Deutsche Nachwuchswissenschaftler in den USA

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1 Deutsche Nachwuchswissenschaftler in den USA Perspektiven der Hochschul- und Wissenschaftspolitik German Scientists in the United States: Results of the C R I S Online Survey Christoph F. Buechtemann und Verena Tobsch Center for Research on Innovation & Society Kapitel III.3 der bmb+f Veröffentlichung Deutsche Nachwuchswissenschaftler in den USA: Perspektiven der Hochschul- und Wissenschaftspolitik, Berlin: Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung Mai 2001, S

2 German Scientists in the United States: Results of the C R I S Online Survey Christoph F. Buechtemann und Verena Tobsch Center for Research on Innovation & Society, Berlin & Santa Barbara Overview A brief preface First results in a nutshell Survey design Basic statistics Reasons for going to the United States As a postdoc in the U.S: financial support As a postdoc in the U.S: work situation Learning effects and value-added of doing one s postdoc in the U.S. The return decision: magnitudes and criteria Strengths & weaknesses of the U.S./ German science systems 145

3 A Brief Preface.... and a Few Remarks About How to Interpret the Data. The objective of the first C R I S Online Survey has been to collect first-hand information about the situation of German scientists and postdoctoral scholars in the United States, their intentions to stay or to return to Europe, as well as their assessment of the German as compared to the U.S. higher education and science systems. Representativeness: Reflecting the chosen sampling procedure ( snowball and references by the German scholarship institutions), the altogether 632 respondents who participated in the survey and returned a completed questionnaire represent a heterogeneous group: it includes persons currently doing their postdoc at a U.S. host institution, former postdocs who have stayed on in the United States, other German scholars and scientists living in the U.S., as well as persons from Germany who, after some years in the United States, have meanwhile returned to Europe. As such the data allow many different perspectives upon the topics addressed in the questionnaire. The sampling procedure implies that the data are not necessarily representative of all German-orgin scientists and scholars residing in the United States (as counted, for instance, in the annual surveys of the Institute of International Education), nor of all former postdocs who have returned to Germany. The data can, however, be considered as representative at the subgroup level, specifically for the group of current postdocs from Germany at U.S. host institutions. When focusing our analytical lens on the group of German postdoctoral scholars in the United States, the survey information about their financial support, work situation, and intentions to return to Germany can be taken to fairly well reflect the situation and views of the group at large. Generalizability: Several questions in the underlying questionnaire asked respondents to compare their experiences in the U.S. and the U.S. science system with what they had experienced in Germany. The emerging picture carries a clear message: the German system is in need of reform. In interpreting the results, one should, however, keep in mind that the comparison, for two reasons, carries a natural bias in favor of the U.S. system: all persons sampled have at one point in their lives chosen the United States as a desirable place to spend some years of their scientific careers; respondents tend to concentrate at the very best institutions in the United States which, as such, are not representative of the U.S. science system at large. As a consequence, the assessment emanating from the survey responses is not an objective one in the sense of an unbiased one-to-one comparison. Rather, the results should be read as a true picture of the legitimacy and reform needs of the German higher education and science systems as perceived through the eyes of a selected group of the very best scientists of Germany. 146

4 First Results in a Nutshell Reasons for going to the U.S.: Of all respondents living in the U.S. at the time of the survey, the large majority (68%) had come to the United States for a postdoctoral appointment. Only a small share (6.5%) had already come to enroll in a graduate or doctoral program at a U.S. university. Among the reasons to spend one s postdoc in the U.S., the enhancement of one s professional labor market value and the fact that the U.S. is leading in the respondent s specific field clearly dominate the list. Along the same vein, two thirds of all current postdocs state that they wanted to acquire new knowledge in areas where Germany has little to offer, and over half had been advised by their thesis advisors to go to the U.S. Other push factors, such as the lack of postdoctoral jobs in Germany, are hardly mentioned at all, indicating that escaping from joblessness is not a motive for spending one s early career abroad. Financial support of German postdocs : More than four out of five German postdocs receive scholarships to finance their stay in the United States, in most cases from a German scholarship institution. The majority have also received financial support from their host institutions, mostly follow-up funding after their scholarships have ended. On average host institution funding amounted to 40% of total funding during the postdoc period. For most postdocs, arriving with scholarship support was essential (32%) or at least helpful (46%) for obtaining a postdoctoral position at their host institutions. Work situation of German postdocs : Several survey questions related to current postdocs work situation at their U.S. host institutions. Whereas a postdoc appointment in most cases involves a combination of productive work and training, specifically in the natural sciences the work aspect often prevails over the learning effect. In half of the cases the research projects postdocs are engaged in were designed primarily by the host institution. Only one in three postocs is engaged in pure basic research without any commercial value, while a similar proportion (30%) indicate that their research work is of direct commercial relevance. When compared with their experiences in Germany, most postdocs rate their work situation at their U.S. lab very favorably. Especially the provision of funding and other resources for research, the given research infrastructure and support services (e.g., library services), as well as the relationships between postdocs and professors are regarded as superior in the United States by a large majority of respondents. Not surprisingly, the positive assessment of the situation in the U.S. vis-à-vis Germany is specifically pronounced in the medical sciences where, under the present system, the working and research conditions of postdocs in Germany tend to be dismal. 147

