Theory or Practice: the State of International Relations in Poland

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1 Jacek Czaputowicz, National School of Public Administration Theory or Practice: the State of International Relations in Poland Paper presented at the 2011 European Consortium for Political Research Conference Section 56: Mapping Political Science in Europe Panel 156: Political Science In CEEs: Back into the Game? Reykjavik, 25 August 2011 The development of International Relations as a discipline is affected both by external factors (such as the impact of the Cold War or the change of polarity) and internal factors associated with the development dynamics of International Relations (e.g. the Great Debate) 1. Proponents of the cultural and institutional approach distinguish three factors, viz.: 1) political culture, 2) organisational culture of science, the university system and professional associations, and 3) practices, customs and mode of academic discourse prevalent in social science 2. The development of the science of International Relations in Central and Eastern European countries has been affected by all these factors. There are also some historical determinants related to the heritage of communism. The Heritage of Communism In the communist era, International Relations, or for that matter Political Science as a whole, was an arena of ideological confrontation. The ideological pressure brought by the government, the restrictions on the freedom to travel and censorship prevented free flow of ideas. Theoretical works and debates held in the Western countries were known only to a small circle of specialists. The work of theorists who contributed to the development of the discipline of international relations, such as Hans Morgenthau, Kenneth Waltz and Robert 1 Cf. Brian C. Schmidt, The Political Discourse of Anarchy: A Disciplinary History of International Relations, State University of New York Press, New York Knut Eric Jørgensen, Tonny Brems Knudsen, Introduction, in: Knut Eric Jørgensen, Tonny Brems Knudsen, International Relations in Europe. Traditions, Perspectives and Destinations, Routledge, London 2006, pp See also: K.E. Jørgensen, Towards a Six Continent Social Science: International Relations, Journal of International Relations and Development Vol. 6 (4) (2004), pp Morton Kaplan, Is International Relations a Discipline?, Journal of Politics Vol. 23, No. 3 (August 1961), pp

2 Keohane, had not been translated into Polish. The only widely known theories were the Marxist ones, and they focused on the criticism of the capitalist system. Universities focused on teaching (which more often than not involved some elements of indoctrination) rather than research work. International relations theories, as they are understood in the West, were not taught. The theoretical value of the works written before 1989 was of dubious quality 3. At first, International Relations developed outside universities. After World War II, the Polish Institute of International Affairs (Polski Instytut Spraw Międzynarodowych) was established in Warsaw and the Western Institute (Instytut Zachodni) in Poznań. In 1975, the Research Institute of Contemporary Capitalism (Instytut Badawczy Współczesnego Kapitalizmu) was established. It was not until late 1970s that faculties of International Relations were established within the university structures. The University of Warsaw, the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, the University of Wrocław, the Jagiellonian University in Kraków and the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań are now the leading academic centres in this field. As early as the 1970s, there was an ongoing debate about the independence of international relations from political science. Remigiusz Bieżanek, an international lawyer, supported idea that the scope of International Relations should be limited to the structural relationship between state institutions. On the other hand, political scientists invoked Lenin s idea that foreign policy is a function of domestic policy, and therefore scientific analysis of a state s foreign policy cannot be performed without taking its internal structure into consideration. The political science approach was based on Marxist ideology. One year after the publication of Power and Interdependance by Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye, and one year before the publication of Theory of International Politics by Kenneth Waltz, Longin Pastusiak presented the opinions of the Polish scholars of the day: To Marxists, every theory of international relations that does not take to the fundamental laws governing social development and social relations in the given society is false and pseudo-scientific. Marxists treat foreign policy as a socio-political function of the state. Thus, the theory of international relations is part of the broader Marxist theory of social development 4. 3 A.J.R. Groom, The World Beyond. The European Dimension, in: A.J.R. Groom, Margot Light (red.) Contemporary International Relations. A Guide to Theory, Pinter Publisher, London-New York 1994, p Longin Pastusiak, International Relations Studies in Poland, International Studies Quarterly Vol. 22, No. 2, June 1978, p

3 Polish scholars believed that Marxism-Leninism equipped them with appropriate criteria and methods but failed to solve all the problems involved in scientific analysis. For example, they were somewhat surprised to see that the nationalisation of the means of production did not automatically make the government s policy more socialist. Therefore, a theoretical understanding based on Marxism-Leninism should be developed for such international issues as relations within the community of socialist (or communist) states; the international workers movement; Third World problems and changes within capitalism, with particular emphasis on the transition from capitalism to socialism 5. Such an approach could not prepare researchers in Central and Eastern European countries for a change that took place several years later, and took the direction opposite to the anticipated one from socialism to capitalism. However, the weakness of international relations in Poland was rightly recognised as their being descriptive rather than conceptual, with visible shortcomings in methodology, empirical studies and quantitative research skills and techniques, as well as in the philosophy and theory of International Relations. There were appeals to focus on improving the quality of research and publications (intensive development) rather than on increasing their volume (extensive growth) 6. Thirty years later, the Polish science of International Relations shows similar weaknesses. The theory, methodology and empirical research, as well as the academic value of research and publications, still leave much to be desired. Only Marxism has lost its clout, and other theories have not as yet been adopted. Science is a field where change takes long to happen. Research work requires a welldeveloped research culture, some level of independence and organisation of researchers, organisational and financial support, and acceptance by the society. The development of science follows well-established practices of the academic world 7. In political science internationally, there is a consensus to determine the minimum level of professional competences within a discipline, and to evaluate work against the high standards of professional excellence. Young researchers are socialised to science by their elder colleagues, 5 Pastusiak, International Relations Studies in Poland, pp Pastusiak, International Relations Studies in Poland, pp See also: Longin Pastusiak, International Relations Studies in Poland, Polish Institute of International Affairs, Warsaw 1989, Longin Pastusiak (ed.) National Context of International Relations Studies, Polish Institute of International Affairs, Warsaw Latour identified five types of scientific practices: linking and knotting, mobilising, autonomising, building alliances, creating public representation. Cf. Bruno Latour, Pandora s Hope. Essays on the Reality of Science Studies, Harvard University Press, Cambridge 1999, pp

