PHYSIOLOGY, ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND REPRODUCTION. Densitometric and biochemical values of broiler tibias at different ages

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "PHYSIOLOGY, ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND REPRODUCTION. Densitometric and biochemical values of broiler tibias at different ages"

Transcription

1 PHYSIOLOGY, ENDOCRINOLOGY, AND REPRODUCTION Densitometric and biochemical values of broiler tibias at different ages F. R. Barreiro,* 1 A. L. Sagula,* O. M. Junqueira, G. T. Pereira, and S. M. Baraldi-Artoni * * Department of Animal Morphology and Physiology, Department of Animal Sciences, and Department of Statistical Analysis, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Jaboticabal, São Paulo , Brazil ABSTRACT The objective of this experiment was to determine the normal values of bone radiographic density (BRD) by using the optical densitometry in radiographic images and the biochemical values represented by serum calcium, ash percentage, and minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium) from tibia ash of Cobb broilers at 8, 22, and 43 d of age. A total of 14 broilers were used for densitometric analysis, and 15 were used for biochemical dosages. The BRD values increased (P < 0.05) with age and in all tibia regions (proximal epiphysis, diaphysis, and distal epiphysis), concluding that growth was a determinative factor for bone performance, demanding a higher BRD during broiler development. Tibia proximal epiphysis presented higher BRD values in relation to the other bone regions (P < 0.05), as a result of a possible biomechanical adaptation to ligaments and tension of the muscle tendons at this region, allowing the support of the muscle mass increase. The serum calcium values were kept constant, as a result of the appropriate nutritional levels of the diet that supported the animal homeostasis. The bone ash and mineral percentage increased (P < 0.05) at 22 d of age, due to the higher mineral requirement in this age. The correlation between bone densitometry and the invasive techniques showed that the bone densitometry can substitute the determination of mineral percentage in the ash. This experiment presented normal values of the noninvasive and invasive methods more used in aviculture, allowing us to compare, subsequently, pathological and physiological values or results of broilers fed with different diets. Key words: bone ash, bone mineral density, broiler, serum calcium, tibia 2009 Poultry Science 88 : doi: /ps INTRODUCTION The bone tissue presents a plasticity that makes it able to answer stimuli, adapting itself to the pathological or physiological conditions that are submitted. The BW increases that occur with age (Robson et al., 2006) and the skeletal system diseases, such as rachitism (Mendonça Júnior, 2000) and tibial dyschondroplasia (Almeida Paz et al., 2004), are stimuli that can result in bone structure alterations and bone radiographic density (BRD) variations. The variations in the diet electrolytic balance can influence the acid-base balance, and this fact can endanger the bone development of the broilers (Oliveira et al., 2003). Appropriate nutritional levels promote the normal development of bone tissue (Almeida Paz and Bruno, 2006); therefore, nutritional deficiencies can cause BRD alterations. Currently, there are 2 main research concerns related to skeletal disorders in poultry: osteoporosis in egg-laying hens and leg 2009 Poultry Science Association Inc. Received February 20, Accepted August 16, Corresponding author: disorders caused by rapid bone growth in broiler chickens (Fleming, 2008). In aviculture, the BRD variations have been measured by invasive techniques, such as determination of the bone ash percentage and analysis of bone minerals (Schreiweis et al., 2003), but to do these techniques, it is necessary to euthanize the animal, which represents a loss to the producer. Bone densitometry can be used in live poultry as a tool to measure bone integrity with similar precision to other invasive techniques (Schreiweis et al., 2003); however, bone densitometry is not widely accepted because the standardization is difficult (Louzada et al., 2001; Almeida Paz et al., 2004). This absence of radiographic standardization is surpassed when densitometric references are used, for example, aluminum stairs, which pass through all the phases of the radiographic process (Louzada et al., 2001) correcting possible alterations that can occur during the image processing. The hydroxyapatite present in the bone structure and the aluminum have a similar density, making it possible to relate the different degrees of bone mineralization with the aluminum amount in the stairs by using the radiographic technique (Loubel and Dubois, 1973). Bone densitometry is efficient in the 2644

2 BONE MINERALIZATION IN BROILERS 2645 accompaniment of diseases that affect the bone tissue because the injured region presents a higher BRD value during the new bone tissue deposition. This increase in the BRD values is due to mineralization of dead osteocytes (Cruess and Dumont, 1985; Pharr and Bargai, 1997). Bone densitometry is an efficient indicator of the tibia ash percentage in broilers, and the correlation between these techniques is 86% (Onyango et al., 2003). The BRD can also be determined by the bone mineral composition (Almeida Paz and Bruno, 2006), taking the measures of calcium and phosphorus present in bone ash (Kienzle et al., 1995), and also determining the bone ash amount (Grier et al., 1996). The bird skeleton is constituted of 99% calcium reserve and 90% corporal phosphorus (Mendonça Júnior, 2000). In the growth phase, the majority of the calcium is used for the bone formation, allowing the support of the BW (Silva et al., 2001). The phosphorus deposition in the bone follows the calcium deposition, characterizing the interdependence between these minerals (Dell Isola et al., 2003). It is difficult to have access to magnesium amount in live animals because this plasmatic ion represents only 1% of total magnesium (Elin, 1987; Seiler, 1990; Blanchflower and Kennedy, 1991; Altura et al., 1994; Anderson and Talcott, 1994; Ising et al., 1995). Under deficiency conditions, the bone magnesium can be a plasmatic magnesium source (Rosol and Capen, 1997). Ion removal results in exchange of the magnesium for calcium on the bone surface. Therefore, the calcium-magnesium relation in ashes is the most sensible indicator of magnesium deficiency (Blaxter and Sharman, 1955). The objective of this experiment was to determine the normal values of BRD by using the optical densitometry in radiographic images and the biochemical values corresponding to serum calcium, ash percentage, and the minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium) from tibia ash of broilers at different ages (8, 22, and 43 d of age). The experiment offers results that can be used in other experiments of broilers fed with different nutritional levels, and they can also be related to pathological values, allowing the diagnosis of diseases that affect the integrity of the poultry leg. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 29 Cobb male broilers were used. They were housed from 1 d of age and bred for 43 d. The broilers were distributed in 2 boxes: one box containing 14 birds, used for densitometric measures, and the other box containing 15 birds, used for biochemical analysis of tibia. The handling was the same as that used in the commercial breed of broilers. The birds were vaccinated at 7 d of age against Gumboro and Newcastle diseases and against Gumboro disease at 14 d of age (reinforcement). The water and ration were provided ad libitum and the diet was done with soybean meal and corn base, in agreement with Rostagno et al. (2005; Table 1). Vitamins A and E were acquired from Sanofi-Aventis (Paris, France). Vitamin E activity was 52%. Densitometric Analysis The densitometric evaluations were realized at 8, 22, and 43 d of age from radiographic images. A total of 14 broilers were positioned dorsal decubitus, and the radiographic images taken followed the technique developed by Louzada (1994). An aluminum staircase composed of 12 steps was used (metallic alloy 6063, in accordance with the Brazilian Association of Technique Norms). The first step measured 0.5 mm in height, increasing 0.5 mm with each step until the tenth. The 11th step measured 6.0 mm, the 12th step measured 0.8 mm, and the step area was 5 25 mm 2. The images from tibia and aluminum stairs were obtained together, in the same radiography. The x-ray equipment (Tridoro 812E, Siemens, São Paulo, Brazil) of the radiology department of veterinary hospital at Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, (Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil) was adjusted for 8, 22, and 43 d of age, and the following values of kilovoltage, milliamperage, and milliamperage second were used for the respective ages: 35 kv, 100 ma, and 5 mas; 38 kv, 200 ma, and 4 mas; and 40 kv, 200 ma, and 4 mas. A focus-to-film distance of 1 m was used for all radiographic images taken. Kodak films (T-MATG/ RA, Kodak, Manaus, Brazil) were used inside the cassettes and measured 18 24, 24 30, and cm. The revelation and fixation of the films were made by automatic process, using Kodak equipment (X-OMAT 2000, Kodak). The radiographic images were scanned by a Scaníon scanner (Express A3 USB, Íon Indústria, São Paulo, Brazil) and these images were submitted to the computer program Image-Pro Plus (version 4.1, Media Cybernetics, Silver Spring, MD), and the density calibration was made, having the aluminum stairs image as reference. Subsequently, the BRD from left tibia was measured at the different regions, (proximal epiphysis, diaphysis, and distal epiphysis) and at the different ages. The densitometric values were expressed in aluminum millimeters. Biochemical Analysis Three milliliters of blood was collected from the jugular vein from 5 broilers at 8, 22, and 43 d of age. Subsequently, the samples were centrifuged and the serum was used for the calcium dosage. These same birds mentioned above were killed by cervical dislocation, which is a euthanasia method accepted by the Ethics and Animal Welfare Commission of Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista. The left tibias were obtained after the removal of skin, muscles, ligaments, vessels, and epi-