5 Value-added of the postdoc stay in the U.S.: In their assessment of the value-added of their U.S. postdoc experience, German postdocs emphasize intrinsic aspects, such as the extension of one s professional knowledge and the learning of new methods and techniques. More extrinsic aspects, such as the enhancement of one s professional labor market value, are mentioned less frequently, though still by almost half of all postdocs. Likewise, one in two postdocs highlights the exposure to an international and multicultural research environment. By contrast, only few of them mention that they have learned how to work in a more market-driven research setting. The return decision: It is indicative of the intensive foreign talent sourcing by U.S. laboratories and the good quality of the German postdocs in the U.S. that over half of the latter receive a job offer from their host institution and / or from another U.S. employer for the time after their current postdoc appointment. The decisions to stay or return must be set against this background. Two out of three German postdocs in the U.S. have firm intentions to return to Europe. 18% consider the possibility or have already firmly decided to stay in the United States, while the same proportion are still undecided. From these data one can infer that roughly one in four German postdocs stay on in the U.S. after the completion of their postdoc. The share of those firmly planning to return is markedly higher in the medical and related sciences (73%), reflecting the non-recognition of many of their academic credentials in the U.S. as well as the fact that young medical doctors more often have jobs in Germany that they can return to. In the natural sciences, by contrast, a higher share consider or firmly plan to stay in the U.S., reflecting in part the more difficult job situation they face after their return. Reasons to stay and reasons to return: Former postdocs who stayed in the United States most frequently mention job-related reasons, such as more attractive employment conditions and career prospects, as reasons for their decision to remain in the United States. Failure to find an appropriate position in Germany, by contrast, was cited by only one third of the stayers. This supports the notion that it is often those with multiple job offers and career opportunities on both sides of the Atlantic who choose not to return to Europe after their postdoc. Vice versa, push factors, such as visa limitations or lack of job offers in the U.S., are rarely mentioned as reasons to return by those respondents who have actually returned to Germany. Instead, the latter mention non-job-related personal reasons more frequently than any other reason for their return decision. 148

6 Benchmarking higher education & science systems: A special focus of the C R I S Online Survey was dedicated to comparing the U.S. and German science and higher education systems. For this purpose, respondents were asked to rate several aspects by whether, from their personal experience, they were better in the U.S., just about the same in both countries, or better in Germany. The results of the comparison reveal a clearcut picture: Above all, respondents emphasize the superior postdoctoral job and career prospects of young scientists in the United States. In these two dimensions, 80% to 90% of all survey participants rate the U.S. system as somehow or definitely better than the German system. Moreover, two thirds of all respondents state that the United States has a superior system of research funding, which specifically offers better research grant opportunities for young researchers. Reflecting their concentration at top U.S. institutions, one of two respondents also gives higher marks to the material resources and equipment of U.S. research labs, whereas only 20% rate this aspect higher in Germany. A similar picture in favor of the U.S. system emerges with regard to different aspects of the academic career system at large: three quarters to four fifths of all survey participants state that communication across hierarchy levels within academia as well as the performance and achievement orientation of the academic career system are superior in the U.S. Furthermore, in the eyes of two thirds of the respondents, the U.S. offers more opportunities for interdisciplinary research. Still over 50 percent see a higher degree of transparency of the criteria used in academic appointments in the U.S. Only with regard to the objectivity and fairness of research grant awards, the majority view the U.S. as not performing any better than Germany. Strikingly, in none of the dimensions mentioned does any significant number of respondents give better marks to the German system. A final item battery related to the science system at large. According to the survey participants the greatest relative strengths of the American system consist in its greater openness and ability to adapt new types and areas of scientific knowledge, as well as in the ensuing greater speed of scientific advance in the U.S. This assessment certainly reflects the fact that German scientists in the United States are disproportionately found in those disciplines and fields of specialization that are further developed in the U.S. Whereas the strengths of the U.S. system clearly lie in the research domain, Germany is seen by more than half of the respondents as doing an equally good (31 %) or even better job (28 %) in the academic training up to the doctorate. This explains both why U.S. labs like hiring German postdocs and why many German doctorate recipients come to spend their postdoctoral years in the United States. 149