4 but they are better equipped with analytical tools 8. This, however, cannot be said of the Polish scientific community. In the intellectual biographies of many Polish scholars, there is a watershed before and after In many cases, works written before 1989 have disappeared because they are embarrassing to their authors in terms of moral, political and intellectual values. Zdzisław Krasnodębski says in reference to sociology, but also to other social sciences that the Polish scientific community played a legitimating role for the communist regime, but has not undergone decommunisation (other than dissolution of the Institute of Fundamental Problems of Marxism-Leninism). The negative selection contributed to the younger generation reproducing the deficiencies and weaknesses of the elder scholars 9. The Polish Society of Political Science (Polskie Towarzystwo Nauk Politycznych), founded in 1957, collaborated with the International Political Science Association despite the fact that IPSA was rather reserved about the Marxist political science 10. In 1994, the Central European Political Science Association (CEPSA) was founded, to serve as a forum for cooperation among researchers from the Central European countries. In , CEPSA was headed by Jerzy J. Wiatr. In 1996, the Central and East European International Studies Association CEEISA was founded; it brings together International Relations specialists from the region. Initiated by the International Affairs Network (IAN), it is financed by the Paw Foundation. The Association publishes Journal of International Relations and Development, but it is primarily Western scholars who play the main part in the periodical. From Real Socialism to Common Sense Realism The change that took place in Poland post 1989 can be described as a transition from real socialism to common sense realism. Common sense realism is an approach that is practical and focuses on the identification of the national interest and analysis of the state s foreign policy, yet lacks any theoretical reflection. Polish researchers have no knowledge of contemporary theoretical and methodological approaches, and they apply a methodology that is appropriate for history but not for political science. The studies are descriptive, with no 8 Robert E. Goodin, Hans Dieter Klinsmann, A New Handbook of Political Science, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1995, p Zdzisław Krasnodębski, Commentary to the report The state of sociology in Poland, by Janusz Mucha and Paweł Załęcki, GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Science, Knowledge Base Social Science Eastern Europe. 10 Barbara Krauz-Mozer, Piotr Borowiec, Paweł Ścigaj, Historia Polskiego Towarzystwa Nauk Politologicznych ( ), ( ). 4

5 clearly defined theoretical and methodological framework. In consequence, it is difficult to define the paradigms or approaches underpinning a given research work 11. Researchers apply the classical method (within the meaning of the second Great Debate), that is describe phenomena, with no attempt to analyse them using scientific methods. They are idiographic, look at the phenomena from the inside, and describe events focusing on the choices made by the actors involved. They rarely apply the nomothetic model, which consists in analysing a phenomenon from the outside, a process which leads to drawing generalised conclusions and developing explanatory rules 12. Post 1989, all knowledge about the functioning of the Warsaw Pact and COMECON became useless. At the same time, very little was known about such Western institutions as NATO or the European Union. There was a strong demand for answers to questions about the challenges for the state s foreign policy, such as: What should the foreign policy of a sovereign state be after the bipolar system has collapsed? Should Poland work out a security system based on the OSCE or join NATO? How does the European Union function and what makes up the acquis communautaire? The prevailing topics of research included international security, European integration and area studies, and, post 11 September 2001, also global issues. Among Polish periodicals dedicated to international relations, the one with the longest tradition is Sprawy międzynarodowe [International affairs]. There is also Polski Przegląd Dyplomatyczny [Polish diplomatic review], published since 2001, which does not shun theoretical discussions. Both these journals are published by the Polish Institute of International Affairs. A selection of papers in English is published in The Polish Quarterly of International Affairs. The Institute of International Relations of the University of Warsaw publishes Stosunki Międzynarodowe [International relations]. However, none of the magazines dedicated to international relations uses a double blind peer-review, a method which ensures that the reviewer and the author remain unknown to each other. The experiences of other countries (e.g. Germany) show that double blind peer-reviews may result in the rejection of articles written by famous authors, while allowing less known persons to 11 Petr Drulák, Lucie Königová, Jan Karlas, Continuity and Change in the Discipline of IR in Central and Eastern Europe Countries, Paper presented at the 2004 ISA Convention, Montreal, March 17-21, 2004, p Jack Levy, Too Important to the Other: History and Political Science in the Study of International Relations, International Security Vol. 22, No. 1, Summer 1997, pp , pp

