Appendices for the Environmental Impact Assessment of Appaluttoq Ruby Project for True North Gems Inc. June 2013

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1 Intended for TNG Document type EIA Appendices 1-4 Date June 2013 Appendices for the Environmental Impact Assessment of Appaluttoq Ruby Project for True North Gems Inc. June 2013 SUBMITTED TO THE BUREAU OF MINERALS AND PETROLEUM FOR THE PUBLIC HEARING

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE APPENDIX 1A AAPPALUTTOQ ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY. BASELINE (ENGLISH) 1 APPENDIX 1B AAPPALUTTOQ - AVATANGIISINIK MISISSUINEQ. PISSUTSINIK ATUUTTUNIK MISISSUINEQ (KALAALLISUT) 65 APPENDIX 2A AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY IN TASIUSAA AREA (ENGLISH) 131 APPENDIX 2B TASIUSAAMI EQQAANILU 2010-MI UKIAKKUT KULTURIKKUT ERIAGISASSANIK (KALAALLISUT) 143 APPENDIX 3A HF CLEANING OF CORUNDUM CONCENTRATE (ENGLISH) 156 APPENDIX 3B HF ATORLUGU KORUND-INIK SALIINEQ (KALAALLISUT) 166 APPENDIX 3C RENSNING AF KORUND KONCENTRAT MED HF (DANSK) 177 APPENDIX 4A ASSESSMENT OF FERROSILICON IN THE DMS PROCESS (ENGLISH) 187 APPENDIX 4B FERROSILICON-I ATORLUGU DM-IMI IMMIKKOORTITERINERMI NALUNAARUSIAQ 192 APPENDIX 4C VURDERING AF FERROSILICONIUM I DMS PROCESSEN (DANSK) 198 APPENDIX 4D DURAMET DATA SHEET, WASHINGTON MILLS 203 APPENDIX 4E MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET, WASHINGTON MILLS 206 APPENDIX 4F SAFETY DATA SHEET FOR DURAMET FROM WASHINGTON MILLS 209 True North Gems Inc.

3 -1- APPENDIX 1A AAPPALUTTOQ ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY. BASELINE (ENGLISH) True North Gems Inc.

4 - 2 - Aappaluttoq True North Gems environmental study Baseline August 2011

5 - 3 - True North Gems Aappaluttoq environmental study Baseline August 2011 Ref Version 6 Date Prepared by og, jan, jaf Checked by ssb Approved by og Rambøll Danmark A/S Bredevej 2 DK-2830 Virum Danmark Phone

6 - 4 - Table of contents 1. Introduction 1 2. Specific program activities Hydrology of Lake Katrina Water quality survey Lake Katrina Marine sampling Sediment Terrestrial samples Terrestrial survey References 31 Appendix A 1 Appendix B 1 Appendix C 3 Ref

7 Introduction This report summarize the environmental baseline study accomplished during the 2007, 2008 and 2009 field campaigns in the True North Gems concession area south of Qeqertarsuatsiaat/Fiskenæsset on the southwest coast of Greenland. The study focuses on the Aappaluttoq ruby occurrence by the shore of Lake Katrina The base line study has been implemented with the principal objective of delivering some of the baseline data necessary for an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). The EIA is a mandatory requirement for acquisition of an Exploitation License. Another important objective of the baseline study is to determine the state of the environment prior to the major mining activities. This part of the study is used as a frame of reference for the monitoring program which inevitably follows an exploitation license The Aappaluttoq ruby occurrence reaches down into the Lake Katrina and a third objective is to study the lake hydrology and basic hydrological features in case a lowering of the water table is necessary. Figure 1-1 Lake Katrina is located about 20 km southwest of the settlement Qeqertarsuatsiaat/Fiskenæsset and its surface is about 230 m above sea level. Ref /38

