1 Diagnosis Specialist Nurses prostatecanceruk.org 1 Localised prostate cancer In this fact sheet: What is localised prostate cancer? How is localised prostate cancer diagnosed? What do my test results mean? Is my cancer likely to spread? What are my treatment options? Choosing a treatment What will happen after my treatment? What is my outlook? Dealing with prostate cancer Questions to ask your doctor or nurse More information About us This fact sheet is for men who have been diagnosed with localised prostate cancer cancer that s contained inside the prostate gland. Your partner, family or friends might also find it helpful. We explain what localised prostate cancer is, what your test results mean, and the treatment options available. If you want to find out about locally advanced or advanced prostate cancer, read our Tool Kit fact sheets, Locally advanced prostate cancer and Advanced prostate cancer. Each hospital will do things slightly differently. Use this fact sheet as a general guide and ask your doctor or nurse for more details about your care and the support available to you. You can also speak to our Specialist Nurses, in confidence, on What is localised prostate cancer? Localised prostate cancer is cancer that s contained inside the prostate. You may also hear it called early or organ-confined prostate cancer. Localised prostate cancer often grows slowly or might not grow at all and has a low risk of spreading. So it may never cause you any problems or affect how long you live. Because of this, slow-growing localised prostate cancer might not need to be treated. You might be able to have your cancer monitored with regular check-ups instead (see page 5). But some men will have cancer that is fast-growing and has a high risk of spreading. This is more likely to cause problems and needs treatment to stop it spreading outside the prostate. The tests described on page 2 will help your doctor find out how your cancer is likely to behave, and what treatments might be suitable for you. If you re not sure whether your prostate cancer is localised, speak to your doctor or nurse. They can explain your test results and the treatment options available. Or you could call our Specialist Nurses for more information and support.
2 Diagnosis Specialist Nurses prostatecanceruk.org 2 How is localised prostate cancer diagnosed? If you ve been diagnosed with localised prostate cancer, you will have had some or all of the following tests. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) test This measures the amount of PSA in your blood. PSA is a protein produced by normal cells in the prostate and also by prostate cancer cells. Digital rectal examination (DRE) The doctor or nurse feels the prostate through the wall of the back passage (rectum). They feel for hard or irregular areas that might be a sign of cancer. Prostate biopsy Thin needles are used to take small samples of tissue from the prostate. The samples are looked at under a microscope to check for cancer. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan This creates a detailed image of your prostate and the surrounding tissues. You might have an MRI scan before a biopsy to help decide whether you need a biopsy. An MRI scan may also be used to see if the cancer has spread (see page 4). Other tests You may also need one or both of the following tests to find out if your cancer has spread outside the prostate. Computerised tomography (CT) scan This can show whether the cancer has spread outside the prostate, for example to the lymph nodes or nearby bones. Lymph nodes are part of your immune system and are found throughout your body. You probably won t have a CT scan if you ve already had an MRI scan. Bone scan This can show whether any cancer cells have spread to the bones, which is a common place for prostate cancer to spread to. You might not need these scans if other tests show your cancer is unlikely to have spread. Read more about tests in our Tool Kit fact sheet, How prostate cancer is diagnosed. Some men are diagnosed with prostate cancer after surgery for an enlarged prostate, called a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). If you have this operation, the pieces of prostate tissue that are removed are checked for cancer. What do my test results mean? Your doctor will look at all your test results to get an idea of how quickly your cancer might grow and whether it has spread. This will help you to discuss which treatments might be suitable for you. PSA level It s normal to have a small amount of PSA in your blood, and the amount rises as you get older. Other things can affect your PSA level, such as Your multi-disciplinary team (MDT) This is the team of health professionals involved in your care. It is likely to include: a specialist nurse a urologist (a surgeon who specialises in diseases of the urinary and reproductive systems, including prostate cancer) an oncologist (a doctor who specialises in cancer treatments other than surgery) a radiographer (a person who takes X-rays and scans of the body). Your MDT will discuss your diagnosis and which treatments might be suitable for you. You might not meet them all straight away. Your main point of contact might be called your key worker. This is usually your specialist nurse, but might be someone else. The key worker will co-ordinate your care. They can also help you understand your diagnosis and treatment, and help you get information and support.
