2 2 Prostate cancer A guide for newly diagnosed men About this booklet This booklet is for men who have recently been diagnosed with prostate cancer. It is your personal guide and explains what prostate cancer is, tests you may have to diagnose it and the treatment options available. It also includes information about sources of support. You may find it useful to share this information with your partner or family to help them understand more about prostate cancer. If you or those close to you would like to know more about anything you read in this booklet, you can speak to our Specialist Nurses on our confidential helpline. There are sections towards the end of the booklet for you to write down any contact details and information that may be helpful to you and your doctor or nurse. We hope that this booklet will help you to get the most from discussions with those involved in your care. The following symbols appear throughout the booklet to guide you to sources of further information: Prostate Cancer UK Specialist Nurse helpline Prostate Cancer UK publications If you would like to know more about anything you read in this booklet, you can call our Specialist Nurses on our confidential helpline on Most of the photos in this booklet are of people personally affected by prostate cancer. The quotes with the photos are not the words of the people who appear.
3 Helpline Contents About this booklet... 2 What is the prostate gland?... 4 What is prostate cancer?... 4 How is prostate cancer diagnosed?... 7 What do my test results mean? What are my test results? What are my treatment options? Where can I get support? Who are my team members? Medical words used in this booklet Follow-up appointments PSA levels Notes More information from us...39 Other useful organisations About Prostate Cancer UK...42
4 4 Prostate cancer A guide for newly diagnosed men What is the prostate gland? Only men have a prostate gland. The prostate is usually the size of a walnut. It lies underneath the bladder and surrounds the tube that you pass urine and semen through (urethra). The gland s main job is to make some of the fluid that carries sperm (semen). bladder urethra penis prostate gland testicle What is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Normally the growth of all cells in the body is carefully controlled. As cells die, they are replaced by new ones. Prostate cancer can develop when cells in the prostate gland start to grow in an uncontrolled way. In most cases prostate cancer is a slow growing cancer and it may stay undiagnosed because it never causes any symptoms.
6 6 Prostate cancer A guide for newly diagnosed men However, in some men, the cancer may grow more quickly. It sometimes causes symptoms such as problems passing urine. Sometimes the cancer spreads outside the prostate to other parts of the body. The bones are a common place for prostate cancer to spread to, and it may cause symptoms such as bone pain. About one in eight men (13 per cent) will get prostate cancer at some point in their lives. The following factors may increase your risk of prostate cancer. Age Prostate cancer mainly affects men over the age of 50 and your risk increases with age. Family history You are two and a half times more likely to get prostate cancer if your father or brother has been diagnosed with it. You are more at risk if your relative was under the age of 60 when they were diagnosed, or if more than one close relative has prostate cancer. Ethnicity In the UK, men of black Caribbean or black African descent are three times more likely to get prostate cancer than white men. Lifestyle We do not know how to prevent prostate cancer but a healthy diet and lifestyle may be important in protecting against it. For more information about prostate cancer risk, please read our booklet Know your prostate.
7 Helpline How is prostate cancer diagnosed? Prostate cancer is diagnosed by a number of tests, which are described on the following pages. You may have already had some of these but you may need further tests to find out whether the cancer has spread and how aggressive it is. You may not need to have all of the tests described here, and you may not necessarily have them in this order. You can read more about the tests for prostate cancer in our Tool Kit fact sheet, How prostate cancer is diagnosed. PSA test The PSA test is a blood test that measures the amount of a protein called prostate specific antigen (PSA) which is produced by the prostate. All men have some PSA in their blood. The level of PSA can be affected by a number of things, including age, an enlarged prostate, infection, vigorous exercise, ejaculation, and prostate cancer. Digital rectal examination (DRE) A digital rectal examination (DRE) involves a doctor or nurse feeling the prostate gland through the wall of the back passage (rectum). They will wear gloves and put some gel on their finger to make it more comfortable. They are feeling for any hard or irregular areas that may be a sign of cancer. Prostate biopsy During a prostate biopsy, small amounts of tissue are removed from different areas of the prostate gland. These samples of tissue are sent to the laboratory to be checked by a doctor who specialises in looking at cells under the microscope (a pathologist).
8 8 Prostate cancer A guide for newly diagnosed men A report, called a pathology report, is sent to your doctor explaining what the pathologist has found. Some men also receive a copy of their pathology report. If cancer has been found, the pathology report will provide details, including: how many samples contain cancer how much cancer is in each sample, and your Gleason score (see page 11). You may have the following tests to find out whether the cancer is likely to have spread outside the prostate. CT scan A computerised tomography (CT) scan uses X-rays to take pictures of the body from different angles. This helps the specialist to see whether the cancer could have spread to the surrounding tissues. MRI scan Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses magnets rather than X-rays to create an image of your prostate and other tissues to see whether the cancer has spread. Bone scan A bone scan may show whether any cancer cells have spread from the prostate to the bone. A small amount of a safe radioactive dye is injected into a vein in your arm. After two to three hours, you will have a scan to find any areas where the dye has collected. This can show if prostate cancer cells have spread to your bones.
9 Helpline Before my appointments I find it useful to write down any questions to ask the doctor. A personal experience
10 10 Prostate cancer A guide for newly diagnosed men What do my test results mean? Your doctor will use the results of all the tests you have had to build up a picture of your cancer. This allows them to measure how far the cancer has spread and how quickly it may be growing. PSA level The PSA test alone cannot diagnose prostate cancer. All men have some PSA in their blood, and the level of PSA naturally rises as men get older. The following figures are a rough guide to normal PSA levels, depending on your age. PSA is measured in nanograms per millilitre of blood (ng/ml). Up to 3ng/ml for a man aged 50 to 59. Up to 4ng/ml for a man aged 60 to 69. Up to 5ng/ml for a man aged 70 or over. A PSA level higher than the normal range for your age may suggest a problem with the prostate. But a normal PSA result does not rule out prostate cancer. Similarly, if your PSA level is only slightly above the normal range for your age, this does not always mean that you have prostate cancer. There is no upper limit for the PSA level, and some men may have a PSA level in the hundreds or thousands. Having a PSA level this high is uncommon but it is likely to suggest that a man has prostate cancer. The PSA test is also an effective way of monitoring your prostate cancer after you have been diagnosed or had treatment, and can be used alongside other test results. You will have regular PSA tests as part of your follow-up after treatment.