6 become involved in the debate 13. Apparently, the scientific community in Poland is not ready to accept such a solution and a negative review is often taken as a personal attack rather than encouraging the author to improve the text. Science and Practice of Foreign Policy Researchers take different views about what should be desirable relationships between theorists of international relations and of politics. Steve Smith claims that the science of International Relations affects the world policy, thus supporting the dominant global discourse, and calls for more reflectivity. Theories stabilise and justify political choices that are not always appropriate. Smith believes that researchers should not stand too close to politics 14. Stefano Guzzini also argues that the proximity of the political realm and the science of International Relations is manifested by giving preference of advisory services to independent theoretical considerations. In such a situation, it is difficult to maintain the position of an independent observer of the political debate. Theorists of international relations should remain autonomous and enjoy intellectual legitimisation in terms of discipline, material legitimisation in terms of research funding, and social legitimisation in terms of expertise 15. Bruce Jentleson is of a different opinion. He is dissatisfied to see that the science of International Relations produces knowledge that is useless in terms of running current foreign policy 16. Similarly, William Wallace, having analysed the relationship between theory and practice in International Relations, concludes that scholars put too much emphasis on theory at the expense of practical aspects, thus cutting themselves off from politics and shutting themselves away in an ivory tower. Hence, International Relations is becoming a scholastic discipline rather than a branch of science which is involved in and feels responsible for the 13 Stefano Guzzini, The Significance and Roles of Teaching in International Relations, Journal on International Relations and Development, Vol. 4, No. 2 (2001), p Steve Smith, The United States and the Discipline of International Relations: Hegemonic Country, Hegemonic Discipline, International Studies Review Vol. 4, 2002, pp , Steve Smith, International Relations and International Relations: The Links Between Theory and Practice in World Politics, Journal of International Relations and Development Vol. 6, No. 3, 2003, pp , Steve Smith, Singing Our World into Existence: International Relations Theory and September 11, Presidential Address to the International Studies Association, February 27, 2003, Portland, OR, International Studies Quarterly t. 48, 2004, pp Stefano Guzzini, Theorising International Relations: Lessons from Europe s Periphery, Danish Institute for International Studies, DIIS Working paper No. 2007/30, pp Bruce W. Jentleson, The Need for Praxis. Bringing Policy Relevance Back In, International Security Vol. 26, 2002, pp

7 future of the world and tells the truth to policy makers 17. Also Stephen Walt believes that International Relations is too distant from politics and that policy makers attach no significance to theoretical literature. Scholars write for other scholars because their reputation and status depend on the recognition from the latter. In effect, they suffer from a form of academic autism. International Relations resembles a self-regulating company, which is dominated by university academics who above all value specialised studies and theoretical considerations. Therefore, Walt appeals to researchers who can contribute important ideas to show greater openness to the non-academic world and to enter into dialogue with politicians. The mission of science is to serve society 18. Regardless of which side of this dispute we take, we will have to admit that the condition of International Relations as a science affects the community of experts in foreign policy. Strong science is the basis for the development of expert centres. Theoretical knowledge promotes a better understanding of processes and events on the international stage, facilitates the articulation of state interests in international forums and, in effect, allows to effectively conduct state foreign policy. Referring to the familiar authors, readings and concepts enables communication between experts, researchers and diplomats from various countries. With a good position of researchers, it is easier to shape the perception of the global policy issues so that it serves the interests of the state. International expert circles develop ideas which affect the perception of international reality and understanding of the interests of individual countries. They often prepare drafts of international laws, which are then approved by governments (e.g. in areas such as environmental protection and use of mines). Experts not only provide suggestions for solutions, but also promote and defend the position of the state in international debates. Publishing in reputable magazines offers an opportunity to influence the shape of international politics. A growing demand for expert knowledge is the result of foreign policy going far beyond traditional diplomacy and its addressing such new issues as climate change, security 17 William Wallace, The Truth and Power, Monks and Technocrats: Theory and Practice in International Relations, Review of International Studies Vol. 22 (1996), pp See also: Joseph Lepgold, Miroslav Nincic, Beyond the Ivory Tower: International Relations and the Issue of Policy Relevance, Columbia University Press, New York 2001, p. 7. Cf. Scott Nicholas Romaniuk, Different Realities: Academics, Politics, and International Relations, Global Discourse [Online], 1: II, ( ) 18 Steven Walt, The Relationship Between Theory and Policy in International Relations, Annual Review of Political Science, Vol. 8, 2005, p. 38. Cf. also: Christian Bürger, Reassembling and Dissecting: International Relations Practice from a Science Studies Perspective, International Studies Perspective Vol. 8, 2007, p

8 of natural resources supply, poverty alleviation, energy, human rights, interpretation of history or migrations 19. This creates a demand for current information and in-depth expertise derived from various sources, advisory services and sound knowledge management. Politicians expect experts to provide them with practical knowledge. Therefore, analytical centres stand as a bridge between science and the world of politics. They translate scientific studies into a language that is accessible and comprehensible to politicians and the public 20. They identify problems, alert to risks and work out preventive measures. They legitimise foreign policy before the public opinion. A political decision that is backed by scientific studies makes a more difficult goal for political attacks. A broad discussion helps achieve consensus, and is aimed to internalise the objectives of foreign policy decision makers, officials and the public at large. In order for it to properly fulfil its role, such centres (think tanks) should enjoy high reputation and prestige, and have the legitimacy that comes from scientific credibility 21. Polish Expert Institutions In Poland, unlike in many Western countries, think tanks are not affiliated with political parties. Unlike in the case of academia, most of these institutions were newly established post 1989, to ensure that there was no continuity with the communist period. As a result, they are more open to international cooperation and Western thought in the field of International Relations. The group of expert centres involved in foreign policy and financed from the state budget includes: the Polish Institute of International Affairs, Centre for Eastern Studies (Ośrodek Studiów Wschodnich), Western Institute in Poznań, Institute of East-Central Institute in Lublin (Instytut Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej w Lublinie) and the Foundation Natolin European Centre (Fundacja Centrum Europejskie Natolin). The Polish Institute of International Affairs (PISM) was established in the late 1990s, to replace the previous institution operating under the same name. The Institute is responsible for interdisciplinary research in the field of International Relations in its broad sense; 19 Richard Jordan, Daniel Maliniak, Amy Oakes, Susan Petersom, Micheal J. Tierny, One Discipline or Many? TRIP Survey of International Relations Faculty in Ten Countries, Teaching, Research, and International Policy (TRIP) Project, The Institute for the Theory and Practice of International Relations, The College of William and Mary Williamsburg, Virginia, February 2009, pp James G. McGann (ed.), Think Tanks and Policy Advice In the US: Academics, Advisors and Advocates, Routledge John Pedersen, Ideas, think-tanks, commissions, and global politics, in: Thakur Ramesh, Andrew F. Cooper, John English, International Commission and the Power of Ideas, United Nations University Press, Tokyo 2005, p See also: Diane Stone, Andrew Denham (eds.), Think Tank Traditions. Policy Research and the Politics of Ideas, Manchester University Press, Manchester

