a position of k 1 to a position of k ), the amount we hold in the money market account is X k S k k The value of the portfolio at time k + 1 is X k+1 = k S k+1 + (1 + r)(x k k S k )

16 Self-Financing Trading: Discrete Time - The Gain So, the gain between time k and time k + 1 is X k+1 X k = k (S k+1 S k ) + r(x k k S k ) This means that the gain is the sum of the capital gain from the stock holdings: k (S k+1 S k ) and the interest earnings from the money-market account r(x k k S k )

17 Self-Financing Trading: Discrete Time - The Gain So, the gain between time k and time k + 1 is X k+1 X k = k (S k+1 S k ) + r(x k k S k ) This means that the gain is the sum of the capital gain from the stock holdings: k (S k+1 S k ) and the interest earnings from the money-market account r(x k k S k )

18 Self-Financing Trading: Discrete Time - Introducing the Money-Market Account Define the value of a share in the money-market account at time k to be M k = (1 + r) k and let the number of shares of the money-market held at time k be denoted by Γ k

19 Self-Financing Trading: Discrete Time - The new expression for the gain So, the gain between time k and time k + 1 can now be written as X k+1 X k = k (S k+1 S k ) + Γ k (M k+1 M k ) Thus, the gain is the sum of the capital gain from the stock investment holdings: k (S k+1 S k ) and the interest earnings from the money-market investment Γ k (M k+1 M k ) The wealth at time k + 1 can be expressed as X k+1 = k S k+1 + Γ k M k+1 However, k and Γ k cannot be chosen arbitrarily.

20 Self-Financing Trading: Discrete Time - The new expression for the gain So, the gain between time k and time k + 1 can now be written as X k+1 X k = k (S k+1 S k ) + Γ k (M k+1 M k ) Thus, the gain is the sum of the capital gain from the stock investment holdings: k (S k+1 S k ) and the interest earnings from the money-market investment Γ k (M k+1 M k ) The wealth at time k + 1 can be expressed as X k+1 = k S k+1 + Γ k M k+1 However, k and Γ k cannot be chosen arbitrarily.

21 Self-Financing Trading: Discrete Time - The new expression for the gain So, the gain between time k and time k + 1 can now be written as X k+1 X k = k (S k+1 S k ) + Γ k (M k+1 M k ) Thus, the gain is the sum of the capital gain from the stock investment holdings: k (S k+1 S k ) and the interest earnings from the money-market investment Γ k (M k+1 M k ) The wealth at time k + 1 can be expressed as X k+1 = k S k+1 + Γ k M k+1 However, k and Γ k cannot be chosen arbitrarily.

22 Self-Financing Trading: Discrete Time - The new expression for the gain So, the gain between time k and time k + 1 can now be written as X k+1 X k = k (S k+1 S k ) + Γ k (M k+1 M k ) Thus, the gain is the sum of the capital gain from the stock investment holdings: k (S k+1 S k ) and the interest earnings from the money-market investment Γ k (M k+1 M k ) The wealth at time k + 1 can be expressed as X k+1 = k S k+1 + Γ k M k+1 However, k and Γ k cannot be chosen arbitrarily.

23 Self-Financing Trading: Discrete Time - The self-financing condition The agent arrives at time k + 1 with a portfolio of k shares of stock and Γ k shares of the money market account and then rebalances, i.e., chooses k+1 and Γ k+1 After rebalancing, the wealth of the agent is X k+1 = k+1 S k+1 + Γ k+1 M k+1 The wealth of the agent cannot be changed through rebalancing, so it must be that X k+1 = k+1 S k+1 + Γ k+1 M k+1 = k S k+1 + Γ k M k+1 The last equality yields the discrete time self-financing condition S k+1 ( k+1 k ) + M k+1 (Γ k+1 Γ k ) = 0 The first term is the cost of rebalancing the stock and the second term is the cost of rebalancing the money-market account

24 Self-Financing Trading: Discrete Time - The self-financing condition The agent arrives at time k + 1 with a portfolio of k shares of stock and Γ k shares of the money market account and then rebalances, i.e., chooses k+1 and Γ k+1 After rebalancing, the wealth of the agent is X k+1 = k+1 S k+1 + Γ k+1 M k+1 The wealth of the agent cannot be changed through rebalancing, so it must be that X k+1 = k+1 S k+1 + Γ k+1 M k+1 = k S k+1 + Γ k M k+1 The last equality yields the discrete time self-financing condition S k+1 ( k+1 k ) + M k+1 (Γ k+1 Γ k ) = 0 The first term is the cost of rebalancing the stock and the second term is the cost of rebalancing the money-market account

