1 CASE STUDY #6 SMALL BUSINESS by Tolga Ildiz & Jon Smeltzer Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the course CISY Communication Networks and Security at Saint Mary's University Halifax, Nova Scotia March 2014 Copyright by Tolga Ildiz & Jon Smeltzer,
2 TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES... 3 LIST OF FIGURES... 4 ABSTRACT... 5 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED... 6 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ASSUMPTIONS: LIMITATIONS:... 8 CHAPTER 2: INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDERS (ISPs) BELL ALIANT: EASTLINK: CHAPTER 3: WIRELESS LANs (WLANs) NETWORK PERIPHERALS: Modems & Wireless Routers: Network Adapters: CHAPTER 4: IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES PROPAGATION: WLAN Positioning: SECURITY: Configuration: CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY... 26
3 LIST OF TABLES Table 1 The following table compares the cost per bit and value of each internet service plan offered for under $100 per month. The value is calculated based on a bandwidth-to-cost ratio for Bell Aliant and EastLink. Note: Bandwidth is represented by Mbps for downloads, Mbps for uploads have been omitted from this calculation
4 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 The following figure depicts how the ISP, modem, and PCs are connected. The link from the ISP to the ONT is carried over fibre optic cabling. From the ONT to the ActionTec modem is Cat 5 UTP. Each PC connects wirelessly to the ActionTec modem, which effectively depicts the layout of a WLAN Figure 2 The following figure depicts the steps taken to connect a computer to a wireless network in the Windows 7 environment Figure 3 The following figure depicts the steps taken to set-up a workgroup in a Windows 7 environment Figure 4 The following figure depicts the file sharing process in a Windows 7 environment when sharing files through a workgroup
5 ABSTRACT Jane Smith operates a small business selling microwave slow cookers from her house. Recently, Jane has acquired four PCs, two laptops and two desktops, that she would like to have connected via a WLAN. Jane would like to have a WLAN so that she will be able to access shared documents, work orders, etc..., from any PC and from any location within her house and her home office. In order to implement the WLAN, Jane will require to have internet service from an ISP and network peripherals. The network peripherals that Jane will require are a modem, a wireless router, and network adapters for her PCs; the wireless network adapters are only required for her desktop PCs, as the laptops already have internal wireless adapters. When implementing a WLAN, there are a number of factors that must be evaluated concerning propagation and security. Propagation must be considered due to issues regarding interference and degradation in signal strength and data loss. The total wireless coverage area must be evaluated, as well as the number and thickness of walls, vegetation, i.e.-plants, trees, etc..., other houses, buildings, amongst other constraints. Security is a major concern, especially when dealing with a business, regardless of its size, as there can be legal ramifications for loss of and breach of consumer information, such as financial information and other personal & confidential information. The purpose of this report is to identify WLAN requirements and identify issues with implementation and security. Additionally, this report will identify solutions, as well as methods used to configure the equipment, i.e.-router and PCs, to ensure that Jane will receive connectivity throughout her house and to ensure that her network is safe and secure. If these recommendations are not followed, Jane's network would be unsecure and would be a higher risk of an attack from hackers, resulting in an unstable network and the potential for theft of data.
6 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED LAN PC ISP OS HRM DSL UTP FTTH Mbps Kbps GB Mb WLAN WAN WPA WEP QoS HPNA TKIP PSK MAC NAT DMZ MIMO FT M NIC USB PCI ONT EMI AES CCMP SSID Local Area Network Personal Computer Internet Service Provider Operating System Halifax Regional Municipality Digital Subscriber Line Unshielded Twisted Pair Fibre-To-The-Home Megabits Per Second Kilobits Per Second Gigabyte Megabit Wireless LAN Wide Area Network Wi-Fi Protected Access Wired Equivalent Privacy Quality of Service Home Phoneline Networking Alliance Temporal Key Integrity Protocol Pre-Shared Key Media Access Control Network address translation Demilitarized Zone Multiple Input Multiple Output Feet Meters Network Interface Controller Universal Serial Bus Peripheral Component Interconnect Optical Network Terminal Electromagnetic Interference Advanced Encryption Standard Counter Mode Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol Service Set Identifier
7 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION The Small Business Case Study is based on the implementation of a wireless LAN for a small business owner. The small business owner will be selling microwave slow cookers from her house and will require wireless connectivity for her four PCs. The scope of this report is to identify the key components required to implement a wireless LAN in a residential setting, as well as identifying any potential issues and problems with utilizing wireless technologies, such as network security and wireless propagation. 1.1 ASSUMPTIONS: The following assumptions have been made based on the information that has been provided in the case study; the items in quotations are excerpts taken from the case study (Panko & Panko, 2013). "A friend of yours wishes to open a small business. She will sell microwave slow cookers". The "friend" is a female, however, her name was not provided. From this point forward, the "friend" will be referred to as Jane Smith. Additionally, since Jane is operating a business, she will require a dedicated internet service with sufficient bandwidth to support all PCs; minimum 5 Mbps per PC, resulting in a minimum 20 Mbps internet service plan. "She is thinking of using a wireless LAN to connect her four PCs". It is not stated or implied that Jane currently has a router or internet service from an Internet Service Provider (ISP); it only states that she is thinking of using a wireless LAN. The assumption will be made that Jane does not currently have an ISP and will require internet service (modem) and a wireless router (wireless router may be provided by the ISP or Jane may be required to purchase a wireless router). Additionally, it is stated that Jane will connect her four PCs, however, it does not state whether these are all desktops, all laptops, or a combination of the two. It will be assumed that Jane has two desktop and two laptop computers that utilize the Windows 7 OS.