3 2646 Barreiro et al. Table 1. Composition and nutritive values of experimental diets Item Initial (1 to 7 d) Growth (8 to 21 d) Final (22 to 43 d) Ingredients (%) Ground corn Soybean meal Soybean oil Dicalcium phosphate Limestone Vitamin-mineral premix Salt dl-methionine l-lysine-hcl Calculated composition (%) ME (Mcal/kg) CP Calcium Total phosphorus Available phosphorus Sodium Total lysine Available lysine Total methionine Available methionine Total methionine + cystine Available methionine + cystine Vitamin-mineral premix supplied the following per kilogram of ration: selenium (0.273 mg), nicotinic acid (34.65 mg), copper (125 mg), calcium pantothenate (9.5 mg), biotin (0.16 mg), manganese (0.076 mg), dl-methionine (1.7 g), iodine (1.3 mg), coccidiostat (125 mg), antioxidant (0.5 mg), choline (0.6 mg), vitamin A (7,000 IU), vitamin B 1 (1.78 mg), vitamin B 12 (0.01 mg), vitamin B 2 (9.6 mg), vitamin B 6 (3.46 mg), vitamin D 3 (3,000 IU), vitamin E (25 IU), vitamin K (0.98 mg), and zinc (0.091 mg). The additives were added in the inert space. physary cartilage. The bones were placed in an oven (55 C) for 72 h to dry them. Subsequently, these bones were grinded in a ball mill and put in mufla oven at 550 C for 3 h, and the ash was used to quantify calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium amounts in the bone, by the technique of Silva and Queiroz (2002). The calcium and magnesium values were determined by atomic absorption in GBC equipment (932AA, Analitica, São Paulo, Brazil), whereas the phosphorus determination was realized by a spectrophotometer (B-395, Micronal, São Paulo, Brazil). The serum calcium was quantified by Calcium Liquiform Kit (Labtest Diagnóstica S.A., Lagoa Santa, Brazil). Statistical Analysis Repeated measures ANOVA was the statistical method used to evaluate the BRD values, which were obtained from live broilers, with a factor region among the broilers with 3 levels (proximal epiphysis, diaphysis, and distal epiphysis) and a factor age with 3 levels (8, 22, and 43 d of age) within the broilers in a randomized block design. There were n = 14 broilers (blocks). Single factor ANOVA was the statistical method used to evaluate the biochemical dosages, which were obtained from killed broilers. It was compared in 3 treatments (ages) with 5 replications (5 broilers) for each age. Pair-wise comparisons of means were made using Tukey s test procedure. A P-value <0.05 was considered significant. All of the statistical results were obtained from Minitab program (model 14, Minitab Inc., State College, PA). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The technique of bone densitometry in radiographic images was used in this experiment because it has easy access, low cost, reliable results, and this technique was used with success by other authors, such as Campos (2005), Godoy et al. (2005), Almeida Paz et al. (2006), and Fleming (2008). The densitometric values (Table 2) have demonstrated that the BRD increased with age (8, 22, and 43 d of age) and in all tibia regions (proximal epiphysis, diaphysis, and distal epiphysis), presenting a significant interaction between age and region. This fact has evidenced a tibia mineralization that allows the support of the weight increase during its growth. The BRD values at 8, 22, and 43 d of age in the different regions of the tibia have presented significant differences. The proximal epiphysis has showed higher BRD values than diaphysis and distal epiphysis, probably as result of a biomechanical adaptation that the Table 2. Values (mean ± SD) of the bone radiographic density (aluminum millimeters) from proximal epiphysis, diaphysis, and distal epiphysis of the tibia of broilers at 8, 22, and 43 d of age Age Proximal epiphysis Diaphysis Distal epiphysis ± 0.47 a,z 1.88 ± 0.39 b,z 1.42 ± 0.39 c,z ± 0.58 a,y 3.34 ± 0.36 b,y 1.96 ± 0.30 c,y ± 0.67 a,x 5.04 ± 0.31 b,x 3.43 ± 0.43 c,x a c Means within a row lacking a common superscript differ (P < 0.05). x z Means within a column lacking a common superscript differ (P < 0.05).

4 Table 3. Values (mean ± SD) of the biochemical analysis represented by serum calcium, tibia ash, and minerals in the ash (calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium) of broilers at 8, 22, and 43 d of age Age Serum calcium (mg/dl) Ash (%) Calcium ash (%) Phosphorus ash (%) Magnesium ash (%) ± 1.97 a ± 3.49 b ± 1.92 b ± 0.73 b 0.44 ± 0.05 b ± 0.72 a ± 2.02 a ± 1.59 a ± 0.85 a 0.63 ± 0.04 a ± 1.68 a ± 1.53 b ± 0.83 a ± 0.71 a 0.58 ± 0.09 a a,b Means within a column lacking a common superscript differ (P < 0.05). BONE MINERALIZATION IN BROILERS 2647 proximal epiphysis suffers due to ligament action and the muscle tendon tension of long fibular, short fibular, gastrocnemius, digital extensor, and popliteum muscles that originate or are inserted at this location. This biomechanical adaptation allows the support by the tibia of the heaviest muscles during broiler growth. Robson et al. (2006) have observed that BW has a strong relation with the BRD values. A variation of the electrolytic balance can influence the acid-basic balance, modifying the serum ph, and changes in this balance can endanger the bone development in poultry because the maintenance of the blood acid-basic balance is directly connected to the bone mineralization process (Oliveira et al., 2003). The serum calcium values (Table 3) did not present significant variations with age. This stability on values was expected, considering that the broilers were fed with balanced rations during the experimental period, attending the conditions to the animal homeostasis maintenance. The BRD can be determined using the ash percentage, which is an invasive method, and that can be substituted to a noninvasive method, such as bone densitometry in radiographic images. The disadvantage of the invasive methods is the necessity of poultry euthanasia, which represents a loss to the producer. Onyango et al. (2003) have concluded that bone densitometry presents a correlation of 86% with ash percentage, which indicates that bone densitometry is an efficient method to measure bone mineralization. It was possible to verify in this experiment that the bone ash percentage increased at 22 d of age as a function of the higher mineral exigency in this phase (growth phase) (Table 3). The balance between calcium and phosphorus is of utmost importance for leg health in broilers (Fleming, 2008). The calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium levels in ash increased significantly at 22 d of age and similar values were found at 43 d of age. Schoulten et al. (2003) have found values between 54.8 and 56.5% of tibia ash, 18.8 and 20.1% of calcium in ash, and 10.4 and 11.9% of phosphorus in ash from Hubbard-MPK broilers at 42 d of age. Oliveira et al. (2003) have compared diet efficiency and have determined the following values: 17.86% of tibia ash, 5.61% of calcium in ash, and 3.27% of phosphorus in ash from Cobb-Vantress broilers at 21 d of age fed with viscera flour and 17.82% of tibia ash, 5.42% calcium in ash, and 3.17% of phosphorus in ash from broilers fed with feather flour. Silva et al. (2001) have found values corresponding to 30.66% of tibia ash, 37.53% of calcium in ash, 21.36% of phosphorus in ash, and 0.95% of magnesium in ash from Hubbard broilers at 14 d of age. The ash percentage found by Schoulten et al. (2003) was higher than the values found in this experiment, although the mineral percentage was lower, considering that the ash analysis was done at 42 d of age. Oliveira et al. (2003) have found mineral percentage in ash (calcium and phosphorus) and ash percentage to be very low when the results were compared with these experiment values, indicating that a lower tibia mineralization has occurred. Silva et al. (2001) have showed calcium and phosphorus values close to this experiment, but the magnesium values were a little higher. Onyango et al. (2003) have concluded that bone densitometry is an efficient method to measure bone mineralization. The correlation between bone densitometry and the invasive techniques (Table 4) has presented significant differences for the values of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium) in the ash, evidencing that the noninvasive technique of bone densitometry can substitute the determination of mineral percentage in the ash. In conclusion, broiler growth was a determinative factor to tibia development, increasing the exigencies in relation to BRD values over the course of ages. There was also a possible biomechanical adaptation of tibia proximal epiphysis to ligaments, muscles, and tendon tension, allowing the muscle mass support that happens during its growth. There were no oscillations in the serum calcium levels due to the appropriate nutrient levels in the diet that have kept the animal homeostasis. The growth and final phases have demanded a higher mineral exigency to the tibia, leading to increased mineral values in ash and the ash percentage at Table 4. Correlation values between bone densitometry and the invasive measurements (serum calcium, ash content, and minerals in the ash) Item Serum calcium Ash Calcium ash Phosphorus ash Magnesium ash Correlation P-value