9 preparing studies and expert opinions at the request of government agencies; developing its human resources and disseminating knowledge about International Relations in the society. The Institute maintains contacts with similar institutions abroad, runs a specialist library and conducts an extensive publishing activity. The efficiency of this institution is the product of political culture, effective management, realistic action plans and adequate resources 22. The Centre for Eastern Studies was established in late 1990 as a research institution financed from the budget of the Ministry of Economy. Its mission is to collect information and to monitor and analyse the socio-political situation in the region. Structurally, the Centre is divided into separate departments: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and the Baltic States, Caucasus and Central Asia, Central Europe, Germany, and the Security and Defence Team. The Western Institute specialises in the Polish-German relations, and recently also in the issues of security and European integration. It publishes monographs, historical sources and the Przegląd Zachodni [Western review] quarterly. The Institute of East-Central Europe in Lublin conducts political and historical science research concerning the situation in the region, organises conferences and symposia, implements research programmes, e.g. devoted to the history of Belarus, Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine. The aim of the Foundation Natolin European Centre is to promote knowledge and conduct research and training in European integration. The Foundation cooperates with foreign institutions, carries out its own research projects and publishes a theory-oriented quarterly Nowa Europa [New Europe], with reprints of important articles on the theories of integration from Western periodicals. The group of centres financed from non-budgetary funds includes the Centre for International Relations [Centrum Stosunków Międzynarodowych], which implements research projects and organises international conferences. There is also the dynamically growing demoseuropa Centre for European Strategy (Centrum Strategii Europejskiej demoseuropa), which seeks to initiate debate on the challenges facing the European Union. In parallel, CASE (Centre for Social and Economic Research - Centrum Analiz Społeczno- Ekonomicznych) focuses on the transformation in Central Europe. The Batory Foundation provides grants and organises debates on foreign policy. There is also a European programme implemented by the Institute of Public Affairs [Instytut Spraw Publicznych]. The Foundation Poland in Europe specialises in closed debates on foreign policy. There are 40 think tanks in Poland, which ranks Poland 22 nd in the world, ex aequo with Hungary. Among the think tanks ranked as the best in Central Europe, there are: CASE 22 Ryszard Stemplowski, Wprowadzenie do analizy polityki zagranicznej, Vol.1, PISM, Warsaw 2007, p

10 (ranked 3 rd ), the Polish Institute of International Affairs (ranked 8 h ) and the Centre for International Relations (ranked 13 th ). PISM was also ranked 50 th on the list of the best think tanks outside America 23. Organisation of International Relations as a Discipline Over the last twenty years, progressive professionalisation could be observed in the research environment of International Relations. Those who have been educated in the West are better qualified to write articles that are accepted for publication by leading scientific journals 24. Writing expert opinions and journalistic articles does not have any bearing on how a given scholar is evaluated; it is the scientific implications of the project, and not the implications for politics, that count the most. In the United States, International Relations is closely related, formally and methodically, to Political Science. History provides data to test the theory. Researchers are members of both the International Studies Association and the American Political Science Association (APSA) as their professional organisations 25. In the United Kingdom, International Relations is related not only to Political Science, but also to other disciplines History, Sociology and Philosophy. Intellectual inspirations are therefore broader, which contributes to a higher level of epistemological and methodological pluralism. Some researchers seek to establish a separate discipline of International Relations, others accept operating at the borderline of many disciplines. The legitimisation is achieved through the acceptance of research using the scientific standards applicable in International Relations, and not within a broader model of Social Science proper. British scientists are mostly members of the British International Studies Association (BISA) 26. In Northern Europe, International Relations is usually positioned within the faculties of Political Science, while in Southern Europe within the faculties of Law. In this respect, Poland follows the Northern European pattern. International Relations is also closer to the 23 For more information see: Jacek Czaputowicz, Rola środowisk eksperckich w procesach decyzyjnych polityki zagranicznej Polski, in: Stanisław Bieleń (ed.), Polityka zagraniczna Polski po wstąpieniu do NATO i Unii Europejskiej. Problemy tożsamości i adaptacji, Difin, Warsaw For a discussion on the differences in the approach to International Relations in the Western and Non-western culture see: Kamila Pieczara, Two Models of Dialoge in IR: Testing on Western versus Non-Western Engagement with IR Theory, 25 Ole Weaver, The sociology of a not so international discipline: American and European developments in international relations, International Organisation Vol. 52 (1998), p Steve Smith, The discipline of international relations: still an American social science?, British Journal of International Relations Vol. 2, No. 3 (October 2000), pp