3 Diagnosis Specialist Nurses prostatecanceruk.org 3 a urine infection, vigorous exercise, or a prostate problem. You may have had a PSA test that showed your PSA was raised, and then had other tests to diagnose your prostate cancer. After you ve been diagnosed, you will have regular PSA tests. This is a useful way to check how well your treatment has worked. If your PSA level falls this usually suggests your treatment is working. If you decide not to have treatment straight away (see page 5), you will have regular PSA tests to check if your cancer might be growing. Gleason grade and Gleason score Your doctor may talk about your Gleason grade and Gleason score after your biopsy. Gleason grade Prostate cancer cells in your biopsy samples are given a Gleason grade. This tells you how aggressive the cancer is in other words, how likely it is to grow and spread outside the prostate. When cancer cells are seen under the microscope, they have different patterns, depending on how quickly they re likely to grow. The pattern is given a grade from 1 to 5. This is called the Gleason grade. If a grade is given, it will usually be 3 or higher, as grades 1 and 2 are not cancer. Gleason score There may be more than one grade of cancer in the biopsy sample. An overall Gleason score is worked out by adding together two Gleason grades. The first is the most common grade in all the samples. The second is the highest grade of what s left. When these two grades are added together, the total is called the Gleason score. Gleason score = the most common grade + the highest other grade in the samples For example, if the biopsy samples show that: most of the cancer seen is grade 3 and the highest grade of any other cancer seen is grade 4, then the Gleason score will be 7 (3+4). A Gleason score of 4+3 shows that the cancer is slightly more aggressive than a score of 3+4, as there is more grade 4 cancer. If you have prostate cancer, your combined Gleason score will be between 6 (3+3) and 10 (5+5). You might only be told your total Gleason score, and not your Gleason grades. What does the Gleason score mean? The higher the Gleason score, the more aggressive the cancer, and the more likely it is to spread. A Gleason score of 6 suggests that the cancer is slow-growing. A Gleason score of 7 suggests that the cancer may grow at a moderate rate. A Gleason score of 8, 9 or 10 suggests that the cancer may grow more quickly. Staging Staging is a way of recording how far the cancer has spread. The most common method is the TNM (Tumour-Nodes-Metastases) system. The T stage shows how far the cancer has spread in and around the prostate. The N stage shows whether the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes. The M stage shows whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body. You might not be told your N stage or your M stage your doctor may just tell you whether your cancer has spread to the lymph nodes or to other parts of your body. T stage The T stage shows how far the cancer has spread in and around the prostate. A DRE (see page 2) is usually used to find out the T stage. You might also have an MRI scan or a CT scan to confirm your T stage. If your T stage is T1 or T2, you will be diagnosed with localised prostate cancer.
4 Diagnosis Specialist Nurses prostatecanceruk.org 4 seminal vesicle prostate gland bladder T1 prostate cancer T3 and T4 prostate cancer If your T stage is T3, this means your cancer is starting to break through the capsule of the prostate. If your T stage is T4, the cancer has spread to nearby organs, such as the neck of the bladder, back passage, pelvic wall or lymph nodes. T3 and T4 are both locally advanced prostate cancer. Read more in our Tool Kit fact sheet, Locally advanced prostate cancer. N stage The N stage shows whether your cancer has spread to the lymph nodes near the prostate. This is a common place for prostate cancer to spread to. T1 prostate cancer The cancer can t be felt or seen on scans, and can only be seen under a microscope. bladder An MRI or CT scan is used to find out your N stage (see page 2). You may need an MRI or CT scan if you re thinking about having a treatment such as radiotherapy or surgery and there is a risk your cancer might have spread to your lymph nodes. But your N stage is only measured if the result is likely to affect your treatment options. The possible N stages are: NX The lymph nodes were not looked at, or the scans were unclear. N0 No cancer can be seen in the lymph nodes. N1 The lymph nodes contain cancer. seminal vesicle prostate gland T2 prostate cancer M stage The M stage shows whether the cancer has spread (metastasised) to other parts of the body, such as the bones. A bone scan is usually used to find out the M stage (see page 2). But most men with localised prostate cancer won t need a bone scan. T2 prostate cancer The cancer can be felt or seen on scans, but is still contained inside the prostate. T2a The cancer is in half of one side (lobe) of the prostate, or less. T2b The cancer is in more than half of one of the lobes, but not in both lobes of the prostate. T2c The cancer is in both lobes but is still inside the prostate. The possible M stages are: MX The spread of the cancer wasn t looked at, or the scans were unclear. M0 The cancer hasn t spread to other parts of the body. M1 The cancer has spread to other parts of the body. If your cancer has spread (M1), you will be diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer. Read our Tool Kit fact sheet, Advanced prostate cancer.