25 Self-Financing Trading: Discrete Time - The self-financing condition The agent arrives at time k + 1 with a portfolio of k shares of stock and Γ k shares of the money market account and then rebalances, i.e., chooses k+1 and Γ k+1 After rebalancing, the wealth of the agent is X k+1 = k+1 S k+1 + Γ k+1 M k+1 The wealth of the agent cannot be changed through rebalancing, so it must be that X k+1 = k+1 S k+1 + Γ k+1 M k+1 = k S k+1 + Γ k M k+1 The last equality yields the discrete time self-financing condition S k+1 ( k+1 k ) + M k+1 (Γ k+1 Γ k ) = 0 The first term is the cost of rebalancing the stock and the second term is the cost of rebalancing the money-market account

26 Self-Financing Trading: Discrete Time - The self-financing condition The agent arrives at time k + 1 with a portfolio of k shares of stock and Γ k shares of the money market account and then rebalances, i.e., chooses k+1 and Γ k+1 After rebalancing, the wealth of the agent is X k+1 = k+1 S k+1 + Γ k+1 M k+1 The wealth of the agent cannot be changed through rebalancing, so it must be that X k+1 = k+1 S k+1 + Γ k+1 M k+1 = k S k+1 + Γ k M k+1 The last equality yields the discrete time self-financing condition S k+1 ( k+1 k ) + M k+1 (Γ k+1 Γ k ) = 0 The first term is the cost of rebalancing the stock and the second term is the cost of rebalancing the money-market account

27 Self-Financing Trading: Discrete Time - The self-financing condition The agent arrives at time k + 1 with a portfolio of k shares of stock and Γ k shares of the money market account and then rebalances, i.e., chooses k+1 and Γ k+1 After rebalancing, the wealth of the agent is X k+1 = k+1 S k+1 + Γ k+1 M k+1 The wealth of the agent cannot be changed through rebalancing, so it must be that X k+1 = k+1 S k+1 + Γ k+1 M k+1 = k S k+1 + Γ k M k+1 The last equality yields the discrete time self-financing condition S k+1 ( k+1 k ) + M k+1 (Γ k+1 Γ k ) = 0 The first term is the cost of rebalancing the stock and the second term is the cost of rebalancing the money-market account

28 Self-Financing Trading: Segue into the continuous time The discrete-time self-financing condition can be rewritten as S k ( k+1 k ) + (S k+1 S k )( k+1 k ) + M k (Γ k+1 Γ k ) + (M k+1 M k )(Γ k+1 Γ k ) = 0 This suggests the continuous-time self-financing condition S t d t + ds t d t + M t dγ t + dm t dγ t = 0 This claim can be proved using stochastic calculus...

29 Self-Financing Trading: Segue into the continuous time The discrete-time self-financing condition can be rewritten as S k ( k+1 k ) + (S k+1 S k )( k+1 k ) + M k (Γ k+1 Γ k ) + (M k+1 M k )(Γ k+1 Γ k ) = 0 This suggests the continuous-time self-financing condition S t d t + ds t d t + M t dγ t + dm t dγ t = 0 This claim can be proved using stochastic calculus...

30 Self-Financing Trading: Segue into the continuous time The discrete-time self-financing condition can be rewritten as S k ( k+1 k ) + (S k+1 S k )( k+1 k ) + M k (Γ k+1 Γ k ) + (M k+1 M k )(Γ k+1 Γ k ) = 0 This suggests the continuous-time self-financing condition S t d t + ds t d t + M t dγ t + dm t dγ t = 0 This claim can be proved using stochastic calculus...