11 British model than to the American one, its characteristic feature being an interdisciplinary approach to research, application of history, political science, international law and economics. The aspirations of the Polish researchers of international relations were manifested by the establishment in 2008 of the Polish Society for International Studies (Polskie Towarzystwo Studiów Międzynarodowych) an association which brings together researchers of scientific relations. Fifty years after the publication of the essay by Morton A. Kaplan entitled: Is International Relations a Discipline?, Poles repeated that question 27. The Society has taken steps to recognise international relations as a separate discipline and plans to organise the National Congress of International Relations and publish a periodical in English under the title: Polish Journal of International Relations. However, to establish a separate discipline, a theory needs to be elaborated. It is not enough to simply recognise its interdisciplinary nature. The focus should be on the specifics of the discipline and on what makes it different from other disciplines which does not mean, however, that other sources should not be tapped. This also invites the question whether, in a situation when not only relations between states but also, increasingly, the global political community that transcends borders, become the object of research, there is still room for an independent role of International Relations. Significance of International Relations Theories The studies on international relations theories were only occasionally published in Poland. Zmienność i instytucjonalizacja stosunków międzynarodowych [Variability and institutionalisation of international relations], which was published in 1988 under the editorship of Józef Kukułka, was a review of the discipline in the period immediately preceding the collapse of the communist system 28. In 1995, Stanisław Sałajczyk published an article on the theoretical visions of International Relations 29. Ziemowit Jacek Pietraś attempted to build a medium-range Marxist theory of International Relations as an embodiment of the Marxist theory of politics. In 1990s, he focused on the game theory Morton A. Kaplan, Is International Relations a Discipline?, The Journal of Politics Vol. 23, No. 3, 1961), pp Józef Kukułka (ed.), Zmienność i instytucjonalizacja stosunków międzynarodowych, PWN, Warsaw Sławomir P. Sałajczyk, Teoretyczne wizje rzeczywistości międzynarodowej, Stosunki Międzynarodowe No. 17, (1995) pp Ziemowit Jacek Pietraś, Podstawy teorii stosunków międzynarodowych, Uniwersytet Marii Curie- Skłodowskiej, Międzyuczelniany Instytut Nauk Politycznych, Lublin 1986, Ziemowit Jacek Pietraś, 11

12 Józef Kukułka published Teoria stosunków międzynarodowych [Theory of international relations], in which he presented his original vision of the evolution of the discipline 31. Porządek międzynarodowy u progu XXI wieku [International order at the turn of the 21 st century], a publication edited by Roman Kuźniar, was partly dedicated to international relations theories 32. Jacek Czaputowicz published a monograph entitled Teoria stosunków międzynarodowych. Krytyka i systematyzacja [Theory of international relations. Criticism and systematisation], which prompted a debate 33. On the basis of her studies conducted in the United States, Anna Wojciuk, a younger generation researcher, published Dylemat potęgi. Praktyczna teoria stosunków międzynarodowych [The dilemma of power. Practical theory of international relations] 34. Recently, the Polish translations of major Western textbooks on international relations theories have been published, viz.: Theories of International Relations by Scott Burchill, Andrew Linklater, Richard Devetak, Jack Donnelly, Matthew Paterson, Christian Reus-Smit and Jacqui True; Essentials of International Relations by Karen Mingst; Introduction to International Relations: Theories and Approaches by Robert Jackson and Georg Sørensen; Understanding International Conflicts: An Introduction to Theory and History by Joseph S. Nye, and the Oxford textbook entitled The Globalization of World Politics edited by John Baylis and Steve Smith, partly dealing with theories 35. From the perspective of the teaching Teoria gier jako sposób analizy procesów podejmowania decyzji politycznych, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin Józef Kukułka, Teoria stosunków międzynarodowych, Wydawnictwo Naukowe SCHOLAR, Warsaw Roman Kuźniar (ed.), Porządek międzynarodowy u progu XXI wieku, Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Warsaw Jacek Czaputowicz, Teoria stosunków międzynarodowych. Krytyka i systematyzacja, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warsaw 2007, Ryszard Stemplowski, Teorie, nie teorie? O książce Jacka Czaputowicza Teorie stosunków międzynarodowych. Krytyka i systematyzacja, Polski Przegląd Dyplomatyczny No. 1 (47), 2009, pp , Jacek Czaputowicz, Teorie stosunków międzynarodowych. W odpowiedzi Ryszardowi Stemplowskiemu, Polski Przegląd Dyplomatyczny No. 4-5 (50-51), 2009, pp Anna Wojciuk, Dylemat potęgi. Praktyczna teoria stosunków międzynarodowych, Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego WUW, Warsaw Scott Burchill, Andrew Linklater, Richard Devetak, Jack Donnelly, Matthew Paterson, Christian Reus-Smit, Jacqui True, Teorie stosunków międzynarodowych, Książka i Wiedza, Warsaw 2006, Karen Mingst, Podstawy stosunków międzynarodowych, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warsaw 2006, Robert Jackson, Georg Sørensen, Wprowadzenie do stosunków międzynarodowych: teorie i kierunki badawcze, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, Kraków 2006, Joseph S. Nye, Konflikty międzynarodowe. Wprowadzenie do teorii i historii, Wydawnictwa Akademickie i Profesjonalne, Warsaw, 2009, John Baylis, Steve Smith (eds.), Globalizacja polityki światowej. Wprowadzenie do stosunków międzynarodowych, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, Kraków