5 Diagnosis Specialist Nurses prostatecanceruk.org 5 For example, if your cancer is described as T2, N0, M0, it is likely that your cancer: is completely contained inside the prostate has not spread to your lymph nodes has not spread to other parts of your body. This is localised prostate cancer. Ask your doctor or nurse to explain your test results if you don t understand them. Read more in our Tool Kit fact sheet, How prostate cancer is diagnosed, or call our Specialist Nurses. Is my cancer likely to spread? Your doctor may talk to you about the risk of your cancer coming back after treatment. To work out your risk, your doctor will look at your PSA level, your Gleason score and the stage of your cancer. This will help you and your doctor to discuss the best treatments for you. Low risk Your cancer may be low risk if: your PSA level is less than 10 ng/ml, and your Gleason score is 6 or less, and the stage of your cancer is T1 to T2a. Medium risk Your cancer may be medium risk if: your PSA level is between 10 and 20 ng/ml, or your Gleason score is 7, or the stage of your cancer is T2b. High risk Your cancer may be high risk if: your PSA level is higher than 20 ng/ml, or your Gleason score is 8, 9 or 10, or the stage of your cancer is T2c, T3 or T4. What are my treatment options? Most treatments for localised prostate cancer aim to get rid of the cancer. But localised prostate cancer often grows slowly and might not need treatment. You may be able to have your cancer monitored with regular check-ups instead. The treatment options for localised cancer are: active surveillance watchful waiting surgery (radical prostatectomy) external beam radiotherapy brachytherapy. You might also be offered high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or cryotherapy. These are not available at many hospitals in the UK, but may be offered at specialist centres or as part of a clinical trial. They are more commonly used to treat prostate cancer that has started to grow again after radiotherapy. We ve included some information about treatments for localised prostate cancer below. You can find more detailed information in our Tool Kit fact sheets. Some of the treatments might not be suitable for you, so ask your doctor or nurse about your own treatment options. Active surveillance Active surveillance is a way of monitoring localised prostate cancer that s likely to be slow-growing. The aim is to avoid unnecessary treatment in men whose cancer is unlikely to spread so you ll avoid or delay the side effects of treatment. It s also sometimes suitable for men with medium risk cancer. If you have high risk prostate cancer, active surveillance won t be suitable for you. Active surveillance involves monitoring your cancer with regular tests, including PSA tests and biopsies, rather than treating it straight away. Some hospitals may also recommend MRI scans. The tests aim to find any changes that suggest the cancer is growing. If the tests show your cancer might be growing, you ll be offered treatment such as surgery, radiotherapy or brachytherapy. The aim of treatment will then be to get rid of the cancer completely. Read more in our Tool Kit fact sheet, Active surveillance.
6 Diagnosis Specialist Nurses prostatecanceruk.org 6 Watchful waiting Watchful waiting is a different way of monitoring prostate cancer that isn t causing any symptoms or problems. The aim is to keep an eye on the cancer over the long term. If you choose watchful waiting, you won t have any treatment unless you get symptoms, so you ll avoid the side effects of treatment. If you do get symptoms, you ll be offered hormone therapy to control the cancer and help manage symptoms. Watchful waiting involves having fewer tests than active surveillance. It s generally suitable for men with other health problems who may not be fit enough for treatments such as surgery or radiotherapy. It might also be suitable if your prostate cancer isn t likely to cause any problems during your lifetime or shorten your life. Read more in our Tool Kit fact sheet, Watchful waiting. If you re offered active surveillance or watchful waiting, ask your doctor to explain which one you re being offered and why. They are quite different ways of monitoring prostate cancer. Surgery (radical prostatectomy) This is an operation to remove the prostate and the cancer inside it. There are several types of surgery: keyhole (laparoscopic) surgery robot-assisted keyhole surgery open surgery. Read more about surgery, including the possible side effects, in our Tool Kit fact sheet, Surgery: radical prostatectomy. External beam radiotherapy This uses high-energy X-ray beams to destroy cancer cells from outside the body. If your prostate cancer is medium or high risk, you will be offered hormone therapy for up to six months before starting external beam radiotherapy. Delaying external beam radiotherapy won t cause any problems. The hormone therapy shrinks the prostate and makes the external beam radiotherapy more effective. You may also continue to have hormone therapy for six months after your radiotherapy. Or you may be offered hormone therapy for up to three years if your cancer is high risk. You can read more about