11 Helpline Gleason score A pathologist will look at your biopsy samples under the microscope. If a sample contains cancer it is graded to show how active the cancer is. The pathologist looks at the pattern made by the cancer cells and gives that pattern a grade from 1 to 5. This is called Gleason grading. The pathologist may see more than one grade of cancer, so the grades of the most common pattern and the pattern with the highest grade are added together. This gives your Gleason score. For example If the biopsy samples show that: most of the cancer seen is grade 3, and the highest grade of cancer seen is grade 4, then the Gleason will be 3 + 4, and the Gleason score will be 7. Most men with prostate cancer will have a Gleason score between 6 and 10. The higher the Gleason score, the more aggressive the cancer and the more likely it is to spread. A Gleason score of 6 suggests that the cancer is usually slow-growing. A Gleason score of 7 suggests that the cancer may grow at a moderate rate. A Gleason score of 8, 9 or 10 suggests that the cancer may grow more quickly.
12 12 Prostate cancer A guide for newly diagnosed men Staging Staging is a way of recording how far the cancer has spread. The most common method is the TNM (Tumour-Nodes- Metastases) system. T stage (tumour) The T stage shows how far the cancer has spread in and around the prostate gland. A digital rectal examination (DRE) can measure this. You may also have an MRI scan to confirm your T stage. seminal vesicle bladder T1 The tumour cannot be felt and can only be seen under a microscope localised prostate cancer. prostate gland T1 prostate cancer seminal vesicle bladder T2 The tumour can be felt but it is contained within the prostate gland localised prostate cancer. prostate gland T2 prostate cancer
13 Helpline seminal vesicle bladder T3 The tumour can be felt breaking through the capsule of the prostate or into the seminal vesicles locally advanced prostate cancer. prostate gland T3 prostate cancer seminal vesicle prostate gland bladder T4 prostate cancer T4 The tumour has spread to nearby organs, such as the neck of the bladder, back passage or pelvic wall locally advanced prostate cancer. N stage (node) The N stage shows whether the cancer has spread to the nearby lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are part of your immune system and are found throughout your body. The lymph nodes in your groin are near the prostate and are a common place for prostate cancer to spread to. The N stage is measured using an MRI or CT scan. This stage will only be measured if the result is likely to affect your treatment options.
14 14 Prostate cancer A guide for newly diagnosed men NX The lymph nodes were not measured. N0 The lymph nodes do not contain cancer cells. N1 The lymph nodes do contain cancer cells. M stage (metastases) The M stage shows whether the cancer has spread (metastasised) to other parts of the body, such as the bones. This is measured using a bone scan. Cancer that has spread to other parts of the body is called advanced prostate cancer. This stage may not be measured if the result is unlikely to affect your treatment options. MX The spread of the cancer was not measured. M0 The cancer has not spread to other parts of the body. M1 The cancer has spread to other parts of the body. You can read more about how the spread of prostate cancer is measured in our Tool Kit fact sheet, How prostate cancer is diagnosed. Stages of prostate cancer Localised prostate cancer is cancer that is contained within the prostate. You may also hear it called early prostate cancer. Locally advanced prostate cancer is cancer that is breaking through the capsule of the prostate or has spread to the area just outside the prostate, including the seminal vesicles, lymph nodes, neck of the bladder or back passage. Advanced prostate cancer is cancer that has spread from the prostate to other parts of the body, such as the bones. It is also called metastatic prostate cancer.
15 Helpline What are my test results? You can use this section with your doctor or nurse to record your test results and next appointments. PSA level at diagnosis: Number of biopsy samples taken: Number of biopsy samples containing cancer: Gleason score: T stage at diagnosis: N stage at diagnosis (if measured): M stage at diagnosis (if measured):
16 16 Prostate cancer A guide for newly diagnosed men Date of bone scan (if needed): Results of bone scan: Date of MRI scan (if needed): Results of MRI scan: The cancer is (please tick): localised contained within the prostate gland locally advanced spread to the area just outside the prostate gland advanced spread to other parts of the body The team of health professionals involved in your care is called a multi-disciplinary team or MDT (see page 32 for more information). They will meet to discuss your test results and treatment options. You will not need to attend this meeting. Outcome of the MDT meeting and suggested plan:
17 Helpline My next appointments are with my (tick those that apply): urologist specialist nurse oncologist other You can record details of future appointments on page 36. Please contact your specialist nurse or key worker (see page 32) at any time if you have any questions or concerns. You can also call our Specialist Nurses on our confidential helpline.
18 18 Prostate cancer A guide for newly diagnosed men What are my treatment options? The results of your tests will give you and your doctor a good idea of how your cancer is behaving. A number of things such as the stage of your cancer, your Gleason score and PSA level will affect which treatments you can have. If you have been diagnosed with localised prostate cancer, there may be several treatments available to you. If you have locally advanced or advanced prostate cancer, there may be fewer suitable treatments. Localised prostate cancer Prostate cancer that has not spread outside the prostate gland (localised cancer) can behave in different ways. Many localised cancers are not aggressive and grow so slowly that they do not cause any problems during your lifetime. However, some cancers may be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body. The results of the tests described on pages 7-8 may give some clue as to how your cancer will behave. There is not an overall best treatment for localised prostate cancer, and each treatment has its own advantages and disadvantages. You will need to think about these when deciding on a treatment. You can read more about the diagnosis and treatment options for localised prostate cancer in our Tool Kit fact sheet, Localised prostate cancer. Locally advanced prostate cancer Locally advanced prostate cancer is cancer that has spread to the area just outside the prostate gland. Your treatment options will depend on how far the cancer has spread. Read our Tool Kit fact sheet, Locally advanced prostate cancer.