8 - 6 - The study focuses on Lake Katrina and it also covers rivers and relevant coastal marine areas in larger parts of the concession area including: An estimate of the hydrological balance of Lake Katrina based on flow measurements and on pressure sensors left in the lake for 23 months. Sampling of limnological parameters of Lake Katrina Sampling of water quality baseline for Lake Katrina, its tributaries and outlet A water quality baseline for 20 streams and lakes in other parts of the concession area. A heavy metal baseline for marine biological components A heavy metal baseline for terrestrial lichens A terrestrial survey including a general floristic description of the area. Figure 1-2 Lake Katrina seen from south. The large eastern basin and one of the small tributaries are seen in the foreground. The outlet is to the north from the most distant end of the small basin. 2. Specific program activities This report summarizes the field activities accomplished during September , September and August Details on positions, measurements and analyses are found in the appendixes. 2.1 Hydrology of Lake Katrina The Aappaluttoq ruby occurrence is situated by the shore of Lake Katrina. The lake is split in two main basins by two peninsulas connected by a shallow sill. The occurrence is located on the peninsula jutting from the southern shore of Lake Katrina, but reaches down beneath the lake surface. Mining the rubies may require diking and/or lowering the water table in the lake. An estimate of the water balance of the lake is therefore important. Ref /38

9 - 7 - Figure 2-1 The Aappaluttoq ruby occurrence is on the low peninsula protruding from the opposite shore of the lake. Two different and independent approaches were used to calculate the water balance: Precipitation and catchment area Direct measurements of discharge and lake stage Water balance calculated from precipitation and catchment area The average monthly water balance of the lake was calculated from the catchment area and the 30 years average precipitation ( ) measured by the nearest meteorological stations in Nuuk 150 km to the north and in Paamiut 120 km to the south (DMI 2007) and with a rough estimate of the evapotranspiration. The topographic catchment area can be measured to 6.2 km 2 (Figure 2-2). Aasiaq (Greenland Survey 2003) proposes data from the ECMWF Re-Analysis model (Ohmura et al 1999) to be the best estimate of evapotranspiration in relation to local water balance calculations in Greenland. Hence results from this rather coarse model are used in present water balance estimate for the catchment of Lake L. Katrina. The model suggests a evapotranspiration of about 250 mm/y in the area. This corresponds to 33 % of the annual precipitation in Nuuk and 28 % of the annual precipitation in Paamiut. Ref /38

10 - 8 - Figure 2-2 The topographic catchment for Lake Katrina (red boundary) used for water balance calculation. The green arrow indicates the outlet from the lake where the discharge is measured. The area of the catchment is measured to 6.2 km2. The calculations give an average discharge of 99 and 123 l/s using data from Nuuk and Paamiut respectively (Table 2-1). The actual precipitation along a deeply intended coastline varies with local conditions (altitude, distance from the sea, distance to the ice sheets etc.) but the calculations gives an order of magnitude and an indication of the seasonal distribution. Ref /38

11 - 9 - Table 2-1 Preciptation Average gross precipitation and calculated net precipitation and lake discharge based on a 30 years average ( , DMI 2007) from the two nearest metrological stations. The discharge calculation does not take temporary accumulation of ice and snow into account. Gross precipitation mm Net precipitation mm Discharge l/s/6.2 km 2 Month Nuuk Paamiut Nuuk Paamiut Nuuk Paamiut Januay February March April May June July August September October November December Average, month Total, year Discharge Discharge measurements were carried out with an OTT C31 mechanical impeller current meter. The current velocity was measured across the outlet cross just downstream L. Katrina and the distance to the lake surface from a fixed reference point above the surface was measured simultaneously. Discharge was calculated by integrating the measured velocities over the cross section with the Hydros software package. Measurements were carried out on 11 th and 15 th September 2007, 8 th and 12 th September 2008 and 21 th August Results are shown in table 1, below. Figure 2-3 Flow measurement across the outlet of Lake Katrina Ref /38