31 Recall the meaning of Delta An option written on an undelying asset S is most sensitive to the changes in the value of S The largest part of the risk comes from the price movements of asset S - which is reflected in the delta of the option, i.e., if C is the price of a call the most pronounced effect comes from C := C S The replicating protfolio will always contain C shares of the underlying stock The portfolio which contains the option, along with C shares of stock will have the value of its Delta equal to zero - we say it is delta neutral

32 Recall the meaning of Delta An option written on an undelying asset S is most sensitive to the changes in the value of S The largest part of the risk comes from the price movements of asset S - which is reflected in the delta of the option, i.e., if C is the price of a call the most pronounced effect comes from C := C S The replicating protfolio will always contain C shares of the underlying stock The portfolio which contains the option, along with C shares of stock will have the value of its Delta equal to zero - we say it is delta neutral

33 Recall the meaning of Delta An option written on an undelying asset S is most sensitive to the changes in the value of S The largest part of the risk comes from the price movements of asset S - which is reflected in the delta of the option, i.e., if C is the price of a call the most pronounced effect comes from C := C S The replicating protfolio will always contain C shares of the underlying stock The portfolio which contains the option, along with C shares of stock will have the value of its Delta equal to zero - we say it is delta neutral

34 Recall the meaning of Delta An option written on an undelying asset S is most sensitive to the changes in the value of S The largest part of the risk comes from the price movements of asset S - which is reflected in the delta of the option, i.e., if C is the price of a call the most pronounced effect comes from C := C S The replicating protfolio will always contain C shares of the underlying stock The portfolio which contains the option, along with C shares of stock will have the value of its Delta equal to zero - we say it is delta neutral

35 Recall the other Greeks If X denotes the price of a portfolio, we define Theta: Gamma: Vega: rho: Θ := X t Γ := 2 X S 2 V := X σ ρ := X r

36 Recall the other Greeks If X denotes the price of a portfolio, we define Theta: Gamma: Vega: rho: Θ := X t Γ := 2 X S 2 V := X σ ρ := X r

37 Recall the other Greeks If X denotes the price of a portfolio, we define Theta: Gamma: Vega: rho: Θ := X t Γ := 2 X S 2 V := X σ ρ := X r

38 Recall the other Greeks If X denotes the price of a portfolio, we define Theta: Gamma: Vega: rho: Θ := X t Γ := 2 X S 2 V := X σ ρ := X r

39 Recall the other Greeks If X denotes the price of a portfolio, we define Theta: Gamma: Vega: rho: Θ := X t Γ := 2 X S 2 V := X σ ρ := X r

40 The Delta-Gamma-Theta Approximation In this model X depends only on the values of S and t (σ and r are assumed constant) The Taylor expansion of X gives us X (t + t, S + S) = X (t, s) X (t, S) X (t, S) + S + t + 1 S t 2 + higher order terms 2 X (t, S) S 2 ( S) 2 where S = S(t + t) S(t) Ignoring the higher order terms (as one would in establishing the Ito s Lemma), we get X (t + t, S + S) X (t, s) + S + Θ t Γ ( S)2 So, we can aim to reduce the variability of the portfolio by making and Γ small - we cannot do much about Θ

41 The Delta-Gamma-Theta Approximation In this model X depends only on the values of S and t (σ and r are assumed constant) The Taylor expansion of X gives us X (t + t, S + S) = X (t, s) X (t, S) X (t, S) + S + t + 1 S t 2 + higher order terms 2 X (t, S) S 2 ( S) 2 where S = S(t + t) S(t) Ignoring the higher order terms (as one would in establishing the Ito s Lemma), we get X (t + t, S + S) X (t, s) + S + Θ t Γ ( S)2 So, we can aim to reduce the variability of the portfolio by making and Γ small - we cannot do much about Θ

42 The Delta-Gamma-Theta Approximation In this model X depends only on the values of S and t (σ and r are assumed constant) The Taylor expansion of X gives us X (t + t, S + S) = X (t, s) X (t, S) X (t, S) + S + t + 1 S t 2 + higher order terms 2 X (t, S) S 2 ( S) 2 where S = S(t + t) S(t) Ignoring the higher order terms (as one would in establishing the Ito s Lemma), we get X (t + t, S + S) X (t, s) + S + Θ t Γ ( S)2 So, we can aim to reduce the variability of the portfolio by making and Γ small - we cannot do much about Θ