5 d of age. The correlation between bone densitometry and the invasive techniques has showed that the bone densitometry can substitute the determination of mineral percentage in the ash. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research was supported by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP), São Paulo, Brazil. REFERENCES Almeida Paz, I. C. L., and L. D. G. Bruno Bone mineral density: Review. Braz. J. Poult. Sci. 8: Almeida Paz, I. C. L., A. A. Mendes, R. R. Quinterio, L. C. Vulcano, S. E. Takahashi, R. G. Garcia, C. M. Komiyama, A. Balog, K. Pelicia, F. S. Wescheler, P. S. O. Scudeller, and A. Piccinin Bone mineral density of tibia and femur of broiler breeders: Growth, development and production. Braz. J. Poult. Sci. 8: Almeida Paz, I. C. L., A. A. Mendes, T. S. Takita, L. C. Vulcano, P. C. Guerra, F. S. Wechsler, and R. G. Garcia Tibial dyschondroplasia and bone mineral density. Braz. J. Poult. Sci. 6: Altura, B. T., T. L. Shirey, C. C. Young, K. Dell Orfano, J. Hiti, R. Welsh, Q. Yeh, R. L. Barbour, and B. M. Altura Characterization of a new ion selective eletrode for ionized magnesium in whole blood, plasma, serum, and aqueous samples. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 217(Suppl.): Anderson, K. A., and P. A. Talcott Magnesium. Pages in Handbook on Metals in Clinical and Analytical Chemistry. H. G. Seiler, A. Sigel, and H. Sigel, ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY. Blanchflower, W. J., and D. G. Kennedy Evaluation of a kinetic test kit for the determination of magnesium in bovine serum or plasma. Vet. Rec. 128: Blaxter, K. L., and G. A. M. Sharman Hipomagnesemic tetany in beef cattle. Vet. Rec. 67: Campos, J. F. A Avaliação da densidade mineral óssea do rádio e ulna de gatos por meio da técnica de densitometria óptica em imagem radiográfica e sua correlação com o peso, porcentagem de cinzas e os níveis de cálcio e fósforo da amostra do tecido ósseo da região estudada. MSc Diss. Univ. Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, Brazil. Cruess, R. L., and J. Dumont Healing of bone. Pages in Textbook of Small Animal Ortophaedics. C. D. Newton and D. M. Nunamaker, ed. J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia, PA. Dell Isola, A. T. P., J. A. F. Veloso, N. C. Baião, and S. L. Medeiros Efeito do óleo de soja em dietas com diferentes níveis de cálcio sobre a absorção e retenção óssea de cálcio e de fósforo em frangos de corte. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zoot. 55: Elin, R. J Assesment of magnesium status. Clin. Chem. 33: Fleming, R. H Nutritional factors affecting poultry bone health. Proc. Nutrition Society, Ulster, UK. Univ. Ulster, Jordanstown, UK. Godoy, C. L. B., L. C. Vulcano, F. A. M. Santos, and J. C. M. Soares Valores normais da densidade mineral óssea do acessório do carpo em eqüinos da raça Brasileiro de Hipismo (BH) determinados por meio da densitometria óptica em imagem radiográfica. Cienc. Rural. 35: Grier, S. J., A. S. Turner, and M. R. Alvis The use of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in animals. Invest. Radiol. 31: Barreiro et al. Ising, H., F. Bertschat, T. Günther, E. Jeremias, and A. Jeremias Measurement of free magnesium in blood, serum and plasma with an ion sensitive electrode. Eur. J. Clin. Chem. Clin. Biochem. 33: Kienzle, E., J. Zenteck, and H. Meyer Body composition of puppies and young dogs. J. Nutr. 128: Loubel, L., and M. Dubois Manual de Sensitometria: La Tecnica de la Medición de los Materiais Fotográficos. 2nd ed. Omega, Barcelona, Spain. Louzada, M. J. Q Otimização da técnica de densitometria óptica em imagens radiográficas de peças ósseas. Estudos in vitro. PhD Diss. Univ. Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. Louzada, M. J. Q., G. P. Nogueira, I. R. Garcia Junior, C. A. Carvalho, and G. A. Paula Densitometria óptica radiográfica em análise de densidade óssea de mandíbulas de coelhos castrados. Rev. Faculdade Odontol. Lins 13: Mendonça Júnior, C. X Enfermidades do sistema locomotor. Pages in Doenças das Aves. A. Berchieri Júnior and M. Macari, ed. FACTA, Campinas, Brazil. Oliveira, E. C., A. E. Murakami, J. R. G. Franco, P. S. Cella, and L. M. G. Souza Efeito do balanço eletrolítico e subprodutos avícolas no desempenho de frangos de corte na fase inicial (1 21 dias de idade). Acta Sci. Anim. Sci. 25: Onyango, E. M., P. Y. Hester, R. Stroshine, and O. Adeola Bone densitometry as an indicator of percentage tibia ash in broiler chicks fed varying dietary calcium and phosphorus levels. Poult. Sci. 82: Pharr, J. W., and V. Bargai Radiology. Pages in Lameness in Cattle. P. R. Grenough and A. D. Weaver, ed. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA. Robson, G. F., J. C. C. Balieiro, F. A. Sterman, A. C. B. C. Pinto, M. A. Miglino, M. Zats, and C. R. F. Auada Estudo longitudinal da densidade mineral óssea em cães jovens da raça Golden Retriever: Correlações com idade e peso corpóreo. Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. 43: Rosol, T. J., and C. C. Capen Calcium-regulating hormones and diseases of abnormal mineral metabolism. Pages in Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. J. J. Kaneko, J. W. Harvey, and M. L. Bruss, ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Rostagno, H. S., L. F. T. Albino, J. L. Donzele, P. C. Gomes, R. F. Oliveira, D. C. Lopes, A. S. Ferreira, and S. L. T. Barreto Tabelas brasileiras para aves e suínos: Composição de alimentos e exigências nutricionais. Pages in Tabelas Para Frangos de Corte. H. S. Rostagno, L. F. T. Albino, J. L. Donzele, P. C. Gomes, R. F. Oliveira, D. C. Lopes, A. S. Ferreira, and S. L. T. Barreto, ed. UFV, Viçosa, Brazil. Schoulten, N. A., A. S. Teixeira, A. J. Conte, H. O. Silva, A. G. Bertechini, and E. T. Fialho Efeito dos níveis de cálcio da ração suplementada com fitase sobre a deposição de minerais na tíbia de frangos de corte de 22 a 42 dias. Cienc. Agrotec. 27: Schreiweis, M. A., J. I. Orban, M. C. Ledur, and P. Y. Hester The use of densitometry to detect differences in bone mineral density and content of live White Leghorns fed varying levels of dietary calcium. Poult. Sci. 82: Seiler, H. G Determination of magnesium in biological material. Pages in Compendium on Magnesium and Its Role in Biology, Nutrition, and Physiology. H. Sigel and A. Sigel, ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY. Silva, D. J., and A. C. Queiroz Preparo de solução mineral. Pages in Análise de Alimentos: Métodos Químicos e Biológicos. D. J. Silva and A. C. Queiroz, ed. UFV, Viçosa, Brazil. Silva, F. A., G. H. K. Moraes, A. C. P. Rodrigues, C. C. Fonseca, M. G. A Oliveira, L. F. T. Albino, H. S. Rostagno, and C. S. Minafra Efeitos do ácido l-glutâmico e da vitamina D3 na composição química de fêmures e tibiotarsos de pintos de corte. Rev. Bras. Zootec. 30:

Feeding programs and their effects on broiler performance and economic indexes

Feeding programs and their effects on broiler performance and economic indexes 2014 Poultry Science Association, Inc. Feeding programs and their effects on broiler performance and economic indexes R. B. Trevisan, 1 V. S. Nakagi, P. T. Bravo, and D. E. Faria Departamento de Zootecnia,

More information

Traceability of Animal by Product Meals in Broilers Fed Sugarcane Yeast Using Stable Isotopes

Traceability of Animal by Product Meals in Broilers Fed Sugarcane Yeast Using Stable Isotopes Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola ISSN 56-635X Jan - Mar 22 / v.4 / n. / 5-55 Author(s) Kanayama JS,2 Pezzato AC Sartori JR Ducatti C Novaes VHC 2 Fascina VB Araújo

More information

The effects of dietary supplemented semi-refined sunflower oil with vitamin E on egg production performance of laying hens

The effects of dietary supplemented semi-refined sunflower oil with vitamin E on egg production performance of laying hens Available online at www.scholarsresearchlibrary.com Annals of Biological Research, 2011, 2 (3) :312-316 (http://scholarsresearchlibrary.com/archive.html) ISSN 0976-1233 CODEN (USA): ABRNBW The effects

More information

Nutrition Guide For Bobwhite Quail Production

Nutrition Guide For Bobwhite Quail Production Nutrition Guide For Bobwhite Quail Production Cooperative Extension Service The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Table of Contents Nutrients...3 Diet Formulation...4

More information

High Available Phosphorus Corn and Phytase in Layer Diets 1

High Available Phosphorus Corn and Phytase in Layer Diets 1 High Available Phosphorus Corn and Phytase in Layer Diets 1 N. Ceylan, 3 S. E. Scheideler, 2 and H. L. Stilborn 4 Department of Animal Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583-0908 ABSTRACT

More information

BEC Feed Solutions. Steve Blake BEC Feed Solutions

BEC Feed Solutions. Steve Blake BEC Feed Solutions BEC Feed Solutions Presenter: Steve Blake BEC Feed Solutions Nutritional Role of Phosphorus Phosphorus (P) is present in all cells in the body Essential for many digestive and metabolic processes, including

More information

PROCESSING OF WHEAT FOR GROWING-FINISHING SWINE

PROCESSING OF WHEAT FOR GROWING-FINISHING SWINE PROCESSING OF WHEAT FOR GROWING-FINISHING SWINE W.G. Luce 1, A.C. Clutter 2, C.V. Maxwell 3, S.R. McPeake 4 and R. Vencl 5 Story in Brief A trial involving 470 crossbred pigs was conducted to evaluate

More information

Calcium and Vitamin D Nutrition in the Elderly. Functions of Calcium. OCW: Geriatric Dentistry (E. Krall)

Calcium and Vitamin D Nutrition in the Elderly. Functions of Calcium. OCW: Geriatric Dentistry (E. Krall) 1. 2. Functions of Calcium Page - 1 3. Regulation of calcium: Hypocalcemia 4. Regulation of calcium: Hypercalcemia Page - 2 5. Calcium Homeostasis 6. Calcium absorption Page - 3 7. Some factors influencing

More information

TA3 Dosimetry and Instrumentation. Evaluation of the Field Size in Dental Diagnostic Radiology System ANDRADE PS 1, POTIENS MP 1

TA3 Dosimetry and Instrumentation. Evaluation of the Field Size in Dental Diagnostic Radiology System ANDRADE PS 1, POTIENS MP 1 TA3 Dosimetry and Instrumentation Evaluation of the Field Size in Dental Diagnostic Radiology System ANDRADE PS 1, POTIENS MP 1 1 Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, São Paulo, Brazil. ABSTRACT

More information

National Food Safety Standard Standard for nutrition labelling of prepackaged foods

National Food Safety Standard Standard for nutrition labelling of prepackaged foods National Standards of People s Republic of China GB 28050 2011 National Food Safety Standard Standard for nutrition labelling of prepackaged foods (Nota: traducción no oficial) Issued on: 2011-10-12 Implemented

More information

NUTRITION OF THE BODY

NUTRITION OF THE BODY 5 Training Objectives:! Knowledge of the most important function of nutrients! Description of both, mechanism and function of gluconeogenesis! Knowledge of the difference between essential and conditionally

More information

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola ISSN 1516-635X Jan - Mar 2013/ v.15 / n.1 / 59-64 Traceability of Animal Meals in Japanese Quail Eggs Using the Technique of 13C

More information

The Effect of Citric Acid, Phytase, and Their Interaction on Gastric ph, and Ca, P, and Dry Matter Digestibilities

The Effect of Citric Acid, Phytase, and Their Interaction on Gastric ph, and Ca, P, and Dry Matter Digestibilities The Effect of Citric Acid, Phytase, and Their Interaction on Gastric ph, and Ca, P, and Dry Matter Digestibilities J. P. Rice 1, R. S. Pleasant 2, and J. S. Radcliffe 1 1 Department of Animal Sciences

More information

Introduction. Introduction Nutritional Requirements. Six Major Classes of Nutrients. Water 12/1/2011. Regional Hay School -- Bolivar, MO 1

Introduction. Introduction Nutritional Requirements. Six Major Classes of Nutrients. Water 12/1/2011. Regional Hay School -- Bolivar, MO 1 Cattle and Horse Nutrition Dona Goede Livestock Specialist Introduction Many health, reproductive and production problems can be prevented with good nutrition. Poor nutrition results in: Poor conception

More information

Multivariate analysis of stable isotope data in the traceability process for birds

Multivariate analysis of stable isotope data in the traceability process for birds Acta Scientiarum http://www.uem.br/acta ISSN printed: 1806-2636 ISSN on-line: 1807-8672 Doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i4.13434 Multivariate analysis of stable isotope data in the traceability process

More information

Nutrition in Dogs Karen Hedberg BVSc 2007. Canine Nutrition

Nutrition in Dogs Karen Hedberg BVSc 2007. Canine Nutrition Nutrition in Dogs Karen Hedberg BVSc 2007 Main requirements : Canine Nutrition The dog is a carnivore Dogs can vary considerably at different stages of their life in their requirements for energy, fat

More information

Hill s Evidence-Based Clinical Nutrition for Dermatology Specialists

Hill s Evidence-Based Clinical Nutrition for Dermatology Specialists Hill s Evidence-Based Clinical Nutrition for Dermatology Specialists Discover the most complete and clinically proven line of dermatologic nutrition from Hill s Hill s Prescription Diet d/d Formulated

More information

Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand

Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand Questions and Answers 1. What are Nutrient Reference Values? The Nutrient Reference Values outline the levels of intake of essential nutrients considered,

More information

ASSESSMENT ON THE EFFICACY OF SKUDO IN ELIMINATING ECTOPARASITES AND ON ITS EFFECTS ON DOGS HEALTH. Investigator: Prof. Dr. Gisele Zoccal Mingoti Veterinary Medicine State University Paolista (Unesp) Araçatuba

More information

A COMPLETE RANGE OF HIGH-QUALITY DOG FOODS. A GUARANTEE FOR A SUPER-FIT DOG!