12 Table 2-2 Results from discharge measurements 2007, 2008 and 2009 Date/time Flow Average velocity Average Water depth Water table level below reference point Cross section area Wet perimeter l/s m/s m m m 2 m 11/09/ :00 15/09/ :00 08/09/ :00 12/09/2008 9:30 21/08/ : Stage-discharge relation The discharge Q at a given stream cross section can be described by the relation to the stream stage, h by the expression: Q = k (h-h 0 ) n where k, H 0 and n are constants. The constants are determined by fitting a curve to observations of Q and h. The h is defined as 150 cm minus the distance to the water table from the reference point. The relationship derived from the first two measurements of discharge in 2007 was nicely supported by the next two from The single measurement in 2009 strengthened the low end of the curve (Figure 2-4), and the measured range now cover more than 90 % of the discharged volume. Despite the good agreement, the relationship could still benefit from observations in the higher end of the curve. These water levels usually occur in late autumn or at snow smelt in spring - outside the normal field season. The constants k, H 0 and n are determined to 2.53, 86.8 and 1.65 based on the combined observations from 2007, 2008 and Ref /38

13 h (cm) Q (l/s) Figure 2-4. Stage-discharge relation for the outlet of Lake Katrina. Lake stage logging During the 2007 field survey two pressure transducers with dataloggers were placed in the lake near the outlet. A third datalogger were placed in air in the nearby Fiskenæsset and were used to compensate the lake measurements for the variation in atmospheric pressure. The dataloggers were read in September 2008, relaunched, and finally harvested in august 2009 after more than 23 month of hourly logging. The measurements of the lake stage were converted to discharge by using the established stage-discharge relation outlined above (Figure 2-5) Flow Temperature Q (l/s) Water temperature ( C) Figure 2-5 Calculated lake outflow time series and measured water temperature 2 m below the surface of L. Katrina from mid September 2007 to late August Ref /38

14 Table 2-3 Calculated monthly outflow from Lake Katrina Month Outflow, mean (l/s) Discharged volume (1000 m3/month) Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Average, year Q (l/s) jan feb mar apr may jun jul aug sep oct nov dec Figure 2-6 Monthly discharge from Lake Katrina. Average of the all measurements. Ref /38

15 Discharge, L. Katrina Precipitation Nuuk, actual Precipitation Nuuk, 30 years average 250 Outflow, l/s Precipitation, mm/month Sep 07 Oct 07 Nov 07 Dec 07 Jan 08 Feb 08 Mar 08 Apr May Jun Jul 08 Aug 08 Sep 08 Oct 08 Nov 08 Dec 08 Jan 09 Feb 09 Mar 09 Apr May Jun Jul 09 Aug 09 0 Figure 2-7 Monthly discharge from Lake Katrina calculated from the lake-stage compared to the actual precipitation in Nuuk 150 km north of the lake and to the 30 years average precipitation in Nuuk (DMI 2009). The year 2008 had 39 % more precipitation than average in Nuuk and the months July and August 2009 were exceptionally dry. The Paamiut station does not record precipitation anymore. The lake discharge follows roughly the pattern of precipitation during the summer from July to November. During the autumn and winter from November to April, the average temperature in the region is below 0 ºC causing precipitation to accumulate as ice and snow. The temperature curve of Lake Katrina (Figure 2-5) indicates that the lake is ice-covered from early November to late May. Thaw is occurring in May and June causing the accumulated snow to melt and contributes extraordinary to the discharge. About 300 mm precipitation may have accumulated during the period from November to April. This can be compared to the calculated average outflow of 134 l/s during the first 12 month and 195 l/s during the last in the present study (Table 2-3). The precipitation in the considered months was about 5 % below normal in Nuuk in the first period and 25 % above in the last (precipitation measurements in Paamiut has stopped). Comparison Considering the respective uncertainties of the two methods of discharge calculation, the agreement is regarded as very good, supporting the high resolution discharge data calculated from the lake stage. Ref /38