43 Understanding the Market-Maker s Portfolio Suppose that, at any time t T, the market-maker is long (t) shares of stock and short one call on that stock Then the cost/profit of his/her portfolio at time t equals Y (t, S t ) = (t) S t C(t, S t ) where C(t, S t ) is the price of the call at time t Suppose that the cost/profit above is invested in the money-market account Then, the change in the value of the portfolio is (t) S (C(t + t, S(t + t)) C(t, S(t))) r t Y (t, S t )

44 Understanding the Market-Maker s Portfolio Suppose that, at any time t T, the market-maker is long (t) shares of stock and short one call on that stock Then the cost/profit of his/her portfolio at time t equals Y (t, S t ) = (t) S t C(t, S t ) where C(t, S t ) is the price of the call at time t Suppose that the cost/profit above is invested in the money-market account Then, the change in the value of the portfolio is (t) S (C(t + t, S(t + t)) C(t, S(t))) r t Y (t, S t )

45 Understanding the Market-Maker s Portfolio Suppose that, at any time t T, the market-maker is long (t) shares of stock and short one call on that stock Then the cost/profit of his/her portfolio at time t equals Y (t, S t ) = (t) S t C(t, S t ) where C(t, S t ) is the price of the call at time t Suppose that the cost/profit above is invested in the money-market account Then, the change in the value of the portfolio is (t) S (C(t + t, S(t + t)) C(t, S(t))) r t Y (t, S t )

46 Understanding the Market-Maker s Portfolio Suppose that, at any time t T, the market-maker is long (t) shares of stock and short one call on that stock Then the cost/profit of his/her portfolio at time t equals Y (t, S t ) = (t) S t C(t, S t ) where C(t, S t ) is the price of the call at time t Suppose that the cost/profit above is invested in the money-market account Then, the change in the value of the portfolio is (t) S (C(t + t, S(t + t)) C(t, S(t))) r t Y (t, S t )

47 Understanding the Market-Maker s Portfolio: An Approximation The Taylor approximation similar to the one we conducted earlier yields that the change in the market-maker s portfolio is approximately ( ) 1 2 ( S)2 Γ + t Θ + r t ( S t C(t, S(t))) where the Greeks are calculated at time t

48 The Merton-Black-Scholes model In the Black-Scholes setting, for an option with price C = C(t, s) we have that So, we get ( S) 2 (ds) 2 = σ 2 S 2 dt Θ σ2 S 2 Γ + r(s C) = 0 Note that the value of Θ is fixed once we fix the values of and Γ Note that Γ is the measure of risk the hedger faces as a result of not rebalancing frequently enough so, in the absence of transaction costs, the agent should rebalance often as this reduces the variance of his/her portfolio

49 The Merton-Black-Scholes model In the Black-Scholes setting, for an option with price C = C(t, s) we have that So, we get ( S) 2 (ds) 2 = σ 2 S 2 dt Θ σ2 S 2 Γ + r(s C) = 0 Note that the value of Θ is fixed once we fix the values of and Γ Note that Γ is the measure of risk the hedger faces as a result of not rebalancing frequently enough so, in the absence of transaction costs, the agent should rebalance often as this reduces the variance of his/her portfolio

50 The Merton-Black-Scholes model In the Black-Scholes setting, for an option with price C = C(t, s) we have that So, we get ( S) 2 (ds) 2 = σ 2 S 2 dt Θ σ2 S 2 Γ + r(s C) = 0 Note that the value of Θ is fixed once we fix the values of and Γ Note that Γ is the measure of risk the hedger faces as a result of not rebalancing frequently enough so, in the absence of transaction costs, the agent should rebalance often as this reduces the variance of his/her portfolio

51 The Merton-Black-Scholes model In the Black-Scholes setting, for an option with price C = C(t, s) we have that So, we get ( S) 2 (ds) 2 = σ 2 S 2 dt Θ σ2 S 2 Γ + r(s C) = 0 Note that the value of Θ is fixed once we fix the values of and Γ Note that Γ is the measure of risk the hedger faces as a result of not rebalancing frequently enough so, in the absence of transaction costs, the agent should rebalance often as this reduces the variance of his/her portfolio

52 Delta-Hedging of American Options The recipe for Delta-hedging is the same as for the European option, but restricted to the continuation region, i.e., the region prior to early exercise (if it is to happen) We do not have closed form expressions for the boundaries of the continuation region for the finite-expiration American options in general, but we have numerical recipes

