The Globalization of World Politics

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1 The Globalization of World Politics An introduction to international relations Second Edition Edited by John Baylis and Steve Smith OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

2 Detailed contents Introduction i From international politics to world politics 2 Theories of world politics 2 The three theories and globalization 5 Globalization and its precursors 7 Globalization: myth or reality? 9 1 The globalization of world politics n Introduction: a globalizing world 13 Globalization: a definition 14 Globalization and the states-system 20 Post-sovereign governance 24 The challenge of global democracy 28 Conclusion 30 2 The evolution of international society 35 Origins and definitions 35 Ancient Greece and Renaissance Italy, 38 European international society 42 The globalization of international society 45 Problems of global international society 46 3 International history Introduction 52 The origins of World War One 53 Peace-making, 1919: the Versailles settlement 56 The global economic slump, The origins of World War Two in Asia and the Pacific 63 The path to war in Europe 66 Conclusion 71 4 International history Introduction 75 End of empire 76 The cold war 79 The bomb 84 Conclusion 88

3 xiv DETAILED CONTENTS 5 The end of the cold war 92 Introduction 92 Internal factors: the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union 94 The collapse of communism in Eastern Europe 99 External factors: relations with the United States 102 The interaction between internal and external environments 105 Conclusion International history since Introduction 111 Competing visions of the post-cold war world 113 Global trends in the post-cold war era 119 Conclusion: a farewell to arms Realism 141 Introduction: the timeless wisdom of Realism 141 One Realism or many? 147 The essential Realism 150 Conclusion: Realism and the globalization of world politics Liberalism 162 Introduction 163 Varieties of Liberalism 164 Three Liberal responses to globalization 171 Conclusion and postscript: the crisis of Liberalism Contemporary mainstream approaches: neo-realism and neo-liberalism 182 Introduction 183 Neo-realism 185 Neo-liberalism 188 The neo-neo debate 191 Neo-liberals and neo-realists on globalization 194 Conclusion: narrowing the agenda of international relations Marxist theories of International Relations 200 Introduction: the continuing relevance of Marxism 200 The essential elements of Marxist theories of world politics 203 World-system theory 205 Gramscianism 209 Critical theory 214 New Marxism 216 Marxist theories of International Relations and-globalization 220

4 DETAILED CONTENTS xv 11 Reflectivist and constructivist approaches to international theory 224 Introduction 225 Explanatory/constitutive theories and foundational/anti-foundational theories 226 Reflectivist theories 229 Bridging the gap: social constructivism 242 Conclusion International and global security in the post-cold war era 253 Introduction 254 What is meant by the concept of security? 254 The traditional approach to national security 256 The difficulties of co-operation between states 258 The opportunities for co-operation between states 259 Alternative views on international and global security 265 The continuing tensions between national, international, and global security 271 Conclusions International political economy in an age of globalization 277 Introduction 278 The post-war world economy 278 The rise of IPE in the study of international relations 283 Traditional approaches to IPE: liberal, mercantilist, and Marxian 285 New approaches to IPE 287 The globalization debate in IPE 290 International institutions in the globalizing world economy 294 Conclusions International regimes 299 Introduction 299 The nature of regimes 302 Competing theories of regime formation 306 Conclusion Diplomacy 317 What is diplomacy? 317 Diplomacy and world politics 319 Diplomacy and foreign policy 325 Conclusion The United Nations and international order 331 A brief history of the United Nations 332

5 xvi DETAILED CONTENTS Problems within the state and problems between states 335 The United Nations and conditions within states 336 The United Nations and maintaining international order 339 The United Nations and intervention within states 340 The United Nations and forms of involvement within states 343 Sovereignty and the competence of international organization 345 A typology of the roles of the United Nations in Conclusions Transnational actors and international organizations in global politics 356 Introduction 357 Problems with the state-centric approach 359 Transnational companies as political actors 362 Non-legitimate groups and liberation movements as political actors 367 Non-governmental organizations as political actors 369 International organizations as structures of global politics 375 Issues and policy systems in global politics Environmental issues 387 Introduction: international environmental issues 387 Environmental issues on the international agenda: a historic outline 389 Issues and challenges in international environmental politics 393 The development and implementation of environmental regimes 398 The Rio Conference and its outcomes 404 Conclusion Nuclear proliferation 415 Introduction 416 The nature of nuclear weapons and their effects 418 The global diffusion of nuclear and ballistic weapon technology 419 Theorizing nuclear proliferation and non-proliferation 422 Will more nuclear weapons be better or worse? 428 The evolution of the global nuclear non-proliferation regime 429 Conclusion Nationalism 440 Nationalism and globalization 441 Nationalism as ideology 443 Nationalism as a movement 445 Nationalism and international relations 446 Four debates 448 The effects of globalization: towards a post-nationalist age? 453

6 DETAILED CONTENTS xvii 21 Culture in world affairs 456 ' Culture in human affairs 456 The counter-revolutionaries of the global age 460 The counter revolution at the civilizational level: the case of Islam 463 Conclusion Humanitarian intervention and world politics 470 Introduction 471 What is humanitarian intervention? 472 Objections to legitimizing humanitarian intervention 473 The Solidarist case for humanitarian intervention 475 State practice during the cold war 476 Post-cold war humanitarian interventions 479 Globalization and non-forcible humanitarian intervention 488 Conclusion European and regional integration 494 Introduction 495 The evolution of the European Union 495 Conceptualizing European integration 498 The role of the European institutions 501 The EU in world politics 507 The global context to European integration Beyond Europe: the global rise of regionalism 513 Conclusion Global trade and finance 519 Introduction 519 A globalizing economy 520 Global trade 526 Global finance 528 Limits to economic globalization 533 Conclusion The communications and Internet revolution 540 Introduction and historical backdrop 541 The Internet and World Wide Web revolution 544 The impact of the information revolution on actors 549 The information revolution and challenges for government policies 551 The impact of the information revolution on international relations 553 Conclusion 556

7 xviii DETAILED CONTENTS 26 Poverty, development, and hunger 559 Introduction ^ 559 Poverty 561 Development 562 Hunger 574 Looking to the future: globalization with a human face? Gender issues 582 Introduction j 582 Gendering international politics 583 Feminisms 586 Gender in the global political economy 589 Gender and nationalism 592 Globalizing gender issues 594 Conclusion Human rights 599 Introduction 599 On rights in general 602 The modern liberal synthesis on human rights and the modern agenda 606 The politics of human rights promotion 607 Universalism challenged 610 Conclusion Globalization and the transformation of political community 617 Introduction: what is a political community? 618 Nationalism and political community 620 Community and citizenship 622 The changing nature of political community 624 The dangers of new forms of political community? 629 Conclusion Globalization and the post-cold war order 634 Introduction 635 A typology of order 636 The elements of contemporary order 639 Is there a post-cold war order? 642 Globalization and the end of the cold war 643 An international order of globalized states 645 Conclusion 647

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