7 Design of the C R I S Online Survey Method: Internet-based questionnaire survey Time of survey: December 12th to 29th, address sample: n = address sampling through: snowball German scholarship organizations Concept & questionnaire design: Web implementation by: Average time required to complete questionnaire: 13.7 minutes Valid responses (complete questionnaire): n = response rate: 76.0 % 150

8 Basic Statistics (unweighted number of respondents in parentheses) Of all survey respondents with complete data are... Current or former postdocs 72.9% (461) - currently as postdocs in the U.S. 41.6% (263) - former U.S. postdocs 31.3% (198) Currently or previously in the U.S., though not as postdoc 27.0% (171) Total currently residing in the U.S. 84.7% (535) Total returnees living in Germany 13.9% (88) Total living in third country 1.4% (9) Distribution of survey respondents by discipline: Medical sciences / pharmacology / neurosciences 27.2% Natural sciences 56.4% - biology 23.5% - biochemistry 9.0% - chemistry 8.6% - physics / geosciences 13.3% Engineering / math / computer sciences 9.7% Social & behavioral sciences / humanities 6.7% Mean duration of completed postdoc phase: 40 months* * former postdocs only 151

9 Reasons for Going to the U.S. Base: All respondents currently in the U.S. (n = 535) Q: Aus welchem Grunde sind Sie zu Beginn Ihres derzeitigen USA- Aufenthalts in die Vereinigten Staaten gekommen? (What were the reasons why you initially came to United States?) To enroll in a graduate / doctoral program 6.5% For a postdoctoral appointment 68.4% For a research visit 15.9% To assume a professor's position 2.8% Other reasons 6.4% Base: All current postdocs (n = 263) Q: Welche Gründe waren ausschlaggebend für Ihre Entscheidung, Ihren Postdoc in den USA zu machen? (Which reasons made you decide to spend your postdoc phase in the United States?) I wanted to enhance my job market value The U.S.A. are cutting edge in my specific field I wanted to work in a specific laboratory I wanted to learn novel things that are not offered in Germany For advancing one s career one must have been in the U.S.A. My professor / thesis advisor advised me to spend some time in the U.S.A % 79.1 % 73.3 % 66.3 % 59.8 % 54.1 % Germany offers hardly any job opportunities in my specific work area 37.8 % I have had personal relations in the U.S.A. I did not find a job in Germany after earning my doctorate 11.5 % 8.5 % % PUSH factors PULL factors 152

10 Financial Support during Postdoc Phase Base: All current and former postdocs (n=461) Q: Beziehen Sie derzeit oder haben Sie während / seit Beginn Ihres Postdoc-Aufenthalts zeitweise ein Stipendium bezogen? (Do you receive / have you received during your postdoc a scholarship even if only temporarily?) Yes, scholarship during postdoc 87.0% Do / did not receive scholarship 13.0% Q: Werden / wurden Sie während Ihrer Postdoc-Phase ganz oder teilweise von Ihrer Gastinstitution finanziert? (Are / were you entirely or in part funded by your host institution during your postdoc?) Received no funding from host institution 25.2% Entirely funded by host institution 15.6% Follow-up host institution support 27.9% Initial host institution support 11.1% Parallel host institution support (co-funding) 19.0% Q: Bezogen auf Ihren gesamten Postdoc-Aufenthalt: Wie hoch ist der von Ihrer Gastinstitution getragene Finanzierungsanteil in etwa? (If you look at your entire postdoc stay: What share of the overall funding has been contributed by your host institution?) average host institution share in total funding 40%* * percentage calculated for all current postdocs 153