16 Water quality survey Below the results from investigations of the water quality of Lake Katrina and other locations within the concession area are presented. Water sample stations Freshwater samples were collected from up to 20 locations within the concession area during the years order to characterize the water quality with respect to heavy metals and total suspended solids (Figure 2-8). Figure 2-8 Location of water sample stations 1-20 sampled between 2006 and St 17 and 18 in Lake Katrina were sampled in two depths, above and below the thermocline. St. 1 and St. 14 have been sampled all four years. Ref /38

17 Table 2-4 Overview of the water sampling programme coverage. All stations were at least sampled twice. Station x x x x 2 x x 3 x x 4 x x 5 x x 6 x x x 7 x x 8 x x 9 x x 10 x x 11 x x 12 x x 13 x x 14 x x x x 15 x x 16 x x 17 a/b x x x 18 a/b x x x 19 x x 20 x x The water sample stations included the two L. Katrina basins (st. 17 & 18), inlets to (st. 3 & 4) and outlet from (st.1) the lake and several other lakes and streams within the concession area. The brackish lake/fiord Tassiuasaq (st.6) was also included in the water sampling program. The position of each sample station was measured by GPS. In appendix B GPS readings, photo documentation and details about each sample station are presented. Stratification of Lake Katrina Prior to water sampling of L. Katrina the possible stratification of the two basins of Lake L. Katrina was investigated. The upper about 50 meters of the two lake basins were profiled with respect to temperature, conductivity, oxygen and ph in order to identify a possible chemocline or thermocline. Data was measured by the use of a multisensor prope (type Troll9000) with build-in datalogger. A strong thermocline was found m below the surface in both basins in 2007 and 2008 and in 5-10 m in 2009 (Figure 2-13), and separate samples from above and below that depth were taken. Water sample procedure Water samples from station 1-16 and were collected by filling up water into sample containers directly from the water body approximately 0.2 m beneath the water surface (Figure 2-9). Water samples from station 1-16 and were collected from the banks. Ref /38

18 Figure 2-9 Collection of water samples in the stream at St. 9. Water samples from Lake L. Katrina (St. 17 and 18) were collected from a small inflatable boat. Samples were collected from three representative water depths above and three below the thermocline by use of a Ruttner-type water sampler (without internal metallic parts). Samples of equal volume from each water depths were poured directly into the sample container and hereafter pooled into one sample and mixed. Water samples for analysis of trace metals were collected in plastic containers preloaded with nitric acid. Samples were not filtered. Samples for total suspended solids were sampled in glass bottles. Analysis program All water samples were analyzed with respect to trace metals and total suspended solids as listed below. ph and temperature were measured in the field from station 1-16 and by the use of field electrodes. Ref /38

19 Table 2-5 Analysis program used for freshwater samples Field electrode measurements Trace metals Solids Parameters ph Temperature Arsenic Lead Cadmium Chromium Copper Nickel Zinc Mercury Total suspended solids (TSS) Analysis of chemical parameters is performed by Miljølaboratoriet I/S, Copenhagen, Denmark. Water quality Results of analysis of the water samples are shown in Appendix C. Analysis reports are furthermore attached in Appendix D. The measured concentration levels are summarized in Table 2-6. Table 2-6 Concentration range of heavy metals and suspended solids measured in a total of 50 samples collected from sample station 1-20 and compared to different water quality standards. The brackish St. 6 is omitted. Parameters Concentration range µg/l EU Drinking Water Quality Standards µg/l Ontario Provincial Water Quality Objectives µg/l Proposed WQ Standards for Greenland- Freshwater µg/l Proposed WQ Standards for Greenland- Sea water µg/l Arsenic <0, Lead < Cadmium < Chromium < Copper , Nickel Zinc , Mercury < , Suspended solids < mg/l 50 mg/l 50 mg/l The concentration of heavy metals in the water samples is in general very low. Compared to drinking water standards in EU the measured levels are far lower, see table 3. However, the brackish water from the lake/fiord Tasiussaq (St. 6) has a remarkable higher content of arsenic and also a higher content of copper and zinc compared to the other samples. The measured ph range of freshwater samples are between ph 6.1 (sample station 3, inlet southern basin, Lake Katrina) and ph 7.3. ph of Tasiussaq is high, ph 8.37, which is the same as seawater. Ref /38