hormone therapy in our Tool Kit fact sheet, Hormone therapy. If your prostate cancer is medium or high risk, you might also be offered high dose-rate brachytherapy (see below) at the same time as external beam radiotherapy. Read more about external beam radiotherapy in our Tool Kit fact sheet, External beam radiotherapy. Brachytherapy This is a type of internal radiotherapy. There are two types of brachytherapy permanent seed brachytherapy and high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Permanent seed brachytherapy, also called low dose-rate brachytherapy, involves implanting tiny radioactive seeds into the prostate. It can be used to treat low or medium risk localised prostate cancer. HDR brachytherapy, sometimes called temporary brachytherapy, involves putting a source of radiation into the prostate for a few minutes at a time. HDR brachytherapy is less common than permanent seed brachytherapy, but may be suitable for men with medium or high risk localised prostate cancer. External beam radiotherapy can be used together with brachytherapy to give higher doses of radiation to the prostate, as well as the area just outside it. You may also have hormone therapy for several months before starting brachytherapy. This can help to shrink the prostate and make the treatment more effective. Brachytherapy isn t available in all hospitals. If your hospital doesn t offer it, your doctor may be able to refer you to one that does. Read more about brachytherapy, including the possible side effects, in our Tool Kit fact sheets, Permanent seed brachytherapy and Temporary brachytherapy.
7 Diagnosis Specialist Nurses prostatecanceruk.org 7 High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) HIFU uses ultrasound to heat and destroy the cancer cells. It s newer than some of the other treatments for prostate cancer, so we don t know as much about how well it works or the risk of side effects in the long term. It s only available in specialist centres or as part of a clinical trial. Read more about HIFU, including the possible side effects, in our Tool Kit fact sheet, High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Cryotherapy Cryotherapy uses freezing and thawing to destroy the cancer cells. It s newer than some of the other treatments for prostate cancer, so we don t know as much about how well it works or the risk of side effects in the long term. It s only available in specialist centres or as part of a clinical trial. Read more about cryotherapy, including the possible side effects, in our Tool Kit fact sheet, Cryotherapy. Clinical trials A clinical trial is a type of medical research. Clinical trials aim to find new and improved ways of preventing, diagnosing, treating and controlling illnesses. You can ask your doctor or nurse if there are any clinical trials you could take part in, or call our Specialist Nurses. You can also find details of clinical trials for prostate cancer at Read more in our Tool Kit fact sheet, A guide to prostate cancer clinical trials. Choosing a treatment Your doctor or nurse will talk you through your treatment options and help you choose the right treatment for you. You might not be able to have all of the treatments listed in this fact sheet. Ask your doctor or nurse which ones are suitable for you. What might I want to think about? Which treatment you choose may depend on several things, including: how far the cancer has spread (its stage) and how quickly it may be growing your age and general health for example, if you have any other health problems what each treatment involves the possible side effects of each treatment practical things such as how often you would need to go to hospital how you feel about different treatments for example some men prefer to have their prostate removed, while others don t want surgery how the treatment you choose now would affect your treatment options in the future if your cancer comes back or spreads. There s no overall best treatment, and each one has its own pros and cons. All treatments have side effects, such as urinary problems, problems getting an erection, and fatigue. The type of side effects you get will depend on the treatment you choose. Treatments will affect each man differently. You might not get all of the possible side effects, but it s important to think about how you would cope with them when choosing a treatment. The first treatment you have may affect which other treatments you can have in the future, if you need further treatment. For example, surgery is usually not an option if you ve already had radiotherapy. Speak to your doctor or nurse about this when deciding on a treatment. It can be hard to take everything in, especially when you ve just been diagnosed. Make sure you have all the information you need, and give yourself time to think about what is right for you. Your doctor or nurse can help you think about the pros and cons. It can help to write down any questions you want to ask at your next appointment. And to write down or record what s said to help you remember it. It can also help to take someone to appointments, such as your partner, friend or family member. If you have any questions, call our Specialist Nurses.