19 Helpline Advanced prostate cancer Advanced prostate cancer is cancer that has spread from the prostate to other parts of the body. It is also called metastatic prostate cancer. Prostate cancer can spread to any part of the body, but most commonly to the bones. Advanced prostate cancer can cause symptoms, such as bone pain and problems passing urine. It is not possible to cure advanced prostate cancer, but treatments can often keep it under control for several years. You can read more in our Tool Kit fact sheet, Advanced prostate cancer. Choosing a treatment Your doctor or specialist nurse will explain all your treatment options and help you choose the right treatment for you. We have provided a summary of the different treatments on the following pages. Ask your doctor or nurse to tick the options that may be suitable for you. You may not be able to have all of the treatments listed here. You can read more about each treatment, including how it works and its advantages and disadvantages, in our Tool Kit fact sheets. You can download these from our website or order them by calling our helpline. If you would like to discuss your treatment options, you can also call our Specialist Nurses on our confidential helpline. Your personal preference will be an important factor in deciding which treatment to have. Hearing about your different treatment options can be a lot to take in, especially when you have just been diagnosed. Your doctor may suggest you take time to think things through before coming to a decision.
20 20 Prostate cancer A guide for newly diagnosed men Make sure you have all the information you need. It can be a good idea to write down any questions you might want to ask at your next appointment. You might find it useful to have someone with you at the consultation, or to make notes that you can read in your own time. Each treatment has side effects, and will affect each man differently. You may not get all of the side effects. It is important that you think about the side effects and how you would cope with them when deciding on a treatment. We have included some information about side effects here. You can find more detailed information in our Tool Kit fact sheets. The first treatment you have may affect which treatments you can have in the future, if you need further treatment. Speak to your doctor or nurse about this. The following information describes treatments for men who have just been diagnosed with prostate cancer. Men who have had prostate cancer for some time may have different treatments and combinations of treatment. The range of treatments was a bit bewildering, and it was only when I had my follow-up appointments that we started to whittle down those which were relevant to me. A personal experience
21 Helpline Treatment options Localised prostate cancer Active surveillance Watchful waiting Surgery (radical prostatectomy) External beam radiotherapy Brachytherapy (either permanent seed or temporary) Cryotherapy (as part of a clinical trial) High intensity focused ultrasound (as part of a clinical trial) Locally advanced prostate cancer Hormone therapy Watchful waiting External beam radiotherapy with hormone therapy (and sometimes with temporary brachytherapy) Surgery (radical prostatectomy) with hormone therapy and/or external beam radiotherapy. This is less common and you may be offered it as part of a clinical trial. Advanced prostate cancer Hormone therapy Pain-relieving drugs to treat pain Palliative radiotherapy to treat symptoms Bisphosphonates to treat symptoms Chemotherapy to treat symptoms
22 22 Prostate cancer A guide for newly diagnosed men Active surveillance Prostate cancer may be slow growing and, for many men, may never progress or cause any symptoms. Active surveillance is a way of monitoring prostate cancer. It aims to avoid or delay unnecessary treatment for localised prostate cancer and so avoid the side effects that can be caused by treatment. Active surveillance involves monitoring your cancer with regular tests, rather than treating it straight away. The aim is to find any changes which suggest that the cancer may grow. If tests show that your cancer may be growing, you will be offered treatment with surgery (radical prostatectomy), radiotherapy or brachytherapy, with the aim of getting rid of the cancer completely. You can read more, including the advantages and disadvantages, in our Tool Kit fact sheet, Active surveillance. Watchful waiting Watchful waiting is a different way of monitoring prostate cancer that is not causing any symptoms or problems. The aim is to monitor the cancer over the long term. It is generally suitable for men who have other health problems so may not be fit enough for treatments such as surgery or radiotherapy. It may also be suitable for older men whose cancer is unlikely to cause problems during their lifetime or shorten their life span. If you choose watchful waiting, you will not start treatment unless you get symptoms, such as problems passing urine or bone pain. You may then be offered hormone therapy (see page 26) to manage these symptoms. Watchful waiting involves fewer tests than active surveillance.
23 Helpline You can read more about watchful waiting, including the advantages and disadvantages, in our Tool Kit fact sheet, Watchful waiting. If you are offered active surveillance or watchful waiting, make sure you are clear which approach you are being offered. These terms are not always used in the same way. Other terms that you may hear to describe either active surveillance or watchful waiting include active monitoring and wait and see. Because active surveillance and watchful waiting are two quite different approaches to treatment, ask your doctor to explain exactly what they mean. Surgery (radical prostatectomy) This is an operation to remove the whole prostate and the cancer contained in it. There are several types of operation: traditional open surgery, laparoscopic (keyhole) surgery and robot-assisted keyhole surgery. Surgery is usually only suitable for men with localised prostate cancer. However, surgery may be an option for some men with locally advanced prostate cancer. This is not very common as it may not be possible to remove all the cancer cells that have spread outside the prostate. You may be offered surgery as part of a clinical trial. You may have hormone therapy or a course of radiotherapy following surgery. The main side effects of surgery are problems controlling when you pass urine (urinary problems) and difficulty getting and keeping an erection (erectile dysfunction). Symptoms may improve over time, and there are treatments available to help manage these side effects. You can read more about surgery, including the side effects, in our Tool Kit fact sheet, Surgery: radical prostatectomy.