20 All samples are clear and colorless and have low contents of suspended solids (<4.0 mg/l). A wide chemical characterization has been made in August 2006 for the two water samples collected from Station 1 and 14, see appendix C. In Table 2-7 results from sample station 1 and 14 in this investigation is compared to the same parameters analyzed in 2007, 2008 and Again all samples show very low concentrations of heavy metals and only small variation in the water quality from 2006 to 2007 and 2008 is observed. Table 2-7 Comparison of results from two stations measured every year from 2006 to Parameters Station 1 Outlet from northern basin, Lake Katrina Aug Sept Sept Aug Station 14 Between lakes Aug Sept Sept Aug Temperature C ph, field Arsenic µg/l <0.06 <0.06 <0.06 <0.06 <0.06 <0.06 < Lead µg/l <0.03 <0.03 < < Cadmium µg/l <0.03 <0.03 <0.03 <0.03 <0.03 <0.03 <0.03 <0.03 Chromium µg/l <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 Copper µg/l , Nickel µg/l < Zinc µg/l Mercury µg/l <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 <0.02 Suspended solids mg/l - <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 - <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 - : not measured 2.3 Lake Katrina Depth profiles The deep Lake Katrina is nearly split in two by two small peninsulas connected by a shallow (1 2 m) sill. The main ruby showing is located on the small peninsula jutting from the south-western shore of the lake. A rough bathymetri of the lake was drawn by TNG in 2009 (Figure 2-11) revealing maximum depths in both basins of more than 50 m. Ref /38

21 Figure 2-10 Bathymetri of Lake Katrina. The equidistance of the isolines is 5 m. The two main basins are more than 50 m deep and the depth of the sill between them is less than 2 m. Figure 2-11 Vertical profiles of temperature, ph, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity in Lake Katrina were obtained with a Troll 9000 Water Quality Sonde. It has no display and data is downloaded to a PC. Ref /38

22 Masurements with a Troll 9000 sonde with build in datalogger gave detailed vertical profiles of temperature; ph, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity (see Figure 2-12 and Figure 2-13). A thermocline was found only 6 7 m below surface in August 2009, while it was found at m in September 2007 and The deep water of the large basins seems ½ - 1 C colder than the small basins but the difference between the basins is small. There was no conductivity gradient and the lake is most probably dimictic meaning that the water mass turns over twice a year during spring and autumn. Freshwater has maximum density at 4 C and the water stabilizes during summer and forms a thermocline due to a positive temperature gradient. The thermocline is eroded during autumn due to cooling and wind driven turbulence. During winter the temperature gradient may be reversed with heavy 4 C water at the bottom and with lighter colder water on top. Lake Katrina, Temperature vs. depth Temperature, C Large basin 20 Aug 2009 Small basin 20 Aug 2009 Large basin 8 Sept 2008 Small basin 8 Sept Large basin 15 Sept 2007 Small basin 15 Sept Depth, m Figure 2-12 Temperature profile in the two Lake Katrina basins during the three field campaigns. Ref /38

23 Lake Katrina, large basin; 20/ Temp., C; DO, mg/l; ph; Cond., µsi /cm Temperature Dissolved Oxygen ph Conductivity Depth, m Figure 2-13 Profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, ph and conductivity in the larger Lake Katrina basin. measured August with a Troll-9000 sonde. The lake is clear and oligotrophic but some biological activity is indicated from the slight accumulation of oxygen in the thermocline (Figure 2-13). Both oxygen producing phytoplankton and oxygen consuming zooplankton and bacteria tend to concentrate here. The activity is low, the oxygen is only slightly over-saturated (115 %) in the thermocline whereas the oxygen concentration near the bottom go down to about 90 % saturation. ph is not affected and the slight change in conductivity may just be due to the temperature sensitive electrode or to a slightly higher leaching of ions from the surroundings during the summer. Water transparency is measured by lowering a white 30 cm disk (a Secchi-disk) in the water to the point where it is not visible and then raised again to the depth (the Secchi depth) where it become just visible. The Secchi depth for the small and large basin (st. 17 and 18) were in 2007 measured as 22 m and 20 m, in 2008 as 21 m and 18 m, and in 2009 as 25.3 m and 24.4 m respectively. Ref /38