A COMPLETE RANGE OF HIGH-QUALITY DOG FOODS. A GUARANTEE FOR A SUPER-FIT DOG! A COMPLETE RANGE OF HIGH-QUALITY DOG FOODS. A GUARANTEE FOR A SUPER-FIT DOG! EURO PREMIUM OPTIMAL DIGESTION STRONG IMMUNE SYSTEM COAT AND SKIN CARE CELL PROTECTION The dog, a reliable friend for life!

More information

F. A. Steward Micronutrients, Div. of Heritage Technologies, LLC, Indianapolis, IN 46231, USA

F. A. Steward Micronutrients, Div. of Heritage Technologies, LLC, Indianapolis, IN 46231, USA Biol Trace Elem Res (2010) 138:181 189 DOI 10.1007/s12011-010-8623-3 1.3 Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Copper Sulfate or Tribasic Copper Chloride on the Growth Performance, Liver Copper Concentrations

More information

BURNETT CENTER INTERNET PROGRESS REPORT. No. 12 April, 2001. Summary of the 2000 Texas Tech University Consulting Nutritionist Survey

BURNETT CENTER INTERNET PROGRESS REPORT. No. 12 April, 2001. Summary of the 2000 Texas Tech University Consulting Nutritionist Survey BURNETT CENTER INTERNET PROGRESS REPORT No. 12 April, 2001 Summary of the 2000 Texas Tech University Consulting Nutritionist Survey M. L. Galyean and J. F. Gleghorn Department of Animal Science and Food

More information

Methionine Supplementation of Low-Protein Broiler Diets: Influence upon Growth Performance and Efficiency of Protein Utilization

Methionine Supplementation of Low-Protein Broiler Diets: Influence upon Growth Performance and Efficiency of Protein Utilization International Journal of Poultry Science 5 (6): 569-573, 006 ISSN 68-8356 Asian Network for Scientific Information, 006 Methionine Supplementation of Low-Protein Broiler Diets: Influence upon Growth Performance

More information

The effect of different dietary potassium and chloride levels on performance and excreta dry matter in broiler chickens

The effect of different dietary potassium and chloride levels on performance and excreta dry matter in broiler chickens Czech J. Anim. Sci., 56, 2011 (2): 53 60 Original Paper The effect of different dietary potassium and chloride levels on performance and excreta dry matter in broiler chickens J. Koreleski, S. Świątkiewicz,

More information

AN EVALUATION OF DEXTROSE, LACTOSE, AND WHEY SOURCES IN PHASE 2 STARTER DIETS FOR WEANLING PIGS 1

AN EVALUATION OF DEXTROSE, LACTOSE, AND WHEY SOURCES IN PHASE 2 STARTER DIETS FOR WEANLING PIGS 1 Swine Day 2007 AN EVALUATION OF DEXTROSE, LACTOSE, AND WHEY SOURCES IN PHASE 2 STARTER DIETS FOR WEANLING PIGS 1 J. R. Bergstrom, C. N. Groesbeck, J. M. Benz, M. D. Tokach, J. L. Nelssen, S. S. Dritz 2,

More information

Land O Lakes Feed DDGS. Nutrients Concentrate: United States Ethanol Outlook. A Growing Opportunity

Land O Lakes Feed DDGS. Nutrients Concentrate: United States Ethanol Outlook. A Growing Opportunity DDGS A Growing Opportunity Dr. Harold Tilstra Region Manager Land O Lakes Feed hdtilstra@landolakes.com 4/9/2004 Land O' Lakes Feed; Tilstra 2 Land O Lakes Feed Vision: To To be the leading animal nutrition

More information

PATIENT INFORMATION LEAFLET: CENTRUM. Read the contents of this leaflet carefully before you start using CENTRUM, because it

PATIENT INFORMATION LEAFLET: CENTRUM. Read the contents of this leaflet carefully before you start using CENTRUM, because it PATIENT INFORMATION LEAFLET: CENTRUM Page 1 of 7 This leaflet tells you about CENTRUM tablets. Read the contents of this leaflet carefully before you start using CENTRUM, because it contains important

More information

FEEDING THE DAIRY COW DURING LACTATION

FEEDING THE DAIRY COW DURING LACTATION Department of Animal Science FEEDING THE DAIRY COW DURING LACTATION Dairy Cattle Production 342-450A Page 1 of 8 Feeding the Dairy Cow during Lactation There are main stages in the lactation cycle of the

More information

DOSIMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF DYED PMMA SOLID DOSIMETERS FOR GAMMA RADIATION

DOSIMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF DYED PMMA SOLID DOSIMETERS FOR GAMMA RADIATION 2005 International Nuclear Atlantic Conference - INAC 2005 Santos, SP, Brazil, August 28 to September 2, 2005 ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE ENERGIA NUCLEAR - ABEN ISBN: 85-99141-01-5 DOSIMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION

More information

THE EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON THE GLUCOSE TOLERANCE OF THE DIABETIC RAT*

THE EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON THE GLUCOSE TOLERANCE OF THE DIABETIC RAT* THE EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON THE GLUCOSE TOLERANCE OF THE DIABETIC RAT* BY JAMES M. ORTEN AND HENRY B. DEVLINt (From the Deparkment of Physiological Chemistry, Wayne University College of Medicine,

More information

FEEDING STRATEGIES IN POULTRY IN HOT CLIMATE

FEEDING STRATEGIES IN POULTRY IN HOT CLIMATE Poultry Today POU 0601 January 2008 1 FEEDING STRATEGIES IN POULTRY IN HOT CLIMATE INTRODUCTION Dr. John C. Morêki Non-Ruminants Division, Department of Animal Production P/Bag 0032, Gaborone, Botswana

More information

SYMPOSIUM: LYSINE. Ideal Protein in Turkeys 1

SYMPOSIUM: LYSINE. Ideal Protein in Turkeys 1 SYMPOSIUM: LYSINE Ideal Protein in Turkeys 1 J. D. FIRMAN2 and S. D. BOLING3 Department of Animal Science, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 ABSTRACT This paper will review current

More information

Payback News. Beef Cows-The Cheapest Mineral Isn t

Payback News. Beef Cows-The Cheapest Mineral Isn t November, 2015 Volume 2, Issue 4 CHS Nutrition Payback News In this issue of Payback News: Beef Cows-The Cheapest Mineral Isn t Bull Wintering Tips Inside this issue: Beef Cows-The Cheapest Mineral Isn

More information

Program Overview and Requirements

Program Overview and Requirements Certificate in School of Applied The certificate program, as outlined below, satisfies the institutional requirement for 12 semester hours, with at least 9 being at the 3000 level or above. It requires

More information

Integrated Crop/Livestock Production Systems for Kyusei Nature Farming in Brazil Abstract Introduction