24 24 Prostate cancer A guide for newly diagnosed men External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) This treatment uses high energy X-rays to destroy the cancer cells. EBRT is often used together with hormone therapy and is suitable for men with localised prostate cancer. It is also suitable for some men with locally advanced prostate cancer. Side effects of EBRT include urinary problems, bowel problems such as passing loose watery stools (diarrhoea), problems getting an erection, and tiredness. Symptoms may develop during treatment and improve over time. However, some men may get side effects later on which may develop several months or years after treatment. There are treatments available to help manage side effects. You can read more, including the side effects, in our Tool Kit fact sheet, External beam radiotherapy. Brachytherapy This is an internal radiotherapy treatment, which involves putting a source of radiation into the prostate. There are two types of brachytherapy permanent seed brachytherapy and temporary brachytherapy. Permanent seed brachytherapy involves implanting tiny radioactive seeds into the prostate. This is an option for men with localised prostate cancer. Temporary brachytherapy, also called high dose rate brachytherapy, involves putting a source of radiation into the prostate gland for a few minutes at a time. This treatment is less common and may be used to treat localised prostate cancer. It may also be an option for some men with locally advanced prostate cancer.
25 Helpline Brachytherapy may be used together with external beam radiotherapy to give higher doses of radiation to the whole gland as well as to the area just outside the prostate. You may have hormone therapy to shrink the prostate for a few months before starting either type of brachytherapy. Side effects of brachytherapy include problems passing urine, problems getting and keeping an erection, and tiredness. Men who have permanent seed brachytherapy may also get bowel problems, although these tend to be mild. Side effects may improve over time, and there are treatments available to manage them. You can read more about brachytherapy, including the side effects, in our Tool Kit fact sheets, Permanent seed brachytherapy and Temporary brachytherapy. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) HIFU uses ultrasound to heat and destroy cancer cells in the prostate. It is not widely available in the UK, but may be available as part of a clinical trial. We do not know very much about how effective it is in the long term compared to other treatments. It may be a suitable option if you have localised prostate cancer. It may also be used to treat cancer that has started to grow again after radiotherapy. The side effects of HIFU include problems passing urine and sexual problems including difficulty getting an erection. Side effects may improve over time, and there are treatments available to manage them. You can read more about HIFU, including the side effects, in our Tool Kit fact sheet, High intensity focused ultrasound.
26 26 Prostate cancer A guide for newly diagnosed men Cryotherapy Cryotherapy uses freezing and thawing to destroy the prostate cancer cells. We do not yet know very much about how effective this treatment is in the long term. It is not widely available in the UK but may be available as part of a clinical trial. Cryotherapy may be suitable for men with localised prostate cancer. It may occasionally be suitable for some men with locally advanced prostate cancer. However, it is more commonly used to treat men whose cancer has started to grow again after radiotherapy or brachytherapy. The most common side effect of cryotherapy is problems getting or keeping an erection. Some men also get urinary problems after cryotherapy. These side effects may improve over time. There are treatments available to manage them. You can read more about cryotherapy, including the side effects, in our Tool Kit fact sheet, Cryotherapy. Hormone therapy Prostate cancer needs the male hormone testosterone to grow. Hormone therapy stops testosterone from reaching the cancer or reduces the production of testosterone, causing the cancer to shrink. Hormone therapy will treat all prostate cancer cells, wherever they are in the body. It will not cure prostate cancer but it can usually keep the cancer under control for several years. It is the standard treatment for locally advanced and advanced prostate cancer.
27 Helpline There are three main types of hormone therapy for prostate cancer. These are: injections to stop the production of testosterone (LHRH agonists and antagonists) tablets to stop the testosterone reaching the cancer cells (anti-androgens) surgery to remove the testicles (orchidectomy). The side effects of hormone therapy are caused by lowered testosterone levels. They can include: loss of sex drive and problems getting and keeping an erection hot flushes tiredness (fatigue) swelling and tenderness in the breast area (gynaecomastia) weight gain. You may not get all of these side effects, and there are ways to manage them. The risk of getting each side effect depends on a number of factors, including which hormone therapy you are taking and how long you take it for. You can read more about hormone therapy, including the side effects and how to manage them in our Tool Kit fact sheet, Hormone therapy, and our booklet, Living with hormone therapy: A guide for men with prostate cancer.
28 28 Prostate cancer A guide for newly diagnosed men Treatments to relieve the symptoms of advanced prostate cancer If you have been diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer and are having problems with symptoms such as bone pain, there are treatments to manage these. Palliative radiotherapy uses a low dose of radiotherapy to shrink the cancer and relieve symptoms. Bisphosphonates are drugs that treat pain caused by cancer that has spread to the bones. Chemotherapy uses anti-cancer drugs to kill the cancer cells. This slows the growth of the cancer and can help control symptoms. Pain-relieving drugs can help relieve pain such as bone pain. You can read more about these in our Tool Kit fact sheets, Treating prostate cancer after hormone therapy, Radiotherapy for advanced prostate cancer, Bisphosphonates, Chemotherapy and Pain and advanced prostate cancer. Clinical trials Clinical trials are a type of medical research study that aim to find new improved ways of preventing, diagnosing, treating and controlling illnesses. If you would like to find out about taking part in a prostate cancer clinical trial ask your doctor or specialist nurse. You can read more about this in our Tool Kit fact sheet, A guide to prostate cancer clinical trials.