24 Plankton Phytoplankton and zooplankton were sampled above the thermocline in the two basins of L. Katrina in 2007 and Phytoplankton: Water samples from 4 m, 8 m, and 12 m taken with a 3 l Ruttner type sampler were mixed. Unfiltered subsamples of 250 ml were fixed with Lugols solution and stored for later identification. Triplicate samples were taken. Zooplankton: Water samples from 4 m, 8 m, and 12 m were mixed. Subsamples of 3 l were reduced to approximately 50 ml through careful reverse filtering through a 20 µm net. Samples were fixed with Lugols solution and stored for later identification. Triplicate samples were taken. Chlorophyll-a: Samples from 8 m were taken with the water sampler and subsamples of 840 ml were filtered through a GF/C glass-fiber filter, wrapped in aluminum foil stored cold, frozen within two hours and stored frozen for later fluorometric analyses. Figure 2-14 Chlorophyll samples were filtered on the spot through a GF/C filter mounted in a filter holder with a syringe adapter. Ref /38

25 Table 2-8 Autotroph and mixotroph phytoplankton abundance in the epilimnion of Lake Katrina in 2007 and An X means that the species is present in very small numbers. Date: Sept Sept Aug Lake compartment Large Small Large Small Large Small Autotrophic Algae, ind/ml NOSTOCOPHYCEAE Aphanothece clathrata (cell) X Snowella litoralis (kol.) X X x CHRYSOPHYCEAE Mallomonas spp. X X 0.1 DIATOMOPHYCEAE Aulacoseira granulata (filament) 0.1 X Aulacoseira granulata X Tabellaria flocculosa X Pennate (30-40 µm) X CHLOROPHYCEAE Ankistrodesmus fusiformis (cell) X Botryococcus braunii 0.99 X X 0.1 Chlorella spp. X X Oocystis spp. (5-10 µm) 8.73 X X X Oocystis spp. (10-15 µm) X X Oocystis spp. (20-30 µm) X Sphaerocystis schroeteri X Elakatothrix biplex X Stichococcus minutissimus 55.5 Cosmarium subcostatum X Euastrum denticulatium X Staurodesmus triangularis X X Xanthidium bifidum X X Mixotrophic Algae, ind/ml CRYPTOPHYCEAE Cryptomonas spp. (20-30 µm) X X Katablepharis ovalis X 11,1 DINOPHYCEAE Gymnodinium spp. (5-10 µm) Gymnodinium spp. (30-40 µm) X X ,1 0.1 Peridinium umbonatum-gr. X X Peridinium willei CHRYSOPHYCEAE Bitrichia longispina X 0.33 X X Chrysolykos planctonicus X X Dinobryon bavaricum (cell) Dinobryon crenulatum (cell) X X 4.46 X X Dinobryon cylindricum (cell) X X 0.1 X Dinobryon mucronatum X X Dinobryon sertularia (cell) X Kephyrion boreale X X X X Ref /38