8 Diagnosis Specialist Nurses prostatecanceruk.org 8 Do I need treatment? This may seem like an odd question, but many localised prostate cancers grow too slowly to cause any problems or affect how long you live. So many men with localised prostate cancer will never need treatment. If your test results show your cancer is unlikely to spread outside the prostate, you may decide to have your cancer monitored. There are two ways to monitor localised prostate cancer active surveillance and watchful waiting (see page 5). Both approaches aim to monitor the cancer over the long term. You won t have treatment unless the cancer starts to grow or you get symptoms. If you re thinking about going on active surveillance or watchful waiting, make sure you have all the information you need before you decide. Monitoring isn t right for everyone some men are happy to avoid treatment, but others may worry about not treating their cancer. Speak to your doctor or nurse about your own situation, or speak to our Specialist Nurses. What will happen after my treatment? You will have regular check-ups during and after your treatment to check how well it is working. You ll have regular PSA blood tests ask your doctor or nurse how often you ll have these. Tell them about any side effects you re getting. There are usually ways of managing side effects. Make sure you have the details of someone to contact if you have any questions or concerns between check-ups. This might be your specialist nurse or key worker. You can also speak to our Specialist Nurses. Read more about care and support after treatment in our booklet, Follow-up after prostate cancer treatment: What happens next? What is my outlook? It s normal to worry about dying if you ve just been told you have cancer. But most localised prostate cancer is slow-growing and may not shorten a man s life. For many men with localised prostate cancer, treatment will get rid of the cancer. So having prostate cancer doesn t necessarily mean you ll die from it. For some men, treatment may be less successful and the cancer may come back. If this happens, you might need further treatment. Many men will want to know how successful their treatment is likely to be. This is sometimes called your outlook or prognosis. No one can tell you exactly what your outlook will be, as it will depend on many things, such as the stage of your prostate cancer and how quickly it might grow, your age, and any other health problems. Speak to your doctor about your own situation. For general information about the outlook for men with prostate cancer, visit the CancerHelp UK website. Dealing with prostate cancer Some men say being diagnosed with prostate cancer changes the way they think and feel about life. If you are dealing with prostate cancer you might feel scared, worried, stressed, helpless or even angry. At times, lots of men with prostate cancer get these kinds of thoughts and feelings. But there s no right way that you re supposed to feel and everyone reacts in their own way. There are things you can do to help yourself and there are people who can help. Families can also find this a difficult time and they may need support too. This section might also be helpful for them. How can I help myself? Everyone has their own way of dealing with prostate cancer, but you may find some of the following suggestions helpful. Find out about your treatment, so you know what your options are and what to expect.
9 Diagnosis Specialist Nurses prostatecanceruk.org 9 Find out about any side effects of treatment, so you know what to expect, and how you can try to manage them. Be as active as you can. Physical activity can lift your mood. Think about what you eat and drink. Some men find they manage better by aiming for a healthy, balanced diet. Read more about healthy eating in our Tool Kit fact sheet, Diet, physical activity and prostate cancer. Share what you re thinking find someone you can talk to. It could be someone close, or someone trained to listen, like a counsellor or your medical team. Take time out to look after yourself. When you feel up to it, learn some techniques to manage stress and to relax like listening to music or breathing exercises. Set yourself goals and things to look forward to. Find more ideas in our booklet, Living with and after prostate cancer: A guide to physical, emotional and practical issues. Get more ideas about how to look after yourself from Macmillan Cancer Support, Maggie s Centres and Penny Brohn Cancer Care, as well as local cancer support centres. Who can help? Your medical team It could be useful to speak to your nurse, doctor, GP or someone else in your medical team. They can help you understand your diagnosis, treatment and side effects, listen to your concerns, and put you in touch with other people who can help. Trained counsellors Counsellors are trained to listen and can help you to find your own ways to deal with things. Many hospitals have counsellors or psychologists who specialise in helping people with cancer ask your doctor or nurse at the hospital if this is available. Your GP may also be able to refer you to a counsellor, or you can see a private counsellor. To find out more contact the British Association for Counselling & Psychotherapy. Our Specialist Nurses Our Specialist Nurses can answer your questions, help explain your