29 Helpline Where can I get support? A diagnosis of cancer can be a frightening and overwhelming experience, and men respond in all kinds of ways. You might feel shocked or angry. You may be concerned about the future and how a diagnosis of prostate cancer will affect your life and your loved ones. It can be difficult and stressful trying to make a decision about your treatment. There is no right or wrong way to feel, and you may find that your feelings change over time. Your family may also find this a difficult time and may need some support. This section may be helpful for them. Talking about it Many men find that talking about their cancer can help them to cope. Some men find that talking to a partner, friend or relative can help. However, some men find it difficult to share their feelings with someone close to them and prefer to talk to someone else. You and those close to you can speak to one of our Specialist Nurses by calling our confidential helpline. They can help you to understand your diagnosis and the emotional effects of cancer. You may also find it helpful to talk to your nurse, doctor or GP about how you are feeling. If you would like some more support, they may be able to put you in touch with a counsellor. Asking questions can help you understand what is happening, and may help you feel more in control. You may find it useful to write down any questions you have to take along to your appointments. Our Tool Kit fact sheets list some suggested questions that you may wish to ask your doctor or nurse.
30 30 Prostate cancer A guide for newly diagnosed men Talking to someone affected by prostate cancer You and your family may find that talking to someone with similar experiences helps. Our support volunteers are all men and women personally affected by prostate cancer. They are trained to listen and offer support over the telephone. Call our Specialist Nurses on our confidential helpline to arrange to speak to a volunteer. If you have access to the internet, you and your family can join our online community on our website at You can share your experiences with other men and their families. There are also prostate cancer support groups across the country, where you and your family can meet other people affected by prostate cancer. You can find details on our website or ask your nurse. There is more information about dealing with the emotional impact of prostate cancer and support for partners and families in our booklet, Living with and after prostate cancer: A guide to physical, emotional and practical issues. Practical support You may find that making changes to your diet gives you more control over your body and is something that you can do for yourself. Eating a healthy, balanced diet and being physically active will benefit your overall health and may be helpful in slowing down the growth of the cancer. Diet and physical activity may also help you cope with the side effects of treatment and any feelings of anxiety. You can find out more about this in our Tool Kit fact sheet, Diet, exercise and prostate cancer. If you live in England and are having treatment for cancer, including treatment for the symptoms of cancer or treatment for the side effects of a cancer treatment, you are entitled to free prescriptions. You will need to apply for a medical exemption certificate.
31 Helpline Ask your doctor for a FP92A form. Once you have filled out the form, your doctor will need to sign it, and you will be sent the certificate. You can find out more about free prescriptions at NHS Choices. If you live in Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland, all prescriptions are free. You can read more about practical issues of prostate cancer, such as work and money, in our booklet, Living with and after prostate cancer: A guide to physical, emotional and practical issues.
32 32 Prostate cancer A guide for newly diagnosed men Who are my team members? You can use this space to record the names and contact details of the team of health professionals who will be involved in your ongoing care. You may hear them called your multi-disciplinary team (MDT). Your MDT will discuss your individual diagnosis and agree on which treatment options would be suitable for you. We have listed the health professionals who are likely to be most involved in your care, but you may not come into contact with all of them. You are likely to meet more members of your MDT later on when you begin treatment or monitoring. Specialist nurse You may have a urology, uro-oncology or prostate cancer specialist nurse as part of your MDT. They can answer any questions you may have about your cancer and may carry out some of the tests, treatments and follow up care that you will have. Name Telephone no. Notes Main contact (key worker) Your main point of contact may be called your key worker. This could be your specialist nurse or another member of your MDT. They help to co-ordinate your care and can guide you to the appropriate team member or sources of information. Name Telephone no. Notes
33 Helpline Consultant urologist This type of doctor specialises in the urinary and reproductive systems. Urologists are also surgeons. Name Telephone no. Notes Consultant oncologist This type of doctor specialises in treating cancer. Name Telephone no. Notes Other health professionals You can record contact details of other health professionals in the space below. General practitioner (GP) Practice nurse Other health professionals You could also call our Specialist Nurses on our confidential helpline. You can find out about your local support group from your nurse or on our website. Details of your local support group:
34 34 Prostate cancer A guide for newly diagnosed men Medical words used in this booklet Our Tool Kit fact sheet, A-Z of medical words, explains more words that you may hear or read when you are finding out about prostate cancer. Gleason grade A grading system which shows how aggressive prostate cancer is likely to be. Cancer patterns in a prostate biopsy sample are given a grade. Cells that are not aggressive are grade 1 and the most aggressive are grade 5. Gleason score Your Gleason score is worked out by adding together the Gleason grades of the most common cancer pattern and the pattern with the highest grade in the biopsy samples. The higher the Gleason score, the more aggressive the cancer and the more likely it is to spread. Most men with prostate cancer will have a Gleason score of between 6 and 10. Lymph nodes These are part of the body s immune system. The lymph nodes in the groin and pelvic area sit close to the prostate gland and are a common place for prostate cancer to spread to. Also called lymph glands. Metastasis The spread of cancer from the prostate gland to other parts of the body. Cancers that have spread are called metastases or secondaries. A cancer that has spread is said to have metastasised.
35 Helpline Multi-disciplinary team (MDT) The team of health professionals involved in your care. The team may include a specialist nurse, a consultant oncologist and a consultant urologist. Oncology The diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) A protein that is produced by the prostate gland. It is normal for all men to have a small amount of PSA in their blood. A raised PSA level can be due to a variety of reasons, including age, infection, an enlarged prostate and prostate cancer. Urology The diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the urinary system, which includes the prostate gland. Uro-oncology The diagnosis and treatment of cancer that affects the urinary system, including prostate cancer.