53 Delta-Hedging of American Options The recipe for Delta-hedging is the same as for the European option, but restricted to the continuation region, i.e., the region prior to early exercise (if it is to happen) We do not have closed form expressions for the boundaries of the continuation region for the finite-expiration American options in general, but we have numerical recipes

54 Delta-Hedging in Practice As we have seen thus far, the market-maker may adopt a Delta-neutral position to try to make her portfolio less sensitive to uncertainty, i.e., the changes in S Alternatively, one may adopt a Gamma-neutral position by using options to hedge - it is necessary to use other types of options for this strategy Augment the portfolio by by buying deep-out-of-the-money options as insurance - this is probably not a viable strategy Use static option replication according to put-call parity to form a both Delta- and Gamma-neutral hedge A relatively novel approach involves trading the hedging error as another financial product

55 Delta-Hedging in Practice As we have seen thus far, the market-maker may adopt a Delta-neutral position to try to make her portfolio less sensitive to uncertainty, i.e., the changes in S Alternatively, one may adopt a Gamma-neutral position by using options to hedge - it is necessary to use other types of options for this strategy Augment the portfolio by by buying deep-out-of-the-money options as insurance - this is probably not a viable strategy Use static option replication according to put-call parity to form a both Delta- and Gamma-neutral hedge A relatively novel approach involves trading the hedging error as another financial product

56 Delta-Hedging in Practice As we have seen thus far, the market-maker may adopt a Delta-neutral position to try to make her portfolio less sensitive to uncertainty, i.e., the changes in S Alternatively, one may adopt a Gamma-neutral position by using options to hedge - it is necessary to use other types of options for this strategy Augment the portfolio by by buying deep-out-of-the-money options as insurance - this is probably not a viable strategy Use static option replication according to put-call parity to form a both Delta- and Gamma-neutral hedge A relatively novel approach involves trading the hedging error as another financial product

57 Delta-Hedging in Practice As we have seen thus far, the market-maker may adopt a Delta-neutral position to try to make her portfolio less sensitive to uncertainty, i.e., the changes in S Alternatively, one may adopt a Gamma-neutral position by using options to hedge - it is necessary to use other types of options for this strategy Augment the portfolio by by buying deep-out-of-the-money options as insurance - this is probably not a viable strategy Use static option replication according to put-call parity to form a both Delta- and Gamma-neutral hedge A relatively novel approach involves trading the hedging error as another financial product

58 Delta-Hedging in Practice As we have seen thus far, the market-maker may adopt a Delta-neutral position to try to make her portfolio less sensitive to uncertainty, i.e., the changes in S Alternatively, one may adopt a Gamma-neutral position by using options to hedge - it is necessary to use other types of options for this strategy Augment the portfolio by by buying deep-out-of-the-money options as insurance - this is probably not a viable strategy Use static option replication according to put-call parity to form a both Delta- and Gamma-neutral hedge A relatively novel approach involves trading the hedging error as another financial product

59 Gamma-Neutrality Denote by Γ the gamma of a certain portfolio X and by Γ C the gamma of a certain contingent claim C. In addition to having X, we want to buy/sell n contracts of C in order to make the entire portfolio gamma-neutral, i.e., we want to have Γ + nγ C = 0 So, the correct number of contingent claims C to buy/sell is n = Γ Γ C However, this addition to our position changes the delta of the entire portfolio To rectify this, we trade a certain (appropriate) number of the shares of the underlying asset to make the entire portfolio delta-neutral, as well Note that the last step does not alter the gamma of the entire portfolio, as the gamma of the underlying stock is always equal to zero

60 Gamma-Neutrality Denote by Γ the gamma of a certain portfolio X and by Γ C the gamma of a certain contingent claim C. In addition to having X, we want to buy/sell n contracts of C in order to make the entire portfolio gamma-neutral, i.e., we want to have Γ + nγ C = 0 So, the correct number of contingent claims C to buy/sell is n = Γ Γ C However, this addition to our position changes the delta of the entire portfolio To rectify this, we trade a certain (appropriate) number of the shares of the underlying asset to make the entire portfolio delta-neutral, as well Note that the last step does not alter the gamma of the entire portfolio, as the gamma of the underlying stock is always equal to zero