diagnosis and go through your treatment options with you. They ve got time to listen to any concerns you or those close to you have about living with prostate cancer. Everything is confidential. To get in touch: call from our website at prostatecanceruk.org/we-can-help text NURSE to Our one-to-one support service Our one-to-one support service is a chance to speak to someone who s been there and understands what you re going through. You could discuss treatment options, dealing with side effects, or telling people about your cancer whatever s important to you. Family members can also speak to partners of men with prostate cancer. Our online community Our online community is a place to talk about whatever s on your mind your questions, your ups and your downs. Anyone can ask a question or share an experience. Local support groups At local support groups men get together to share their experiences of living with prostate cancer you can ask questions, offload worries and know that someone understands what you re going through. Some groups have been set up by local health professionals, others by men themselves. Many also welcome partners, friends and relatives. To find out more about all of the above, visit prostatecanceruk.org/we-can-help or call our Specialist Nurses on
10 Diagnosis Specialist Nurses prostatecanceruk.org 10 Questions to ask your doctor or nurse You may find it helpful to keep a note of any questions you have to take to your next appointment. What is my Gleason score? How far has my cancer spread? What treatments are suitable for me? How quickly do I need to make a decision? What are the pros and cons of each treatment, including their possible side effects? How effective is my treatment likely to be? Are all of the treatments available at my local hospital? If not, how could I have them? If I decide to have my cancer monitored, what will this involve? Can I join any clinical trials? After treatment, how often will I have check-ups and what will this involve? If I have any questions or get any new symptoms, who should I contact?
11 Diagnosis Specialist Nurses prostatecanceruk.org 11 More information British Association for Counselling & Psychotherapy Telephone: Information about counselling and details of therapists in your area. CancerHelp UK Nurse helpline: Patient information from Cancer Research UK, including a database of clinical trials and advice on finding a trial. Healthtalkonline Watch, listen to and read personal experiences of men with prostate cancer and other health problems. Macmillan Cancer Support Telephone: Practical, financial and emotional support for people with cancer, their family and friends. Maggie s Centres Telephone: A network of drop-in centres for cancer information and support. Includes an online support group. NHS Shared Decision Making Decision aids to help people make difficult decisions about their healthcare. Penny Brohn Cancer Care Helpline: Runs courses and offers physical, emotional and spiritual support for people with cancer and those close to them. About us Prostate Cancer UK fights to help more men survive prostate cancer and enjoy a better life. This fact sheet is part of the Tool Kit. You can order more Tool Kit fact sheets, including an A to Z of medical words, which explains some of the words and phrases used in this fact sheet. Download and order our fact sheets and booklets from our website at prostatecanceruk.org/publications or call us on At Prostate Cancer UK, we take great care to provide up-to-date, unbiased and accurate facts about prostate cancer. We hope these will add to the medical advice you have had and help you to make decisions. Our services are not intended to replace advice from your doctor. References to sources of information used in the production of this fact sheet are available at prostatecanceruk.org This publication was written and edited by: Prostate Cancer UK s Health Information Team. It was reviewed by: Nicola Anyamene, Consultant Clinical Oncologist, Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Middlesex Debra Gray, Urology Oncology CNS, Darlington Memorial Hospital, Co Durham Chris Parker, Consultant Clinical Oncologist and Honorary Reader, Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research Anup Patel, Chair of Clinical Studies Committee, EAU Research Foundation Evelyn Pearson, Urology Nurse Specialist, Stepping Hill Hospital, Stockport Cathy Taylor, Consultant Radiographer (Prostate Brachytherapy), The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Karen Wilkinson, Urology Nurse Specialist, Barts Health NHS Trust Prostate Cancer UK Volunteers Prostate Cancer UK Specialist Nurses