Integrated Crop/Livestock Production Systems for Kyusei Nature Farming in Brazil Abstract Introduction Integrated Crop/Livestock Production Systems for Kyusei Nature Farming in Brazil T. Kinjo 1, S. K. Homma 2, S. Kinjo 2, A. B. Sanches 2, A. B. da Silva 2, R. B. da Silva 2, W. M. P. Silva 2, J. L. Perez

More information

Comparative pathomorphological study of rickets types in broiler chickens

Comparative pathomorphological study of rickets types in broiler chickens Iranian Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology Vol. 3, No. 1, 2011, 1-10 IJVST Comparative pathomorphological study of rickets types in broiler chickens Ivan Dinev * Department of General and Clinical

More information

Micronutrient. Functio. Vitamin A

Micronutrient. Functio. Vitamin A EHPM Leaflet UK 25/4/00 14:50 Page 1 (1,1) Vitamin and mineral intake We cannot, however, afford to be complacent about our intake of vitamins and minerals. Poor diets with low quantities of fruit and

More information

The Science of Muscle Growth and Repair By William Cabot M.D., FAAOS

The Science of Muscle Growth and Repair By William Cabot M.D., FAAOS The Science of Muscle Growth and Repair By William Cabot M.D., FAAOS Part 2 - The Role Individual Amino Acids Play in Muscle growth and Repair American Casein Company has been a worldwide leader in supplying

More information

Silicon and Equine Bone Health

Silicon and Equine Bone Health Silicon and Equine Bone Health Brian D. Nielsen, Ph.D., PAS, Dpl. ACAN Kari E. Krick, M.S. Michigan State University, Department of Animal Science East Lansing, MI 48824-1225 Prevention and treatment of

More information

Understanding the. Soil Test Report. Client and Sample Identification

Understanding the. Soil Test Report. Client and Sample Identification Understanding the Soil Test Report Page 1 of 7 Crops absorb the nutrients required from soil in order to grow, so ensuring that your soil is meeting the crops needs is critical. Having the proper level

More information

UNESP s Graduate Programs: Fields of International Excellence

UNESP s Graduate Programs: Fields of International Excellence UNESP s Graduate Programs: Fields of International Excellence Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP UNESP s Graduate Programs: Fields of International Excellence Graduate Programs: Having as one of its

More information

Copper and zinc in diets of growing pigs

Copper and zinc in diets of growing pigs Copper and zinc in diets of growing pigs New insights in requirements Paul Bikker and Age Jongbloed Outline Introduction Copper and zinc as essential trace element Present: recommendations, allowance and

More information

CAT FOOD PREMIUM PREVENTION BY NUTRITION. krmivo-brit.cz

CAT FOOD PREMIUM PREVENTION BY NUTRITION. krmivo-brit.cz PREMIUM CAT FOOD PREVENTION BY NUTRITION VAFO PRAHA s.r.o. Chrášťany 9, Rudná u Prahy Tel.: +0 57 95 11 Fax: +0 57 95 11 brit@brit-petfood.com krmivo-brit.cz PREMIUM QUALITY CAT FOOD PREMIUM QUALITY C

More information

Quality of image control in Radiology Clinic using the software

Quality of image control in Radiology Clinic using the software ORIGINAL ORIGINAL Quality of image control in Radiology Clinic using the software Utilização de um Software no controle de qualidade da imagem na Clínica de Radiologia Orivaldo TAVANO 1 Milton José de

More information

FLUORIDE AND SILICON CONTENT IN DRINKING WATER

FLUORIDE AND SILICON CONTENT IN DRINKING WATER 2nd International Workshop on Fluorosis Prevention and Defluoridation of Water 71 FLUORIDE AND SILICON CONTENT IN DRINKING WATER S Bapurao * Hyderabad, India SUMMARY: Though the fluoride content of drinking

More information

Effects of Supplemental Vitamin E with Different Oil Sources on Growth, Health, and Carcass Parameters of Preconditioned Beef Calves 1

Effects of Supplemental Vitamin E with Different Oil Sources on Growth, Health, and Carcass Parameters of Preconditioned Beef Calves 1 Oregon State University BEEF25 Beef Research Report Beef Cattle Sciences Effects of Supplemental Vitamin E with Different Oil Sources on Growth, Health, and Carcass Parameters of Preconditioned Beef Calves

More information

The Under-Recognized Role of Essential Nutrients in Health and Health Care

The Under-Recognized Role of Essential Nutrients in Health and Health Care The Under-Recognized Role of Essential Nutrients in Health and Health Care Honolulu Subarea Health Planning Council February 7, 2013 Joannie Dobbs, Ph.D. CNS Assistant Specialist Human Nutrition, Food

More information

ROLLED VERSUS WHOLE CORN: EFFECTS ON RUMINAL FERMENTATION OF FEEDLOT STEERS

ROLLED VERSUS WHOLE CORN: EFFECTS ON RUMINAL FERMENTATION OF FEEDLOT STEERS ROLLED VERSUS WHOLE CORN: EFFECTS ON RUMINAL FERMENTATION OF FEEDLOT STEERS D. S. Secrist 1, F. N. Owens 2, W. J. Hill 1 and S. D. Welty 3 Story in Brief The differences between rolled (2 particle sizes)

More information

The effects of diet supplemented with sodium bicarbonate upon blood ph, blood gases and eggshell quality in laying geese

The effects of diet supplemented with sodium bicarbonate upon blood ph, blood gases and eggshell quality in laying geese Vet. Med. Czech, 49, 2004 (6): 201206 Original Paper The effects of diet supplemented with sodium bicarbonate upon blood ph, blood gases and eggshell quality in laying geese I. K 1, B. K 2, O. U 3 1 Department

More information

Today we will talk about the parathyroid gland. Now concerning the parathyroid gland.

Today we will talk about the parathyroid gland. Now concerning the parathyroid gland. Today we will talk about the parathyroid gland The lecture started when one of the students asked about the difference between the cortisol and cortisone. And the doctor answer was that both are hormones

More information

Introduction to Body Fluids

Introduction to Body Fluids Introduction to Body Fluids Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1: Introduction to Body Fluids The fluids in your body

More information

Certificate in School of Applied Physiology

Certificate in School of Applied Physiology Certificate in School of Applied Physiology The certificate program, as outlined below, satisfies the institutional requirement for 12 semester hours, with at least 9 being at the 3000 level or above.

More information

Broiler Nutrition Supplement

Broiler Nutrition Supplement Broiler Nutrition Supplement 2009 2 Contents Introduction... 4 Supply of Nutrients... 4 Protein and Amino Acids... 5 Macro Minerals... 6 Non-Nutritive Feed Additives... 7 Broiler Diet Specifications...

More information

Calcium (serum, plasma, blood)

Calcium (serum, plasma, blood) Calcium (serum, plasma, blood) 1 Name and description of analyte 1.1 Name of analyte Calcium (total in serum, plasma, ionised in blood (see 2.1 (2)). 1.2 Alternative names None 1.3 NMLC code 1.4 Description

More information

Week 30. Water Balance and Minerals

Week 30. Water Balance and Minerals Week 30 Water Balance and Minerals Water: more vital to life than food involved in almost every body function is not stored--excreted daily largest single constituent of the human body, averaging 60% of

More information

FEEDING MANUAL Feed manual TOPIGS Finishers

FEEDING MANUAL Feed manual TOPIGS Finishers FEEDING MANUAL Feed manual TOPIGS Finishers TOPIGS Support & Development Updated: 13 August 2012 Copyright TOPIGS Feeding advice Tempo progeny Target Group: Nutritionists and Farm managers Explanation:

More information

Vitamins & Minerals Chart

Vitamins & Minerals Chart Vitamins & Minerals Chart Vitamins & Minerals Functions Food Sources Water-soluble Vitamin B1-Thiamin Necessary to help the body maximizes the use of carbohydrate, its major source of energy. Essential