13 methodology, an important publication was Theory and Methods in Political Science edited by David Marsh and Gerry Stoker 36. An important event for the International Relations community was the Polish publication of the works of the classics: Social Theory of International Politics by Alexander Wendt, Theory of International Politics by Kenneth N. Waltz, and Politics Among Nations by Hans Morgenthau 37. The publication of these works can be viewed as proof of a growing interest in theory. However, the works by theorists take time to be assimilated, and therefore it should not be concluded that the stage of becoming familiarised with the contemporary international relations theories has been completed for the Polish academic community. Nevertheless, the debate in the Polish community of political scientists on ontology, epistemology and methodology of International Relations is contributing to this process 38. The proposal to include international relations theories in university curricula in CEE countries is not always easy to understand. Stefano Guzzini observed two types of responses: in the first, this idea was regarded as something that goes without saying. However, this reaction was in most cases only a lip service: after considerable debate, researchers would come to the conclusion that the underlying theories are too abstract and unpalatable for people without at least some background in philosophy and social theory or that they are too generalised to be used to analyse the world of international relations. Therefore, it is better to learn from historical experiences 39. This although unconsciously - ties in with Nicollò Machiavelli s and Edward Carr s view that the laws governing international relations can be disclosed by analysing history. Theory as a historical experience is a contemporary variant of the traditional approach from the second Great Debate. The second reaction is conceding that teaching theory is important as it offers tools to analyse international relations that could be used by politicians. In this approach, students should read Hans Morgenthau, Zbigniew Brzeziński and Samuel Huntington to be able to 36 David Marsh, Gerry Stoker, Teorie i metody w naukach politycznych, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, Kraków The work by Garry King, Robert O. Keohane and Sidney Verby, Designing Social Inquiry, still waits to be published in Poland. 37 Alexander Wendt, Społeczna teoria stosunków międzynarodowych, Wydawnictwo Naukowe SCHOLAR, Warsaw 2008, Kenneth Waltz, Struktura teorii stosunków międzynarodowych, Wydawnictwo Naukowe SCHOLAR, Warsaw 2010, Hans J. Morgenthau, Polityka między narodami. Walka o potęgę i pokój, reviewed and completed by K. W. Thompson, Diffin Warsaw Cf. Andrzej Antoszewski, Andrzej Dumała, Barbara Krauz-Mozer, Katarzyna Radzik (eds.), Teoretyczne i metodologiczne wyzwania badań politologicznych w Polsce, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin 2009, Jacek Czaputowicz, Ontologia, epistemologia, metodologia w nauce o stosunkach międzynarodowych, Przegląd Europejski No. 2 (19), 2009, pp Guzzini, Theorising International Relations..., p

14 understand mechanisms underlying the functioning of the international system. In this case, however, theory is equated with geopolitics. Theory as geopolitics and security as strategic studies are already practised in Poland, both at the National Defence University and at public higher education institutions. Books on geopolitics, e.g. by Leszek Moczulski, or the Italian General Carlo Jean, are popular with academic teachers and students alike 40. Guzzini is right when he claims that proponents of both these approaches theory as a historical experience and theory as geopolitics do not see the need to know the real theory of International Relations. It is viewed as either useless as it cannot be employed in daily practice, or useful, but one that we already know 41. The teaching of a theory of international relations does not need any justification in those countries where scientific tradition attaches considerable significance to theory, with strong philosophy, sociology, philosophy of law and political theory. Development of theory is facilitated by the autonomous character of International Relations, recognised by other disciplines. When such autonomy is constrained, theoretical analyses are pursued within the main discipline, whilst the theory of International Relations is marginalised. Another threat is the severing of International Relations from its multidisciplinary base and its being engulfed by one discipline. Development of theory is also spurred by the financing of fundamental research, while supporting application projects at the expense of theory may lead to questioning the legitimacy of theoretical research and affect the direction that such research takes through offering arbitrary supports to certain theories. One priority should certainly be to educate intellectually mature university graduates, although it is technical skills that are probably more appreciated on the market. Financial independence of academics also plays a role 42. When salaries are low, seeking additional sources of income, often by teaching at private higher education institutions that do not conduct research, and function only as teaching establishments, becomes a priority. The Discipline of International Relations in Poland In Poland, the level of International Relations is a consequence of the level of Political Science. Nearly all university faculties of Political Science offer comparative studies, although their object and the methodologies applied are different from those employed in Western countries. No statistical techniques are used for synchronic or diachronic analysis of 40 Leszek Moczulski, Geopolityka. Potęga w czasie i przestrzeni, Bellona, Warsaw 1999, Carlo Jean, Geopolityka, Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, Wrocław Guzzini, Theorising International Relations..., p Guzzini, Theorising International Relations... 14

15 causal relationships between variables. Comparative analysis involves description and comparison of the political systems of individual countries, and is not based on a comparative methodology and cross-national multiple-n research of several political systems. The econometric approach has not taken root, and empirically-oriented researchers employ the sociological paradigm, whilst those theoretically-oriented the philosophical and legislative paradigm. Political Economy is in reality a course in Economics for political scientists, and is not perceived as a science which looks at the impact of institutions on the functioning of political and economic systems and their evolution in response to ad hoc stimuli or decisions. Public Policy is understood as social policy, focusing on state expenditure. A broader approach, which takes into account also the income side, is popular with the economists at the Warsaw School of Economics 43. Research which leads to genuine scientific publications is quite rare in Poland. Academic institutions focus their activity on conferences and their proceedings. An idiographic, descriptive approach prevails in International Relations; it involves describing of an aspect of international reality and then drawing practical conclusions. There is a low awareness of the adopted theoretical approach, and researchers are classified on the basis of their regional and topical specialisations, and not the research stance that they take. We can say that somebody is an expert on Russia or on security but we cannot say that somebody is an institutionalist or a constructivist. Polish researchers claim to be proponents of qualitative methods, but this only means than they do not apply quantitative methods, that is do not measure the causal relationships between variables 44. However, these are not qualitative methods proper, derived from Sociology and Ethnography, which involve such techniques as e.g. in-depth interviews or participant observation 45 In Poland, behaviourist, institutional and neo-institutional approaches as well as constructivist and reflectivist theories are virtually 43 Paweł Geberthner, Radosław Markowski, Political Science in Poland, GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Science, Knowledge Base Social Science Eastern Europe, 44 Mirosław Sułek is an exception as he uses qualitative methods to make international forecasts and simulations. Cf. Mirosław Sułek, Prognozowanie i symulacje międzynarodowe, Wydawnictwo Naukowe SCHOLAR, Warsaw 2010, Mirosław Sułek, Metody i techniki badań stosunków międzynarodowych, Instytut Stosunków Międzynarodowych Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Oficyna Wydawnicza SAPRA-IR, Warsaw The major textbook: Norman K. Denzin, Yvonna S. Lincoln (eds.), Metody badań jakościowych, PWN, Warsaw 2009, originally published as The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd edition, has been published in Polish. 15