8 "She wishes to operate out of her house in a nice residential area". It does not state whether her house is new or old, simply in a nice residential area. The telecommunication infrastructure of the house will vary depending on the age of the house. The assumption will be made that the house is less than 5 years old and contains a modern telecommunication infrastructure. The final assumption is based on the layout and positioning of Jane's home office. It does not state where in the house Jane is setting up her office or her four PCs. The assumption will be made that Jane will have the two desktop PCs located in her office and her two laptop PCs will be mobile, meaning that they can be moved throughout the house while still maintaining connectivity to the network. 1.2 LIMITATIONS: The scope of this report is limited to the information that has been provided in the case study and the aforementioned assumptions. ISPs are limited to those available within the geographic region that this report has been written in, which in this case, applies to all ISPs located within the Halifax Regional Municipality (HRM). The pricing from the ISPs will be limited to new subscription fees for internet service only for under $100 per month; bundle pricing and promotion pricing does not apply. Additionally, the wireless technologies and devices presented in this report have been limited to devices that are typically used in a home setting; commercial/industrial grade devices have been excluded. CHAPTER 2: INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDERS (ISPs) Within the HRM, there are two telecommunication companies that offer internet services - Bell Aliant and EastLink. Both of these companies provide comparable internet services that are available in the neighborhood that Jane lives in.
9 2.1 BELL ALIANT: Bell Aliant offers two different internet options, High-Speed internet and FibreOP internet, and each option contains multiple bandwidth plans. The biggest difference between the internet options is that High-Speed internet is a digital subscriber line (DSL) service that utilizes the existing telephone infrastructure (1-pair voice grade UTP), whereas FibreOP internet utilizes fibre-optic cabling that must be run direct to the customers house; FTTH (Fibre-To-The Home). The benefits and prices (promotional pricing does not apply) for each service are as follows: High-Speed DSL internet: "Basic Plan o "Up to 1.5 Mbps download o "Up to 640 Kbps upload o "Unlimited usage o "Wireless modem included - Free for 24 months - $3.95 per month thereafter o "$61.95 per month "Ultra Plan o "Up to 7 Mbps download o "Up to 640 Kbps upload o "Unlimited usage o "Wireless modem included - Free for 24 months - $3.95 per month thereafter o "$71.95 per month" (Bell Aliant, 2014) FibreOP internet: "50/30 Plan o "50 Mbps download o "30 Mbps upload o "Unlimited usage o "Wireless modem included o "$71.95 per month
10 "80/30 Plan o "80 Mbps download o "30 Mbps upload o "Unlimited usage o "Wireless modem included o "$86.95 per month" (Bell Aliant, 2014) 2.2 EASTLINK: EastLink offers residential customers access to high-speed cable internet with various bandwidth plans. Typically, the high-speed cable internet utilizes the existing cable television infrastructure (RG-6 or RG-11 coaxial cable), with the exception being in newer subdivisions and new home construction that would require the RG-6 or RG-11 coaxial cable to be run direct to the customers house. The benefits and prices (promotional pricing does not apply) for each internet plan are as follows: High-speed cable internet: "Edge Plan o "Up to 20 Mbps download o "Up to 2 Mbps upload o "Unlimited usage o "Cable modem included - Wireless modem is an extra $2.95 per month o "$70.00 per month "Evolution Plan o "Up to 40 Mbps download o "Up to 6 Mbps upload o "250 GB bandwidth plan - $1 per GB thereafter o "Cable modem included - Wireless modem is an extra $2.95 per month o "$87.95 per month" (EastLink, 2014)