36 36 Prostate cancer A guide for newly diagnosed men Follow-up appointments You can use this section to record any appointments you have with your doctor, nurse or other health professional. Date Time Contact name Location Notes
37 Helpline PSA levels You may like to use this page to record the results of your PSA tests. If you need more space, you can order PSA record cards by calling Prostate Cancer UK on Date PSA level Date PSA level
38 38 Prostate cancer A guide for newly diagnosed men Notes
39 Helpline More information from us The Tool Kit The Tool Kit information pack contains fact sheets that explain how prostate cancer is diagnosed, how it is treated and how it may affect your lifestyle. Each treatment fact sheet also includes a list of suggested questions to ask your doctor. Leaflets and booklets Other leaflets and booklets about prostate cancer and other prostate problems can be ordered free of charge from Prostate Cancer UK. To order publications: Call us on Visit our website Call our Specialist Nurses If you want to talk about prostate cancer or other prostate problems, call our Specialist Nurses in confidence. You can also the nurses using the contact form on our website. Visit and click on we can help. Speak to our Specialist Nurses * * Calls are recorded for training purposes only. Confidentiality is maintained between callers and Prostate Cancer UK.
40 40 Prostate cancer A guide for newly diagnosed men Other useful organisations British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy Telephone: Provides information about counselling and details of therapists in your area. Cancer Black Care Telephone: Provides information and support to all people affected by cancer and raises awareness of cancer in black and minority ethnic communities. CancerHelp UK Freephone: (9am-5pm, Mon-Fri) Part of Cancer Research UK, CancerHelp provides information about all types of cancer and a database of cancer clinical trials. Carers UK Advice line: Provides information and advice for carers including signposting to support groups. Citizens Advice Provides free information and advice on financial, legal and other issues. You can find contact details of your local Citizens Advice Bureau on their website or in the phone book.
41 Helpline Healthtalkonline Watch, listen to, or read personal experiences of men with prostate cancer and other medical conditions. Macmillan Cancer Support Freephone: (9am-8pm, Mon-Fri) Provides practical, financial and emotional support for people with cancer, their family and friends. Maggie s Cancer Caring Centres Telephone: Cancer information and support centres throughout the UK where people affected by cancer can drop in to access information and support services. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Telephone: Provides guidance on treating ill health, including guidelines for prostate cancer. NHS Choices Provides information and advice about medical conditions, and information on NHS health services in your area. UK Prostate Link Guide to reliable sources of prostate cancer information.
42 42 Prostate cancer A guide for newly diagnosed men About Prostate Cancer UK Prostate Cancer UK fights to help more men survive prostate cancer and enjoy a better life. We support men by providing vital information and services. We find answers by funding research into causes and treatments and we lead change, raising the profile of all prostate diseases and improving care. We believe that men deserve better. At Prostate Cancer UK, we take great care to provide up-to-date, unbiased and accurate facts about prostate diseases. We hope these will add to the medical advice you have had and help you to make decisions. Our services are not intended to replace advice from your doctor. References to sources of information used in the production of this booklet are available at This publication was written and edited by: Prostate Cancer UK s Information Team. It was reviewed by: Debra Gray, Uro-oncology CNS, Darlington Memorial Hospital, Darlington Anup Patel, Chairman of Clinical Studies Committee of EAU Research Foundation, and Scientific Chair of Endourology Society Sean Vesey, Consultant Urological Surgeon, Southport and Ormskirk NHS Hospitals Trust and Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals Trust, Southport Karen Wilkinson, Urology Nurse Specialist, St Bartholomew s and the London NHS Trust, London Prostate Cancer UK Specialist Nurses Prostate Cancer UK Volunteers
43 Helpline Donate today help others like you Did you find this information useful? Would you like to help others in your situation access the facts they need? Every year, 40,000 men face a prostate cancer diagnosis. Thanks to our generous supporters, we offer information free to all who need it. If you would like to help us continue this service, please consider making a donation. Your gift could fund the following services: 10 could buy a Tool Kit a set of fact sheets, tailored to the needs of each man with vital information on diagnosis, treatment and lifestyle. 25 could give a man diagnosed with prostate cancer unlimited time to talk over treatment options with one of our specialist nurses. To make a donation of any amount, please call us on , visit /donations or text PROSTATE to 70004*. There are many other ways to support us. For more details please visit /get-involved *You can donate up to 10 via SMS and we will receive 100% of your donation. Texts are charged at your standard rate. For full terms and conditions and more information, please visit /terms
44 Speak to our Specialist Nurses * Prostate Cancer UK February 2012 To be reviewed February 2014 The helpline is open Mon - Fri 9am - 5pm, plus Wed 7pm - 9pm * Calls are recorded for training purposes only. Confidentiality is maintained between callers and Prostate Cancer UK. Prostate Cancer UK is a registered charity in England and Wales ( ) and in Scotland (SC039332). Registered company number DIA/MAR13
Diagnosis Helpline 0800 074 8383 prostatecanceruk.org 1 Advanced prostate cancer In this fact sheet: What is advanced (metastatic) prostate cancer? What tests are used to diagnose advanced prostate cancer?
1 Advanced prostate cancer In this fact sheet: What is advanced (metastatic) prostate cancer? What tests are used to diagnose advanced prostate cancer? What do my test results mean? What are my treatment
Diagnosis Specialist Nurses 0800 074 8383 prostatecanceruk.org 1 Locally advanced prostate cancer In this fact sheet: What is locally advanced prostate cancer? How is locally advanced prostate cancer diagnosed?