61 Gamma-Neutrality Denote by Γ the gamma of a certain portfolio X and by Γ C the gamma of a certain contingent claim C. In addition to having X, we want to buy/sell n contracts of C in order to make the entire portfolio gamma-neutral, i.e., we want to have Γ + nγ C = 0 So, the correct number of contingent claims C to buy/sell is n = Γ Γ C However, this addition to our position changes the delta of the entire portfolio To rectify this, we trade a certain (appropriate) number of the shares of the underlying asset to make the entire portfolio delta-neutral, as well Note that the last step does not alter the gamma of the entire portfolio, as the gamma of the underlying stock is always equal to zero

62 Gamma-Neutrality Denote by Γ the gamma of a certain portfolio X and by Γ C the gamma of a certain contingent claim C. In addition to having X, we want to buy/sell n contracts of C in order to make the entire portfolio gamma-neutral, i.e., we want to have Γ + nγ C = 0 So, the correct number of contingent claims C to buy/sell is n = Γ Γ C However, this addition to our position changes the delta of the entire portfolio To rectify this, we trade a certain (appropriate) number of the shares of the underlying asset to make the entire portfolio delta-neutral, as well Note that the last step does not alter the gamma of the entire portfolio, as the gamma of the underlying stock is always equal to zero

63 Gamma-Neutrality Denote by Γ the gamma of a certain portfolio X and by Γ C the gamma of a certain contingent claim C. In addition to having X, we want to buy/sell n contracts of C in order to make the entire portfolio gamma-neutral, i.e., we want to have Γ + nγ C = 0 So, the correct number of contingent claims C to buy/sell is n = Γ Γ C However, this addition to our position changes the delta of the entire portfolio To rectify this, we trade a certain (appropriate) number of the shares of the underlying asset to make the entire portfolio delta-neutral, as well Note that the last step does not alter the gamma of the entire portfolio, as the gamma of the underlying stock is always equal to zero

64 Gamma-Neutrality Denote by Γ the gamma of a certain portfolio X and by Γ C the gamma of a certain contingent claim C. In addition to having X, we want to buy/sell n contracts of C in order to make the entire portfolio gamma-neutral, i.e., we want to have Γ + nγ C = 0 So, the correct number of contingent claims C to buy/sell is n = Γ Γ C However, this addition to our position changes the delta of the entire portfolio To rectify this, we trade a certain (appropriate) number of the shares of the underlying asset to make the entire portfolio delta-neutral, as well Note that the last step does not alter the gamma of the entire portfolio, as the gamma of the underlying stock is always equal to zero

65 Gamma-Neutrality: An Example Consider a Delta-neutral portfolio X that has Γ = 5, 000 Assume that the traded option has C = 0.4 and Γ C = 2 We offset the negative gamma of the portfolio X by purchasing n = 5, 000/2 2, 500 option contracts The resulting portfolio is gamma-neutral, but has the delta equal to new = 2, 500 C = 2, = 1, 000 To rectify this, we should sell 1, 000 shares of the underlying asset Similarly, one should be able to make one s portfolio neutral with respect to the other Greeks if there is nontrivial dependence of the portfolio on the relevant parameter (r or σ, e.g.)

66 Gamma-Neutrality: An Example Consider a Delta-neutral portfolio X that has Γ = 5, 000 Assume that the traded option has C = 0.4 and Γ C = 2 We offset the negative gamma of the portfolio X by purchasing n = 5, 000/2 2, 500 option contracts The resulting portfolio is gamma-neutral, but has the delta equal to new = 2, 500 C = 2, = 1, 000 To rectify this, we should sell 1, 000 shares of the underlying asset Similarly, one should be able to make one s portfolio neutral with respect to the other Greeks if there is nontrivial dependence of the portfolio on the relevant parameter (r or σ, e.g.)

67 Gamma-Neutrality: An Example Consider a Delta-neutral portfolio X that has Γ = 5, 000 Assume that the traded option has C = 0.4 and Γ C = 2 We offset the negative gamma of the portfolio X by purchasing n = 5, 000/2 2, 500 option contracts The resulting portfolio is gamma-neutral, but has the delta equal to new = 2, 500 C = 2, = 1, 000 To rectify this, we should sell 1, 000 shares of the underlying asset Similarly, one should be able to make one s portfolio neutral with respect to the other Greeks if there is nontrivial dependence of the portfolio on the relevant parameter (r or σ, e.g.)