12 Speak to our Specialist Nurses * prostatecanceruk.org Donate today help others like you Did you find this information useful? Would you like to help others in your situation access the facts they need? Every year, 40,000 men face a prostate cancer diagnosis. Thanks to our generous supporters, we offer information free to all who need it. If you would like to help us continue this service, please consider making a donation. Your gift could fund the following services: 10 could buy a Tool Kit a set of fact sheets, tailored to the needs of each man with vital information on diagnosis, treatment and lifestyle. 25 could give a man diagnosed with a prostate problem unlimited time to talk over treatment options with one of our Specialist Nurses. To make a donation of any amount, please call us on , visit prostatecanceruk.org/donations or text PROSTATE to 70004*. There are many other ways to support us. For more details please visit prostatecanceruk.org/get-involved *You can donate up to 10 via SMS and we will receive 100% of your donation. Texts are charged at your standard rate. For full terms and conditions and more information, please visit prostatecanceruk.org/terms Like us on Facebook: Prostate Cancer UK Follow us on Prostate Cancer UK August 2014 To be reviewed July 2016 Call our Specialist Nurses from Mon to Fri 9am - 6pm, Wed 10am - 8pm * Calls are recorded for training purposes only. Confidentiality is maintained between callers and Prostate Cancer UK. Prostate Cancer UK is a registered charity in England and Wales ( ) and in Scotland (SC039332). Registered company number LPC/OCT14
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The 2014 Cancer Program Annual Public Reporting of Outcomes/Annual Site Analysis Statistical Data from 2013 More than 70 percent of all newly diagnosed cancer patients are treated in the more than 1,500
PROSTATE CANCER Get the facts, know your options Samay Jain, MD, Assistant Professor,The University of Toledo Chief, Division of Urologic Oncology i What is the Prostate? Unfortunately, you have prostate
Cancer Expert Working Group on Cancer Prevention and Screening Screening for Prostate Cancer Information for men and their families 1 What is the prostate? 2 What is prostate cancer? prostate The prostate
Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer Introduction Cancer of the prostate is the most common form of cancer that affects men. About 240,000 American men are diagnosed with prostate cancer every year. Your
Prostate Cancer OVERVIEW Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed among American men, accounting for nearly 200,000 new cancer cases in the United States each year. Greater than 65% of
Prostate Cancer Understanding your diagnosis Prostate Cancer Understanding your diagnosis When you first hear that you have cancer, you may feel alone and afraid. You may be overwhelmed by the large amount
1 Hormone therapy In this fact sheet: How does hormone therapy treat prostate cancer? Who can have hormone therapy? What types of hormone therapy are there? What are the advantages and disadvantages of
University College Hospital Hormone therapy for prostate cancer Radiotherapy Department Patient information series 10 2 If you need a large print, audio or translated copy of the document, please contact
Prostate Cancer Treatments as unique as you are UCLA Prostate Cancer Program Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men. The UCLA Prostate Cancer Program brings together the elements essential
Talking about Prostate Cancer Talking about Prostate Cancer If I can avoid going to a doctor, I will but not when we re talking about prostate cancer. Why take chances with a condition that might be serious?
After Diagnosis: Prostate Cancer Understanding Your Treatment Options What s inside How will this booklet help me?... 3 What is the prostate?... 4 What is prostate cancer?... 4 Who gets prostate cancer?...
Testing for Prostate Cancer Should I be tested? Is it the right choice for me? Prostate cancer affects many men. There are tests to find it early. There may be benefits and risks with testing. Research
Prostate Cancer Definition Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate gland. The prostate is a small, walnut-sized structure that makes up part of a man's reproductive system. It wraps around
1. What is the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test? Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by the cells of the prostate gland. The PSA test measures the level of PSA in the blood. The doctor
Newly Diagnosed Prostate Cancer: Understanding Your Risk When the urologist calls with the life-changing news that your prostate biopsy is positive for prostate cancer, an office appointment is made to
Treating Mesothelioma - A Quick Guide Contents This is a brief summary of the information on Treating mesothelioma from CancerHelp UK. You will find more detailed information on the website. In this information
For more information, please contact your local VA Medical Center or Health Clinic. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Veterans Health Administration Patient Care Services Health Promotion and Disease
Lifestyle Specialist Nurses 0800 074 8383 prostatecanceruk.org Pelvic Floor Muscles Pelvic floor muscle exercises 21 In this fact sheet: How do pelvic floor muscle exercises help? When should I start the
Understanding your pathology report 2 Contents Contents Introduction 3 What is a pathology report? 3 Waiting for your results 4 What s in a pathology report? 4 Information about your breast cancer 5 What
AFTER DIAGNOSIS: PROSTATE CANCER Understanding Your Treatment Options INTRODUCTION This booklet describes how prostate cancer develops, how it affects the body and the current treatment methods. Although
Scan for mobile link. Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer is a tumor of the prostate gland, which is located in front of the rectum and below the bladder. Your doctor may perform a physical exam, prostate-specific