Prostate cancer A guide for men who ve just been diagnosed 2 Prostate cancer A guide for men who ve just been diagnosed About this booklet This booklet is for men who ve recently been diagnosed with prostate
Recurrent prostate cancer A guide to treatment and support 2 Recurrent prostate cancer About this booklet This booklet is for you if your prostate cancer has come back after treatment that aimed to get
Understanding the PSA test A guide for men concerned about prostate cancer Introduction This booklet is for men who want to know more about having a blood test, called a PSA test, that can help diagnose
1 A guide to prostate cancer clinical trials In this fact sheet: What is a clinical trial? Why are trials done? What are trials looking into at the moment? How are clinical trials done? Should I take part
A start to help you understand prostate cancer If you are reading this because you have worries or concerns about yourself or someone you know then the best thing to do is make an appointment with your
prostatecanceruk.org What do you know about your prostate? Information for Black men Specialist Nurses 0800 074 8383 1 2 What do you know about your prostate? ure In the UK, 1 in 4 Black men will get prostate
Follow-up after prostate cancer treatment What happens next? 2 Follow-up after prostate cancer treatment About this booklet If you ve had treatment aimed at getting rid of your prostate cancer, such as
Diagnosis Specialist Nurses 0800 074 8383 prostatecanceruk.org 1 Advanced prostate cancer In this fact sheet: What is advanced prostate cancer? How is advanced prostate cancer diagnosed? What do my test
Testing for Prostate Cancer Information for men and their families Published by the New Zealand Guidelines Group Contents Should you be tested for prostate cancer? 1 What is the prostate? 2 Do you have
CANCER FACTS N a t i o n a l C a n c e r I n s t i t u t e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e s o f H e a l t h D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h a n d H u m a n S e r v i c e s Early Prostate Cancer:
An Introduction to PROSTATE CANCER Being diagnosed with prostate cancer can be a life-altering experience. It requires making some very difficult decisions about treatments that can affect not only the
Understanding the PSA test A guide for men concerned about prostate cancer 2 Understanding the PSA test A guide for men concerned about prostate cancer About this booklet This booklet is for men who want
Prostate cancer: English Prostate cancer This fact sheet is about how prostate cancer is diagnosed and treated. We also have fact sheets in your language about chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, side
PROSTATE CANCER 101 WHAT IS PROSTATE CANCER? Prostate cancer is cancer that begins in the prostate. The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland in the male reproductive system located below the bladder and in
A Woman s Guide to Prostate Cancer Treatment Supporting the man in your life Providing prostate cancer support and resources for women and families WOMEN AGAINST PROSTATE CANCER A Woman s Guide to Prostate
University College Hospital Hormone therapy for prostate cancer Radiotherapy Department Patient information series 10 2 If you need a large print, audio or translated copy of the document, please contact
All men should know they are having a PSA test and be informed of the implications prior to testing. This booklet was created to help primary care providers offer men information about the risks and benefits
An Introduction to PROSTATE CANCER Being diagnosed with prostate cancer can be a life-altering experience. It requires making some very difficult decisions about treatments that can affect not only the
Prostate Cancer Screening A Decision Guide for African Americans This booklet was developed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Published
Treatment Helpline 0800 074 8383 prostatecanceruk.org 1 External beam radiotherapy In this fact sheet: Who can have radiotherapy? How does radiotherapy treat prostate cancer? What are the advantages and
Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Introduction Cancer of the prostate is the most common form of cancer that affects men. About 240,000 American men are diagnosed with prostate cancer every year. Your
How prostate cancer is diagnosed This information is an extract from the booklet Having tests for prostate cancer. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a free copy see page 7. Contents
AFTER DIAGNOSIS: PROSTATE CANCER Understanding Your Treatment Options INTRODUCTION This booklet describes how prostate cancer develops, how it affects the body and the current treatment methods. Although
Prostate Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Prostate Cancer Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer, you may feel alone and afraid. You may be overwhelmed by the large amount
Treatment Helpline 0800 074 8383 prostatecanceruk.org 1 A guide to prostate cancer clinical trials In this fact sheet: What is a clinical trial? Why are trials done? Who works on trials? What are the different
Cancer Expert Working Group on Cancer Prevention and Screening Screening for Prostate Cancer Information for men and their families 1 What is the prostate? 2 What is prostate cancer? prostate The prostate
Transrectal Ultrasound (Trus) Guided Prostate Biopsies Urology Patient Information Leaflet Page 1 What is the purpose of my appointment? Your doctor has informed us that you have an elevated Prostate Specific
Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer using CyberKnife Delivering the best in care UHB is a no smoking Trust To see all of our current patient information leaflets please visit www.uhb.nhs.uk/patient-information-leaflets.htm
What You Need to Know About Your Partner s Prostate Cancer. A Guide for Wives, Partners, and the Men They Love. Providing Support for Your Partner Prostate cancer can be a physical and emotional challenge
Prostate Cancer Definition Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate gland. The prostate is a small, walnut-sized structure that makes up part of a man's reproductive system. It wraps around
The Management of Localized P R O S T A T E C A N C E R Patient Guide Based on recommendations from the Prostate Cancer Clinical Guideline Panel of the American Urological Association The AUA Foundation
Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer Patient Information Leaflet Your treatment Treatment for prostate cancer varies according to the stage and grade of your prostate cancer. Following discussion with your
TO PROVIDE THE VERY BEST CARE FOR EACH PATIENT ON EVERY OCCASION Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Blood Test An information guide Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Blood Test Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
Understanding Locally-Advanced Prostate Cancer This booklet is to help you and your family understand what it means if you have been diagnosed as having locally-advanced prostate cancer. It gives an outline
Prostate Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Prostate Cancer Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer, you may feel alone and afraid. You may be overwhelmed by the large amount
Prostate Cancer Screening The American Cancer Society and Congregational Health Ministry Team June Module To access this module via the Web, visit www.cancer.org and type in congregational health ministry
PROSTATE CANCER Get the facts, know your options Samay Jain, MD, Assistant Professor,The University of Toledo Chief, Division of Urologic Oncology i What is the Prostate? Unfortunately, you have prostate
Living with Prostate Cancer A Common Cancer in Men If you ve been diagnosed with prostate cancer, it s normal to be concerned about your future. It may help you to know that this disease can often be cured
Localised prostate cancer a guide for men and their families July 2006 About this book The contents of this book are based on the NHMRC s Clinical Practice Guidelines: Evidence-based information and recommendations
Patient & Family Guide 2015 Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer www.nshealth.ca Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer What is the prostate? The prostate is one of the male sex glands. It makes seminal fluid
A918: Prostate: adenocarcinoma General facts of prostate cancer The prostate is about the size of a walnut. It is just below the bladder and in front of the rectum. The tube that carries urine (the urethra)
Notes Specialist Nurses 0800 074 8383 A to Z of medical words 1 This fact sheet explains some of the medical words you might come across when you are finding out about prostate problems and prostate cancer.