68 Gamma-Neutrality: An Example Consider a Delta-neutral portfolio X that has Γ = 5, 000 Assume that the traded option has C = 0.4 and Γ C = 2 We offset the negative gamma of the portfolio X by purchasing n = 5, 000/2 2, 500 option contracts The resulting portfolio is gamma-neutral, but has the delta equal to new = 2, 500 C = 2, = 1, 000 To rectify this, we should sell 1, 000 shares of the underlying asset Similarly, one should be able to make one s portfolio neutral with respect to the other Greeks if there is nontrivial dependence of the portfolio on the relevant parameter (r or σ, e.g.)

69 Gamma-Neutrality: An Example Consider a Delta-neutral portfolio X that has Γ = 5, 000 Assume that the traded option has C = 0.4 and Γ C = 2 We offset the negative gamma of the portfolio X by purchasing n = 5, 000/2 2, 500 option contracts The resulting portfolio is gamma-neutral, but has the delta equal to new = 2, 500 C = 2, = 1, 000 To rectify this, we should sell 1, 000 shares of the underlying asset Similarly, one should be able to make one s portfolio neutral with respect to the other Greeks if there is nontrivial dependence of the portfolio on the relevant parameter (r or σ, e.g.)

70 Gamma-Neutrality: An Example Consider a Delta-neutral portfolio X that has Γ = 5, 000 Assume that the traded option has C = 0.4 and Γ C = 2 We offset the negative gamma of the portfolio X by purchasing n = 5, 000/2 2, 500 option contracts The resulting portfolio is gamma-neutral, but has the delta equal to new = 2, 500 C = 2, = 1, 000 To rectify this, we should sell 1, 000 shares of the underlying asset Similarly, one should be able to make one s portfolio neutral with respect to the other Greeks if there is nontrivial dependence of the portfolio on the relevant parameter (r or σ, e.g.)

71 Market-Making As Insurance Insurance companies have two ways of dealing with unexpectedly large loss claims: 1. Hold capital reserves 2. Diversify risk by buying reinsurance Market-makers also have two analogous ways to deal with excessive losses: 1. Hold capital to cushion against less-diversifiable risks - When risks are not fully diversifiable, holding capital is inevitable 2. Reinsure by trading in out-of-the-money options

72 Market-Making As Insurance Insurance companies have two ways of dealing with unexpectedly large loss claims: 1. Hold capital reserves 2. Diversify risk by buying reinsurance Market-makers also have two analogous ways to deal with excessive losses: 1. Hold capital to cushion against less-diversifiable risks - When risks are not fully diversifiable, holding capital is inevitable 2. Reinsure by trading in out-of-the-money options

73 Market-Making As Insurance Insurance companies have two ways of dealing with unexpectedly large loss claims: 1. Hold capital reserves 2. Diversify risk by buying reinsurance Market-makers also have two analogous ways to deal with excessive losses: 1. Hold capital to cushion against less-diversifiable risks - When risks are not fully diversifiable, holding capital is inevitable 2. Reinsure by trading in out-of-the-money options

74 Market-Making As Insurance Insurance companies have two ways of dealing with unexpectedly large loss claims: 1. Hold capital reserves 2. Diversify risk by buying reinsurance Market-makers also have two analogous ways to deal with excessive losses: 1. Hold capital to cushion against less-diversifiable risks - When risks are not fully diversifiable, holding capital is inevitable 2. Reinsure by trading in out-of-the-money options

75 Market-Making As Insurance Insurance companies have two ways of dealing with unexpectedly large loss claims: 1. Hold capital reserves 2. Diversify risk by buying reinsurance Market-makers also have two analogous ways to deal with excessive losses: 1. Hold capital to cushion against less-diversifiable risks - When risks are not fully diversifiable, holding capital is inevitable 2. Reinsure by trading in out-of-the-money options

76 Market-Making As Insurance Insurance companies have two ways of dealing with unexpectedly large loss claims: 1. Hold capital reserves 2. Diversify risk by buying reinsurance Market-makers also have two analogous ways to deal with excessive losses: 1. Hold capital to cushion against less-diversifiable risks - When risks are not fully diversifiable, holding capital is inevitable 2. Reinsure by trading in out-of-the-money options

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