16 absent. Critical and normative theories are known to philosophers and sociologists but not to International Relations scholars 46. The science of International Relations is in Poland characterised by an inability to adapt to the prevalent Anglo-Saxon model of research 47. There are no Polish names on the lists of participants at international conferences on international relations theories; they can be encountered in global comparative studies (as Poles enjoy the role of insiders ), European studies and discourse analyses, but not in reputable journals dealing with International Relations 48. Polish academics have little experience in publishing works following the model popular in the Anglo-Saxon world; they lack the know-how on how to design adequate research programmes. Young researchers do not have any masters or mentors to look up to, or to learn from. Following Poland s EU accession in 2004, Polish students have gained an opportunity to study in EU countries. There are more and more young Poles who pursue their doctoral studies abroad; what they lack, however, is the knowledge of theory and the ability to design research programmes. In effect, they lean on their own experiences and choose topics associated with Poland and Central Europe. In this way, they are treading the same path that was taken by the older generation. European Studies are being developed in Poland. In 2003, they were awarded the status of a separate programme of study (specialisation) as part of Political Sciences. The development of European Studies has been triggered by EU research and educational programmes (Jean Monet Action, TEMPUS, Socrates/Erasmus) 49. In the 1990s, a practical approach prevailed, with the aim of providing students with knowledge about various aspects 46 In the Polish International Relations, the approach taken by international law is understood as a normative theory. Cf. Janusz Symonides, Normatywne teorie ładu międzynarodowego po zimnej wojnie, in: Roman Kuźniar (ed.), Porządek międzynarodowy u progu XXI wieku, Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Warsaw 2005, pp Still, some books regarded as the classics of normative theories have been published in Polish. Cf. John Rawls, Teoria sprawiedliwości, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warsaw 1994, John Rawls, Prawo ludów, Fundacja ALETHEIA, Warsaw 2001, Michael Walzer, Wojny sprawiedliwe i niesprawiedliwe, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warsaw See also an anthology: Tomasz Żuradzki, Tomasz Kuniński (eds.), Etyka Wojny, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warsaw I express acknowledgements for the comments made by Kacper Szulecki, Anna Visvizi and Anna Wojciuk, used in this section of the text. 48 The occasionally encountered Polish names belong to persons who live in the West. For example, Krzysztof Pelc who is a contributor to International Organization is a Canadian of Polish origin, although he quotes Polish as his native language. 49 For more information see: Janusz Ruszkowski, Wstęp do studiów europejskich, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warsaw 2007, pp , Konstanty A. Wojtaszczyk, Wojciech Jakubowski (eds.), Studia europejskie. Zagadnienia Metodologiczne, Wydawnictwo Akademickie i Profesjonalne, Warsaw

17 of the functioning of the European Union in the pre-accession period. EU-related issues were tackled by international lawyers and economists, with some researchers who had migrated from Political Science and International Relations. More students were awarded scholarships abroad than was the case with students of International Relations. The European Institute University in Florence played an important part as the academic establishment where a significant number of Polish students received their PhD diplomas. A relatively large group of scholars represents the theoretical approach in European Studies 50. Teaching Standards for International Relations The teaching standards for the specialisation International Relations laid down in Annex No. 98 to the Regulation of the Minister of Science and Higher Education from 2007 stipulate, among the core subjects during the first-cycle (undergraduate) programmes of study, 90 hours of teaching Economics, and 30 hours of Law, Demographics, Statistics, Theory of the State, History of International Relations, Geography and Economic Policy. The specialisation subjects include: International Cultural, Political and Economic Relations; Public International Law; Political Systems; International Organisations; European Integration and Polish Foreign Policy. Practice shows that these subjects are taught in a way which is not connected with theory. To take an example, the course in International Organisations usually focuses on legislative issues such as the seat, governing bodies, legal status of a given organisation, etc. Another example is the teaching of European Integration, which includes history, institutions and EU policies, without making any references to the theory of European integration. The course in International Relations Theories is not taught until the second-cycle (postgraduate) studies, and is assigned 30 teaching hours. The content includes basic international relations theories (realism, liberalism, constructivism), research methodologies of international relations and regional integration theories. It is difficult to assume therefore as is apparently assumed by the Standards that in this course students will acquire competences and skills allowing them to understand and conduct international relations research 51. The core courses also include 45 hours in International Security, which includes the typology of security, description of different security organisations and systems (League of 50 They include: Marek Cichocki, Zbigniew Czachór, Tomasz Grosse, Leszek Jesień, Stanisław Konopacki, Olaf Osica, Krzysztof Szczerski and Rafał Trzaskowski. 51 Załącznik nr 98, Standardy kształcenia dla kierunku studiów: Stosunki międzynarodowe, p