1 Hormone therapy In this fact sheet: How does hormone therapy treat prostate cancer? Who can have hormone therapy? What types of hormone therapy are there? What are the advantages and disadvantages of
Patient Information English Frequently Asked Questions about Prostate Cancer The underlined terms are listed in the glossary. General questions What is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer is a malignant tumour
WHEN PROSTATE CANCER RETURNS: ADVANCED PROSTATE CANCER (The following information is based on the general experiences of many prostate cancer patients. Your experience may be different.) How Will I Know
Prostate Cancer OVERVIEW Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed among American men, accounting for nearly 200,000 new cancer cases in the United States each year. Greater than 65% of
This information is an extract from the booklet Understanding cancer of the vulva. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a copy free see page 6. Contents External radiotherapy Internal
Getting checked for Prostate Cancer Quick guide for men and their families and whanau Stay well for your family and whanau. doctor, nurse or health professional about prostate cancer. You should do this
Prostate Cancer Treatments as unique as you are UCLA Prostate Cancer Program Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men. The UCLA Prostate Cancer Program brings together the elements essential
Treating Mesothelioma - A Quick Guide Contents This is a brief summary of the information on Treating mesothelioma from CancerHelp UK. You will find more detailed information on the website. In this information
WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT PROSTATE CANCER WHAT IS PROSTATE CANCER? Prostate cancer occurs when abnormal cells develop in the prostate. These abnormal cells can continue to multiply in an uncontrolled
How testicular cancer is diagnosed This information is from the booklet Understanding testicular cancer. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a free copy see page 6. Contents What happens
Newly Diagnosed Prostate Cancer: Understanding Your Risk When the urologist calls with the life-changing news that your prostate biopsy is positive for prostate cancer, an office appointment is made to
This fact sheet is for people with primary bone cancer who would like to know more about their cancer and its treatment. It describes the types, causes and symptoms of primary bone cancer, as well as treatments
After Diagnosis: Prostate Cancer Understanding Your Treatment Options What s inside How will this booklet help me?... 3 What is the prostate?... 4 What is prostate cancer?... 4 Who gets prostate cancer?...
The 2014 Cancer Program Annual Public Reporting of Outcomes/Annual Site Analysis Statistical Data from 2013 More than 70 percent of all newly diagnosed cancer patients are treated in the more than 1,500
Irish Cancer Society Action Prostate Cancer Understanding Prostate Cancer beyond the Prostate Gland Caring for people with cancer Understanding prostate cancer beyond the prostate gland Irish Cancer Society
Diagnosing secondary breast cancer This information is from the booklet Understanding secondary breast cancer. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a free copy see page 6. Contents Tests
Invasive lobular breast cancer This booklet is about invasive lobular breast cancer. It describes what invasive lobular breast cancer is, the symptoms, how it s diagnosed and possible treatments. Diagnosed
A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. Prostate cancer Cancer - prostate; Biopsy - prostate; Prostate biopsy; Gleason score Last reviewed: October 2, 2013. Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate
A practical guide to understanding cancer This booklet is one of a series of booklets on prostate cancer. It gives information about locally advanced prostate cancer. This is when prostate cancer has started
Short Course, Pre-operative Radiotherapy for Bowel Cancer Patient Information Introduction This leaflet tells you about short course, pre-operative radiotherapy for the treatment of bowel cancer. It explains
Information for Men Receiving Radiation and Hormone Treatments for Prostate Cancer Treatment Plan Stage of prostate cancer: RADIATION THERAPY Radiation Treatments: Date for planning CT: Date to start radiation
Treatment overview for lung cancer This information is an extract from the booklet Understanding lung cancer. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a free copy see page 5. Contents How
Tubular breast cancer This booklet is for people who would like more information about tubular breast cancer. It describes what tubular breast cancer is, its symptoms, how a diagnosis is made and the possible
ESSENTIALS Breast Cancer Take things one step at a time. Try not to be overwhelmed by the tidal wave of technical information coming your way. Finally you know your body best; you have to be your own advocate.
Diagnosing invasive and advanced bladder cancer 1 Diagnosing invasive and advanced bladder cancer This information is from the booklet Understanding invasive and advanced bladder cancer. You may find the
Prostate Cancer For many older men, prostate cancer may be present but never cause symptoms or problems and many men will die with their prostate cancer rather than of their prostate cancer. Yet it remains
For more information, please contact your local VA Medical Center or Health Clinic. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Veterans Health Administration Patient Care Services Health Promotion and Disease
Understanding Prostate Cancer A guide for men with cancer, their families and friends Cancer information www.cancercouncil.com.au Understanding Prostate Cancer A guide for men with cancer, their families
East Lancashire Surgical Robot For ALL patients in Lancashire Prostate cancer claims the life of one man every hour and by 2030 will be the most common cancer; it is already the most common male cancer.
Dealing with Erectile Dysfunction During and After Prostate Cancer Treatment For You and Your Partner The following information is based on the general experiences of many prostate cancer patients. Your
1. What is the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test? Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by the cells of the prostate gland. The PSA test measures the level of PSA in the blood. The doctor
The Prostate Cancer Center at Roswell Park Connects You to Nationally Recognized Experts for State-of-the-Art Treatment Options and Compassionate, Evidence-based Care Founded in 1898, Roswell Park Cancer