11 Assessment of Scholarship Support Base: Current postdocs with scholarship (n = 234) Q: Falls Sie ein Stipendium beziehen: Wie beurteilen Sie im Großen und Ganzen folgende Aspekte? (If you receive a scholarship: how would you rate the following aspects?) Amount of scholarship has been sufficient 63.8% Duration of scholarship has been sufficient 62.0% Advice & guidance by scholarship agency has been sufficient 80.3% Q: Falls Sie ein Stipendium beziehen: War Ihr Stipendium Bedingung dafür, dass Sie an Ihrer Gastinstitution eine Postdoc-Stelle bekommen haben oder hätte auch die Möglichkeit einer vollen Finanzierung durch die Gastinstitution bestanden? (If you receive a scholarship: Was the scholarship a necessary condition for obtaining the postdoc position at your host institution, or would there have been the possibility of full funding by the host institution?) Scholarship was... absolute requirement by host institution 32.1% helpful for getting the postdoc position 46.1% not a condition host institution would have provided full support 16.2% 154

12 Work Situation Aspects (1) Base: All current postdocs (n = 263) Q: Sind Sie an Ihrer Gastinstitution in erster Linie als Arbeitskraft eingesetzt oder überwiegt der Ausbildungsaspekt? (At your host institution, are you primarily productively employed or does the training aspect prevail?) medical & related sciences natural sciences Work aspect prevails 25.7% 40.2% Training aspect prevails 18.6% 14.4% Sound balance of both 55.7% 45.4% Q: Arbeiten Sie an einem überwiegend von Ihrer Gastinstitution oder überwiegend von Ihnen selbst konzipierten Forschungsprojekt? (Was the research project you work on designed primarily by yourself or by your host institution?) medical & related sciences natural sciences Primarily by host institution 52.2% 46.5% Primarily by postdoc 47.8% 53.5% Q: Wird das Projekt, an dem Sie arbeiten, ganz oder teilweise aus Drittmitteln finanziert? (Is the project you work on partly or entirely funded from external sources?) medical & related sciences natural sciences Funded from external sources 67.1% 71.3% Q: Wie hoch ist die kommerzielle Relevanz dessen, was Sie in Ihrer Postdoc-Stelle erforschen? (How would you rate the commercial relevance of your postdoc research?) medical & related sciences natural sciences None / pure basic research 27.7% 38.2% Little commercial relevance 26.1% 31.4% Is commercially relevant 34.5% 24.3% 155

13 Work Situation Aspects (2) Base: All current postdocs (n = 263) Q: Im Vergleich zu dem, was Sie in Deutschland kennengelernt haben: Wie würden Sie folgende Aspekte Ihrer derzeitigen Postdoc-Stelle beurteilen? (As compared to what you experienced in Germany, how would you rate the following aspects of your current postdoc position in the U.S.?) is better in the U.S.A. is about the same is better in Germany Laboratory equipment Work climate Recognition for effort and performance Provision / availability of research materials Relation between postdocs and professors Opportunities for independent research Research infrastructure and support services Financial resources for research Research funding (availability of external funds) Natural sciences Medical / related sciences 156

14 Value-added of Postdoc Stay in the U.S. Base: All current and former postdocs (n=461) Q: Worin würden Sie aus heutiger Sicht den spezifischen Wert oder Value-added Ihres Postdoc Aufenthalts in den USA sehen? (Where would you see the specific value-added resulting from your postdoc stay in the United States?) Percentage of respondents stating important or very important Enlarged my substantive knowledge 81.0 Learned new research methods and techniques Developed expertise in new areas Made new professional contacts Gathered research experience in a new field Experienced an international research environment Have been able to fully devote my time to research Enhanced my professional market value Learned that one can organize research in different ways Got to know cutting edge research Learned to do research in a more market-driven environment

15 The Return Decision: Offers to Stay On in the United States Base: All current postdocs (n = 263) Q: Hat Ihnen Ihre Gastinstitution oder ein anderer Arbeitgeber in den USA die Möglichkeit einer Anschlussbeschäftigung signalisiert oder ein konkretes Bleibeangebot unterbreitet? (Has your host institution or any other employer in the U.S. offered you employment for the time after your postdoc?) Neither host institution nor other employer 44.0% Received offer from host institution 45.2% Received offer from other institution / employer 14.8% Sum: received at least one job offer to stay (from host institution and / or other employer) 56.0% 158