More information

Consequences of 100% organic diets for pigs and poultry

Consequences of 100% organic diets for pigs and poultry Consequences of 100% organic diets for pigs and poultry Albert Sundrum Tier-EG Department of Animal Nutrition and Animal Health / University Kassel Outline! Problems concerning 100% organic diets! High

More information

Nutrition Support Service

Nutrition Support Service Frequently Asked Questions 1 Our customized approach means that all cases receive individualized attention. Each case undergoes extensive medical record review, as well as evaluation of the dietary history

More information

Resorptive Changes of Maxillary and Mandibular Bone Structures in Removable Denture Wearers

Resorptive Changes of Maxillary and Mandibular Bone Structures in Removable Denture Wearers Resorptive Changes of Maxillary and Mandibular Bone Structures in Removable Denture Wearers Dubravka KnezoviÊ-ZlatariÊ Asja»elebiÊ Biserka LaziÊ Department of Prosthodontics School of Dental Medicine University

More information

Overview of the Cattle Immune System 1

Overview of the Cattle Immune System 1 Oregon State University BEEF043 Beef Cattle Library Beef Cattle Sciences Overview of the Cattle Immune System 1 Reinaldo F. Cooke 2 Introduction On average, the U.S. cattle industry loses more than $1

More information

CODEX STANDARD FOR FOLLOW-UP FORMULA CODEX STAN 156-1987. This standard applies to the composition and labelling of follow-up formula.

CODEX STANDARD FOR FOLLOW-UP FORMULA CODEX STAN 156-1987. This standard applies to the composition and labelling of follow-up formula. CODEX STAN 156-1987 Page 1 of 9 CODEX STANDARD FOR FOLLOW-UP FORMULA CODEX STAN 156-1987 1. SCOPE This standard applies to the composition and labelling of follow-up formula. It does not apply to foods

More information

What Each Vitamin & Mineral Does In Your Body. Vitamin A

What Each Vitamin & Mineral Does In Your Body. Vitamin A What Each Vitamin & Mineral Does In Your Body Vitamin A Prevents skin disorders, such as acne, wrinkling and age spots. Enhances the immune system protects against colds, flu, and infections to kidney,

More information

Unit 4: Skeletal System Test Review Test Review

Unit 4: Skeletal System Test Review Test Review Name: Period: Unit 4: Skeletal System Test Review Test Review 1. List four functions of the skeletal system: a. b. c. d. 2. Define ossification and identify the roles of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and

More information

Executive Summary Report

Executive Summary Report Glucose 65-99 mg/dl Glucose measures the amount of sugar in your blood. Glucose is the primary energy source in your body. Insulin (a natural hormone produced by the pancreas) controls how glucose is used

More information

Osseous Tissue & Structure. The skeletal system includes: Storage of minerals: calcium salts

Osseous Tissue & Structure. The skeletal system includes: Storage of minerals: calcium salts Chapter 15 Lecture The Skeletal System: Osseous Tissue & Skeletal Structure The Skeletal System The skeletal system includes: Bones, cartilages, ligaments Bone tissue = osseous tissue Includes living cells

More information

655 Southgate Drive Guelph, Ontario N1G 5G6. DATE: November 6, 2007 PROPOSAL # 07/135 ONTARIO PORK RESEARCH PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

655 Southgate Drive Guelph, Ontario N1G 5G6. DATE: November 6, 2007 PROPOSAL # 07/135 ONTARIO PORK RESEARCH PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT 655 Southgate Drive Guelph, Ontario N1G 5G6 DATE: November 6, 2007 PROPOSAL # 07/135 ONTARIO PORK RESEARCH PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT Project Leaders: C.F.M de Lange Project Title: Reducing the negative impact

More information

Most limiting amino acid concept...

Most limiting amino acid concept... Review... Proteins are composed of amino acids Amino acids are the essential nutrients The dietary provision of amino acids in correct amount and provisions determines the adequacy of the protein in the

More information

Stages of Intramembranous Ossification

Stages of Intramembranous Ossification Stages of Intramembranous Ossification Results in the formation of cranial bones of the skull (frontal, perietal, occipital, and temporal bones) and the clavicles. All bones formed this way are flat bones

More information

Re: GRAS Notice No. AGRN 000-009

Re: GRAS Notice No. AGRN 000-009 May 4, 2012 Dr. Hardy Edwards III Vitamin Derivatives, Inc. 625 Lem Edwards Road Winterville, Georgia 30683 Re: GRAS Notice No. AGRN 000-009 Dear Dr. Edwards: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is

More information

OSTEOPOROSIS REHABILITATION PROGRAM

OSTEOPOROSIS REHABILITATION PROGRAM OSTEOPOROSIS REHABILITATION PROGRAM Tricia Orme, R.N. BSc(N) Mary Pack Arthritis Program Victoria i Arthritis i Centre Objectives Participants will gain an understanding of what Osteoporosis is and how

More information

7. Skeletal System: Bone Structure and Function

7. Skeletal System: Bone Structure and Function 7. Skeletal System: Bone Structure and Function For the next two chapters (7 and 9) we will study the skeletal system. Although the major feature of this system is the bones, the skeletal system also consists

More information

Product Information: PediaSure

Product Information: PediaSure Product Information: PediaSure 1 of 5 PEDIASURE is a source of Complete, Balanced Nutrition especially designed for the oral feeding of children 2 to 13 years of age. May be used as the sole source of

More information

Potassium in the Early Lactation Dairy Cow and its Impact on Milk and Milk Fat Production

Potassium in the Early Lactation Dairy Cow and its Impact on Milk and Milk Fat Production Potassium in the Early Lactation Dairy Cow and its Impact on Milk and Milk Fat Production J H Harrison 1, R White 2, R Kincaid 3, T Jenkins 4, and E Block 5. 1 Department of Animal Science, WSU-Puyallup

More information

Lohmann Brown Management Guide May 2007

Lohmann Brown Management Guide May 2007 Lohmann Brown Management Guide May 2007 Contents Introduction Page 1 Performance Objectives Page 2 Rearing Management Page 3 Bodyweight Profile Page 4-5 Lighting Page 6-8 Housing - Laying Period Page 9

More information

Nutrition After Weight Loss Surgery

Nutrition After Weight Loss Surgery Nutrition After Weight Loss Surgery Gastric Bypass Sleeve Gastrectomy Gastric Banding VITAMINS AND MINERALS AFTER SURGERY TEXAS CENTER FOR MEDICAL & SURGICAL WEIGHT LOSS What We ll Cover Today Why do I

More information

A Diagnostic Chest XRay: Multiple Myeloma

A Diagnostic Chest XRay: Multiple Myeloma Daniela Marinho Tridente, VI FCMSCSP October 2013 A Diagnostic Chest XRay: Multiple Myeloma Daniela Marinho Tridente, VI FCMSCSP Our Learning Agenda Introduction of our patient His imaging data and findings

More information

LIFE STAGES. DOG and CAT FOODS. Give your pet the natural, wholesome nutrition needed for all-day activity and a lifetime of fitness and health

LIFE STAGES. DOG and CAT FOODS. Give your pet the natural, wholesome nutrition needed for all-day activity and a lifetime of fitness and health assurance of quality LIFE STAGES DOG and CAT FOODS Give your pet the natural, wholesome nutrition needed for all-day activity and a lifetime of fitness and health LIFE STAGES DOG and CAT FOODS Blue Seal

More information

What are Minerals. Lecture 13: Minerals. Trace versus Major Minerals. Minerals are elements, can be found on the periodic table

What are Minerals. Lecture 13: Minerals. Trace versus Major Minerals. Minerals are elements, can be found on the periodic table Lecture 13: Minerals What are Minerals Minerals are elements, can be found on the periodic table Inorganic (in chemical sense) Nutrition 150 Shallin Busch, Ph.D. Not broken down during digestion nor destroyed

More information

Digestibility and performance responses of broiler chickens fed a pea-based diet with different levels of dietary microbial phytase