Prostate cancer screening It s YOUR decision! For many years now, a test has been available to screen for. The test is called the prostate-specific antigen blood test (or PSA test). It is used in combination
Advice to patients about the PSA (prostate-specific antigen) blood test: frequently-asked questions What is the PSA blood test? If you want more information before deciding to have this test, it is important
Radiation Therapy and Prostate Cancer The following information is based on the general experiences of many prostate cancer patients. Your experience may be different. If you have any questions about what
What You Need to Know About Your Partner s Prostate Cancer. A Guide for Wives, Partners, and the Men They Love. Providing Support for Your Partner Prostate cancer can be a physical and emotional challenge
Bladder changes after bowel cancer treatment This information is from the booklet Managing the late effects of bowel cancer treatment. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a free copy
This information is an extract from the booklet Understanding cancer of the vulva. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a copy free see page 6. Contents External radiotherapy Internal
An estimated 220,000 women in the United States are diagnosed with breast cancer each year, and one in eight will be diagnosed during their lifetime. While breast cancer is a serious disease, most patients
Transrectal Ultrasound (Trus) Guided Prostate Biopsies Urology Patient Information Leaflet Page 1 What is the purpose of my appointment? Your doctor has informed us that you have an elevated Prostate Specific
Understanding Locally-Advanced Prostate Cancer This booklet is to help you and your family understand what it means if you have been diagnosed as having locally-advanced prostate cancer. It gives an outline
central east regional cancer program in partnership with cancer care ontario THORACIC DIAGNOSTIC ASSESMENT PROGRAM (DAP) PATIENT INFORMATION FOR: Thoracic dap booklet March2012.indd 1 SCHEDULED TESTS YOUR
National Cancer Institute Treatment Choices for Men With Early-Stage Prostate Cancer U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Things to Remember Many men with prostate
Oncology Annual Report: Prostate Cancer 25 Update By: John Konefal, MD, Radiation Oncology Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, with 232,9 new cases projected to be diagnosed in the U.S. in
Treatment of colon cancer This information is an extract from the booklet, Understanding colon cancer. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a copy free see page 5. Contents How treatment
A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. Prostate cancer Cancer - prostate; Biopsy - prostate; Prostate biopsy; Gleason score Last reviewed: October 2, 2013. Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate
A918: Prostate: adenocarcinoma General facts of prostate cancer The prostate is about the size of a walnut. It is just below the bladder and in front of the rectum. The tube that carries urine (the urethra)
Scan for mobile link. Prostate Cancer Treatment Prostate cancer is a tumor of the prostate gland, which is located in front of the rectum and below the bladder. Your doctor may perform a physical exam,
TO PROVIDE THE VERY BEST CARE FOR EACH PATIENT ON EVERY OCCASION Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Blood Test An information guide Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Blood Test Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
ESSENTIALS Breast Cancer Take things one step at a time. Try not to be overwhelmed by the tidal wave of technical information coming your way. Finally you know your body best; you have to be your own advocate.
Living with Prostate Cancer A Common Cancer in Men If you ve been diagnosed with prostate cancer, it s normal to be concerned about your future. It may help you to know that this disease can often be cured
Beyond the PSA: Genomic Testing in Localized Prostate Cancer Kelvin A. Moses, MD, PhD Vanderbilt University Medical Center Wednesday, December 2, 2015 5:00 p.m. ET/2:00 p.m. PT About ZERO ZERO s mission
Radioactive iodine treatment for thyroid cancer This information is an extract from the booklet, Understanding thyroid cancer. You may find the full booklet helpful. We can send you a copy free see page
Supporting people with learning disabilities to take care of their breasts - a guide for supporters Your breasts, your health 1 Why be breast aware? We hope this booklet will help you assist the person
Are you worried about prostate cancer? 1 Are you worried about prostate cancer? This information is from the leaflet Are you worried about prostate cancer? You may find the full leaflet helpful. We can
Understanding Pancreatic Cancer Understanding Pancreatic Cancer The Pancreas The pancreas is an organ that is about 6 inches long. It s located deep in your belly between your stomach and backbone. Your
Treating Oesophageal Cancer A Quick Guide Contents This is a brief summary of the information on Treating from our website. You will find more detailed information on the website. In this information there
Getting checked for Prostate Cancer Quick guide for men and their families and whanau Stay well for your family and whanau. doctor, nurse or health professional about prostate cancer. You should do this