18 Nations, UN, NATO, WEU, CSDP, OCSE), threats, security sectors and conditions of security in individual countries 52. Nevertheless, students are unlikely to learn how security is perceived in individual theories, what is the meaning of securitisation or ontological security. The curriculum in the specialisation International Relations does not envisage courses which teach skills needed for the development of this discipline. Statistics taught at the undergraduate level does not go beyond such basic notions as correlation and regression analysis and interpretation of statistical data. Students acquire only a cursory knowledge of international relations theories, and do not have an opportunity to do so until the postgraduate level. Such courses as International Organisations, International Security or European Integration are taught without any theory involved. In the envisaged programme of study for International Relations, there are no courses in the methodology of conducting scientific research, advanced statistical methods or comparative methods. The actual curriculum is mainly determined by the preferences and competences of the academic staff, and not by the needs of the discipline of International Relations. There are not enough academic staff in Poland capable of teaching using both the analytical and theoretical approaches. Neither are skills needed to independently conduct research developed during third-cycle (doctoral) studies. Conclusions Today s condition of International Relations in Poland is still influenced by historical factors, the prevalence of the Marxist approach in the communist era and isolation of the Polish science from Western one. Closing this gap is inevitably slow. However, some creative spirit could recently be felt within the discipline, which is proved by the publication of a series of major works by Polish and foreign authors, initiating a debate on the condition of International Relations and the establishment of the Polish Society for International Relations. In Poland, the discipline of international relations is dominated by a practical approach. However, whether we like it or not, a scientific discipline must rest on theory. Every scientific analysis requires some theoretical assumptions. Theories are a prerequisite for building up empirical knowledge, and not a consequence of such knowledge. What really matters is to pose essential questions relating to ontology, epistemology and methodology of 52 This system is reflected in the academic textbooks for this course. Cf. Ryszard Zięba (ed.), Bezpieczeństwo międzynarodowe po zimnej wojnie, Wydawnictwa Akademickie i Profesjonalne, Warsaw,

19 International Relations. The debate on this topic will help assimilate and internalise the way of looking at International Relations that prevails in the West. The discipline of International Relations also needs autonomy - an organisational autonomy vis-à-vis other disciplines and financial autonomy vis-à-vis those funding the research. This does not preclude, however, supervision of the quality of research provided, in a natural way, by scholars at home and abroad. Nonetheless, these conditions can hardly be fulfilled in Poland. In effect, there is a real threat that, in the international division of labour, some scholars will conduct fundamental research whilst Polish scholars will be recipients of theories, consumers of knowledge and providers of data. They will deal with their own region, making use of their role as insiders, only because the lack of theoretical tools will preclude them from tackling other research issues 53. This is what peripherality and parochiality of science implies. For International Relations to develop, it is necessary to furnish aspiring scholars with the needed analytical tools. This in turn calls for the introduction of research design, quantitative and qualitative methods, advanced statistics, econometrics and comparative methods into the curricula. Only then will it be possible to build a community of Polish researchers who will be in a position to make a contribution to the development of the discipline of International Relations. 53 Guzzini, The Significance and Roles of Teaching..., p. 108, Guzzini, Theorising International Relations..., p

20 Bibliography Antoszewski Andrzej, Andrzej Dumała, Barbara Krauz-Mozer, Katarzyna Radzik (eds.), Teoretyczne i metodologiczne wyzwania badań politologicznych w Polsce, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin 2009 Baylis John, Steve Smith (eds.), Globalizacja polityki światowej. Wprowadzenie do stosunków międzynarodowych, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, Kraków 2008 Burchill Scott, Andrew Linklater, Richard Devetak, Jack Donnelly, Matthew Paterson, Christian Reus-Smit, Jacqui True, Teorie stosunków międzynarodowych, Książka i Wiedza, Warsaw 2006 Bürger Christian, Reassembling and Dissecting: International Relations Practice from a Science Studies Perspective, International Studies Perspective Vol. 8, 2007 Czaputowicz Jacek, Teoria stosunków międzynarodowych. Krytyka i systematyzacja, PWN, Warsaw 2007 Czaputowicz Jacek, Ontologia, epistemologia, metodologia w nauce o stosunkach międzynarodowych, Przegląd Europejski No. 2 (19), 2009 Czaputowicz Jacek, Teorie stosunków międzynarodowych. W odpowiedzi Ryszardowi Stemplowskiemu, Polski Przegląd Dyplomatyczny No. 4-5 (50-51), 2009 Czaputowicz Jacek, Rola środowisk eksperckich w procesach decyzyjnych polityki zagranicznej Polski, in: Stanisław Bieleń (ed.), Polityka zagraniczna Polski po wstąpieniu do NATO i Unii Europejskiej. Problemy tożsamości i adaptacji, Difin, Warsaw 2010 Denzin Norman K., Yvonna S. Lincoln (eds.), Metody badań jakościowych, PWN, Warsaw 2009 Drulák Petr, Lucie Königová, Jan Karlas, Continuity and Change in the Discipline of IR in Central and Eastern Europe Countries, Paper presented at 2004 ISA Convention, Montreal, March 17-21, 2004 Geberthner Paweł, Radosław Markowski, Political Science in Poland, Gesis Leibniz Institute for the Social Science, Knowledge Base Social Science Eastern Europe, Goodin Robert E., Hans Dieter Klinsmann, A New Handbook of Political Science, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1995 Groom A.J.R., The World Beyond. The European Dimension, in: A.J.R. Groom, Margot Light (eds.) Contemporary International Relations. A Guide to Theory, Pinter Publisher, London-New York Guzzini Stefano, The Significance and Roles of Teaching in International Relations, Journal on International Relations and Development, Vol. 4, No. 2 (2001) Guzzini Stefano, Theorising International Relations: Lessons from Europe s Periphery, Danish Institute for International Studies, DIIS Working paper no 2007/30 Jackson Robert, Georg Sørensen, Wprowadzenie do stosunków międzynarodowych: teorie i kierunki badawcze, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, Kraków 2006 Jean Carlo, Geopolityka, Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich, Wrocław 2003 Jentleson Bruce W., The Need for Praxis. Bringing Policy Relevance Back In, International Security Vol. 26,

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