Digestibility and performance responses of broiler chickens fed a pea-based diet with different levels of dietary microbial phytase Digestibility and performance responses of broiler chickens fed a pea-based diet with different levels of dietary microbial phytase Lisa A. Johnson *, Aman Deep*, Hank Classen * Abstract Although the benefits

More information

Minerals. by Dr. Rick Machen Associate Professor & Extension Livestock Specialist Texas Agric ultural Exte nsio n Service, Uvalde

Minerals. by Dr. Rick Machen Associate Professor & Extension Livestock Specialist Texas Agric ultural Exte nsio n Service, Uvalde Minerals Small Ruminant Series by Dr. Rick Machen Associate Professor & Extension Livestock Specialist Texas Agric ultural Exte nsio n Service, Uvalde As mentioned in previous articles, the nutrient requirements

More information

EFFICACY OF RACTOPAMINE AND PST

EFFICACY OF RACTOPAMINE AND PST EFFICACY OF RACTOPAMINE AND PST COMBINATIONS ON FINISHER PIG PERFORMANCE Report prepared for the Co-operative Research Centre for an Internationally Competitive Pork Industry By Dr Robert van Barneveld

More information

An investigation of a reported case of white striping in broilers

An investigation of a reported case of white striping in broilers 2014 Poultry Science Association, Inc. An investigation of a reported case of white striping in broilers T. Z. Ferreira,* R. A. Casagrande, S. L. Vieira, D. Driemeier, and L. Kindlein * 1 * Department

More information

NUTRIENTS: THEIR INTERACTIONS

NUTRIENTS: THEIR INTERACTIONS NUTRIENTS: THEIR INTERACTIONS TEACHER S GUIDE INTRODUCTION This Teacher s Guide provides information to help you get the most out of Nutrients: Their Interactions. The contents in this guide will allow

More information

COURSE OUTLINE NUTR*3210 FUNDAMENTALS OF NUTRITION FALL 2015

COURSE OUTLINE NUTR*3210 FUNDAMENTALS OF NUTRITION FALL 2015 University of Guelph College of Biological Science Human Health & Nutritional Sciences COURSE OUTLINE NUTR*3210 FUNDAMENTALS OF NUTRITION FALL 2015 COURSE DESCRIPTION This is the foundational course for

More information

Phosphate Recovery from Municipal Wastewater through Crystallization of Calcium Phosphate

Phosphate Recovery from Municipal Wastewater through Crystallization of Calcium Phosphate Phosphate Recovery from Municipal Wastewater through Crystallization of Calcium Phosphate A. Alamdari, Ph.D. * and S. Rohani, M.Sc. * Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University,

More information

Effects of grain and oilseed prices on the costs of US poultry production

Effects of grain and oilseed prices on the costs of US poultry production 2009 Poultry Science Association, Inc. Effects of grain and oilseed prices on the costs of US poultry production M. Donohue * and D. L. Cunningham 1 * agri stats inc., 6510 Mutual Drive, Fort Wayne, in

More information

PATIENT INFORMATION LEAFLET. Forceval Junior Capsules

PATIENT INFORMATION LEAFLET. Forceval Junior Capsules PATIENT INFORMATION LEAFLET Forceval Junior Capsules Read all of this leaflet carefully because it contains important information for you or your child. Please note this leaflet has been written as if

More information

FOOD QUALITY AND STANDARDS Vol. III - Minerals and other Microcomponents - Radomir Lasztity MINERALS AND OTHER MICROCOMPONENTS

FOOD QUALITY AND STANDARDS Vol. III - Minerals and other Microcomponents - Radomir Lasztity MINERALS AND OTHER MICROCOMPONENTS MINERALS AND OTHER MICROCOMPONENTS Radomir Lasztity Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary Keywords: amanitin, amygdalin, antinutritive constituents, ash, availability, ciguatera

More information

EGG FORMATION AND EGGSHELL QUALITY IN LAYERS

EGG FORMATION AND EGGSHELL QUALITY IN LAYERS EGG FORMATION AND EGGSHELL QUALITY IN LAYERS Amy Halls, Monogastric Nutritionist Shur-Gain, Nutreco Canada Inc. 01/05 1 EGG FORMATION AND EGGSHELL QUALITY IN LAYERS Amy Halls, Monogastric Nutritionist

More information

EUROPEAN COMMISSION HEALTH & CONSUMER PROTECTION DIRECTORATE-GENERAL

EUROPEAN COMMISSION HEALTH & CONSUMER PROTECTION DIRECTORATE-GENERAL EUROPEAN COMMISSION HEALTH & CONSUMER PROTECTION DIRECTORATE-GENERAL Directorate C - Scientific Opinions C2 - Management of scientific committees II; scientific co-operation and networks Revision of the

More information

A] Calcium. Absorption is interfered with by: Phytic acid of cereal seeds and bran. Oxalic acid and soluble oxalates of some vegetables and fruits.

A] Calcium. Absorption is interfered with by: Phytic acid of cereal seeds and bran. Oxalic acid and soluble oxalates of some vegetables and fruits. Food Constituents [continued] 6- Essential elements Diet provides a number of inorganic elements that are needed for: Normal functioning of vital processes of the body. Formation and maintenance of bone

More information

Study 1: Role of Vitamin D

Study 1: Role of Vitamin D Vitamin D Rickets: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention Robert J. Van Saun, DVM, MS, PhD, DACT, DACVN Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences Penn State University Abnormal bone growth is a commonly

More information

Rediscover What It Means to Be Full of Life

Rediscover What It Means to Be Full of Life Rediscover What It Means to Be Full of Life Vitality for Life supplements with patented Oligo Oligo U.S. Patent No. 8,273,393 Reinventing the Multivitamin Our modern diets have the majority of us gorging

More information

CHS 06-07 BONES AND SKELETAL TISSUES

CHS 06-07 BONES AND SKELETAL TISSUES CHS 06-07 BONES AND SKELETAL TISSUES This chapter provides a review of bone and skeletal tissue. The human skeleton is composed primarily of two connective tissues: (1) cartilage and (2) bone. CHARACTERISTICS

More information

UTI CAT FOOD COMPARISON CHART

UTI CAT FOOD COMPARISON CHART UTI CAT FOOD COMPARISON CHART believes that urinary tract infections, crystals and kidney problems in today s cat are due mainly to excessive minerals consumed by our cats as they age. Once you cat reaches

More information

14/11/2014. Copper supply affects growth performance and health in growing pigs. Outline. Copper as essential trace elements

14/11/2014. Copper supply affects growth performance and health in growing pigs. Outline. Copper as essential trace elements Copper supply affects growth performance and health in growing pigs Themamiddag 4 november 2014 Outline Introduction Copper as essential trace element Paul Bikker, Jurgen van Baal, Roselinde Goselink Presence:

More information

GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN HUMAN NUTRITION COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 2014-2015

GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN HUMAN NUTRITION COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 2014-2015 GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN HUMAN NUTRITION COURSE DESCRIPTIONS 2014-2015 The following table shows the planned course offerings for the 2014-2015 academic year. Courses are subject to change. Summer 2014 Fall

More information

We are all market-oriented, ethical and transparent, we value proactivity, we respect life and the environment, we are innovative, we are socially

We are all market-oriented, ethical and transparent, we value proactivity, we respect life and the environment, we are innovative, we are socially We are all market-oriented, ethical and transparent, we value proactivity, we respect life and the environment, we are innovative, we are socially responsible, we prioritize Quality and Safety, we love

More information

Course Curriculum for Master Degree in Food Science and Technology/ Department of Nutrition and Food Technology

Course Curriculum for Master Degree in Food Science and Technology/ Department of Nutrition and Food Technology Course Curriculum for Master Degree in Food Science and Technology/ Department of Nutrition and Food Technology The Master Degree in Food Science and Technology / Department of Nutrition and Food Technology,

More information