26 Ochromonas spp. (5-10 µm) Ochromonas spp. (10-15 µm) X X Uroglena spp. (5-10 µm) Chromulina spp. (2-5 µm) X X X X Chromulina spp. (5-10 µm) Algae biomass, µg C/l Table 2-9 Zooplankton abundance in the epilimnion of Lake Karina in 2007 and Date: Sept Sept Aug 2009 Lake compartment Large Small Large Small Large Small Zooplankton, ind/liter CILIATA Strombidium/Strobilidium spp Tontonia/Lohmanniella spp Ciliata spp. (20-30 µm sphere) 20.0 Ciliata spp. (10-20 µm ellipsoide) 10.0 Ciliata spp. (40-50 µm ellipsoide) 10.0 Ciliata spp. ( µm ellipsoide) Askenasia spp ROTATORIA Keratella cochlearis Keratella quadrata Polyarthra vulgaris/dolichoptera Synchaeta spp. >100 µm Asplanchna priodonta Filinia longiseta CLADOCERA Bosmina longispina COPEPODA Calanoide nauplier Calanoide copepoditer Eudiaptomus gracilis female Eudiaptomus gracilis male Eudiaptomus graciloides female Eudiaptomus graciloides male Zooplankton biomass, µg C/l Identification of phyto- and zooplankton were carried out by Miljøbiologisk Laboratorium Aps, Hørsholm, Denmark. The density of phytoplankton is low corresponding to the very high transparency measured. The number and biomass are dominated by chrysophycea but with elements of bluegreen and green algae. Ref /38

27 The zooplankton biomass is dominated by few species of crustaceans. Among Cladocerans is only Bosmina longispina present. There is a striking lack of larger Daphnids in the samples which could indicate the presence of fish as fish prefers eating the larger Daphnia species. As no fish were found in the lake (see next section), the missing Daphnia was somewhat mysterious until 2009 were relatively high densities of Daphnia pulex were found living and feeding directly on the sediment surface in the sediment samples. Because of to its size and visibility Daphnia pulex is only found in fishless lakes in Greenland (Lauridsen et al. 2001). Macrophytes No vascular plants are found in the lake, but mosses Fontinalis sp. and Drepanocladus sp. were quite abundant in cracks and chinks, and were even found on top of the sediment cores, apparently growing on a depth of more than 50 m. Figure 2-15 Lake Katrina has a high transparency, no fish and no vascular plants. Cushions of mosses are seen in the foreground. Fish Two thirty meter long multi-mesh-sized monofilament survey gillnets were placed in Lake Katrina for 24 hour each in 2007 and a total of 120 hours each in 2008 in the littoral zone at shallow depths (2 4 m) near the sill between the two basins, near an inlet to the large basin, and near the outlet from the small basin. No fish were caught. This result supports the impression by the staff operating along the lake shore during two summers that the lake is fishless. After the find of large Daphnia pulex on the sediment surfaces, this result is in accordance with the zooplankton composition in the lake. Two species of fish, arctic char and three-spined sticklebacks, are found in lakes in Greenland, but lakes without fish are common (Lauridsen et al. 2001) when the connection to the sea is to steep or otherwise hindered. Ref /38

28 Marine sampling The marine areas are not impacted directly by the proposed mining activities but can be influenced by e.g. the runoff from Lake Katrina or from a new quay or landing site for shipping of raw or processed material. The sampling program focuses on heavy metals and comprises six areas including the outfall of the small stream draining Lake Katrina into the brackish lagoon Tasiussaq and the outlet of Tasiussaq to the fjord Tasiussarssuaq (area I and II in Figure 2-16). Three areas are close to larger river draining areas of possible future mining activities within the project area (area III, IV, and V), and one area in Tasiussarssuaq far from larger freshwater outlets is designated as a reference area (area VII). Figure 2-16 Coastal marine areas sampled for sculpin, blue mussel and bladderwrack. Sculpin were only caught in three areas. Area VI was left out after assessment of the catchment area. The stations were the same as in 2007 and Three species were sampled if present and stored frozen for later analysis for heavy metals (and other pollutants if found relevant): Short-horned sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) Bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus) The three species are widely used for this type of studies because they are sedentary (mussel and algae) or non-migrating (sculpin) and ubiquitous. A considerable amount of experience exists and studies in different areas are therefore comparable. Ref /38

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