16 The Return Decision: Plans to Return After Postdoc Base: All current postdocs (n = 263) Q: Planen Sie, nach Beendigung Ihrer Postdoc-Tätigkeit nach Deutschland / Europa zurückzukehren? (Do you personally plan to return to Europe / Germany after your current postdoc?) Will return to my previous job (have been on leave) 9.9% Have firm job offer to return to 16.8% Plan to return, but no job in sight yet 37.4% Am considering to stay longer in the U.S. 9.2% Firmly plan to stay on, but have no firm job yet 4.6% Firmly plan to stay on and have firm job offer 4.2% Undecided 17.9% Medical & related sciences Natural sciences Will return to previous job / have firm job offer to return 51.4% 15.1% Plan to return, but no job in sight yet 21.4% 46.8% Am considering / firmly plan to stay in the U.S. 12.8% 19.1% Undecided 11.4% 15.0% 159

17 Reasons for Staying in the U.S. Base: Former postdocs who stayed in the United States (n = 112) Q: Aus welchen Gründen sind Sie nach Ihrem Postdoc in den USA geblieben? (What were the reasons that made you stay in the U.S. after your postdoc?) Host institution offered follow-up position 42.9% Received attractive job offer from another employer 50.0% Did not find adequate position in Germany 33.0% Was offered more attractive job conditions in the U.S. than in Germany 69.6% Superior medium-term career prospects in the U.S. 60.7% The U.S. offer superior research opportunities in my specific field 50.9% For personal reasons 33.6% Reasons for Returning to Germany Base: Former postdocs, who have returned to Germany (n = 100) Q: Welches waren die ausschlaggebenden Gründe, die Sie zur Rückkehr nach Deutschland veranlasst haben? (What were the reasons that made you return to Germany?) Was on leave and returned to my old position 18.0% Received attractive job offer from Germany 40.0% Wanted to do my habilitation in Germany 39.0% Saw better medium-term career prospects in Germany than in the U.S. 13.9% U.S. visa ended / could not be extended 7.0% Did not find follow-up job in the U.S. 4.0% Personal reasons 50.0% 160

18 Comparing Science Systems (1) Base: All respondents with valid responses (n= 632) Q: Wo würden Sie, aus Ihrer persönlichen Erfahrungsperspektive, jeweils die relativen Stärken und Schwächen des amerikanischen Hochschul-/ Wissenschaftssystems im Vergleich zum deutschen sehen? (Where would you, from your own personal experience, see the specific strengths and weaknesses of the U.S. and the German science systems?) is better in the U.S.A. is about is better in Germany definitely rather the same rather definitely Basic endowment and funding of academic institutes and laboratories System of external research / grant funding Grant money opportunities for young scientists * Situation of young scientists after earning their doctorates * Medium-term career prospects of young scientists / postdocs * * rather or definitely better in Germany 161

19 Comparing Science Systems (2) Base: All respondents with valid responses (n= 632) Q: Wo würden Sie, aus Ihrer persönlichen Erfahrungsperspektive, jeweils die relativen Stärken und Schwächen des amerikanischen Hochschul-/ Wissenschaftssystems im Vergleich zum deutschen sehen? (Where would you, from your own personal experience, see the specific strengths and weaknesses of the U.S. and the German science systems?) is better in the U.S.A. definitely rather is about the same is better in Germany rather or definitely Objectivity and fairness of the research grant system Transparency of selection criteria and fairness of academic recruitment Opportunities for interdisciplinary research Performance orientation of the academic career system Communication across hierarchy levels

20 Comparing Science Systems (3) Base: All respondents with valid responses (n= 632) Q: Wo würden Sie, aus Ihrer persönlichen Erfahrungsperspektive, jeweils die relativen Stärken und Schwächen des amerikanischen Hochschul-/ Wissenschaftssystems im Vergleich zum deutschen sehen? (Where would you, from your own personal experience, see the specific strengths and weaknesses of the U.S. and the German science systems?) is better in the is better in U.S.A. Germany is about definitely rather the same rather definitely Quality of higher education up to doctorate Scientific advances / state-of-the-art research * Advances in new knowledge domains * Speed in the adaptation of new research methods and techniques * Openness of the science system towards novel areas and applications * * rather or definitely better in Germany 163

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