11 The services offered by both Bell Aliant and EastLink are quite comparable, however, Bell Aliant appears to offer services that would be more beneficial to Jane, especially when comparing the allotted bandwidth-to-price. Additionally, all internet plans offered by Bell Aliant include a wireless modem and unlimited bandwidth usage, whereas EastLink charges an additional $2.95 per month for a wireless modem and only allows 250 GB of bandwidth per month, after which a surcharge of $1 per GB is applied; EastLink offers free wireless modems and unlimited bandwidth if the internet service is bundled with telephone or cable, however, this report is limited to evaluating internet service only. Table 1 The following table compares the cost per bit and value of each internet service plan offered for under $100 per month. The value is calculated based on a bandwidth-tocost ratio for Bell Aliant and EastLink. Note: Bandwidth is represented by Mbps for downloads, Mbps for uploads have been omitted from this calculation. EastLink Cable internet Plan Edge Evolution Bandwidth (Mbps Download) 20 Mbps 40 Mbps Price per Month $ $ Total Cost Per Mb ($) $3.50 $2.20 Total Value (%) 29% 45% Bell Aliant DSL internet FibreOP internet Plan Basic Ultra 50/30 80/30 Bandwidth (Mbps Download) 1.5Mbps 7 Mbps 50 Mbps 80 Mbps Price per Month $ $ $ $ Total Cost Per Mb ($) $41.30 $10.28 $1.44 $1.09 Total Value (%) 2% 10% 69% 92% The internet service plan that is recommended for Jane to subscribe to is Bell Aliant's FibreOP 80/30 plan. This plan is $86.95 per month and will offer Jane a reliable high-speed fibre optic internet service. Included with this plan is a wireless modem, which is a requirement of setting up a wireless LAN for Jane's four PCs. Additionally, Bell Aliant's FibreOP 80/30 plan offers the greatest overall value of 92 % and also has the lowest cost per Mb of $1.09, when compared to EastLink's and Bell Aliant's internet plans for under $100 per month.
12 CHAPTER 3: WIRELESS LANs (WLANs) Jane has four PCs, two laptop and two desktop computers, and she would like to setup a wireless LAN to provide connectivity to each of her PCs; connectivity refers to providing internet access to each PC and also allowing files to be accessed and shared by all PCs through the use of connectivity to a home network. To create a wireless LAN Jane will require network peripherals. 3.1 NETWORK PERIPHERALS: Peripherals are defined as being auxiliary equipment used for computer input, output, storage, and network communication (Business Dictionary, 2013). Network peripherals are devices that enable and allow communication between 1 or more computers. Since these devices are "...not required for the individual computer to function..." (The Networking, 2010), they are considered to be peripheral devices. In order to implement a wireless LAN, Jane will require the following network peripherals - Modem, Wireless Router, and Network Adapters Modems & Wireless Routers: A modem is a device provided by an ISP "...that enables a computer to transmit data..." (Webopedia, 2014) and receive internet connectivity. Basic modems typically only have an input and a single RJ-45 output for use with one computer; coaxial cable input for cable modems, RJ-11 (1-pair voice grade UTP cable) and coaxial inputs for DSL modems. A wireless router is a device that connects to your modem and provides wireless connectivity to other computers and internet enabled devices (What Is My IP Address, 2014); wireless routers typically also have 4 Ethernet ports to allow for wired access. Additionally, routers provide access to the LAN, which provides connectivity between the connected wireless devices; a wireless router does not have to connect to a modem to provide access to the LAN, although, without being connected to a modem, the devices will not have internet access.
13 In addition to the basic modem, many ISPs are offering modems that are essentially three products in one - modem, wireless access point, and an Ethernet router. Depending on the ISP, these wireless modems are either included with the internet service subscription for free or the ISP will charge a monthly rental for the wireless modems; Bell Aliant includes a wireless modem for free, whereas EastLink charges a monthly rental fee of $2.95. The ISP that was recommended for Jane to subscribe to provides its customers with a free wireless modem; Bell Aliant. The modem is an ActionTec Wireless N Gigabit Ethernet Router, referred to herein as an ActionTec modem. The ActionTec modem was designed for customers that utilize a Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH) internet connection. The main features of the ActionTec modem are as follows: "Gigabit Ethernet WAN support "Gigabit Ethernet 4 Port Router "HPNA 3.1 LAN and/or WAN support "Wireless N Access Point "Robust Firewall and Advanced security including stateful packet inspections, denial of service protection, intrusion detection and WPA and WEP wireless encryption "QoS (Quality of Service) "TR-069 Remote Management Support" (ActionTec, 2014) In addition to the aforementioned features of the ActionTec modem, the ActionTec modem also supports many advanced features. Some of the advanced security features are as follows: "Wireless Security o "WPA, WPA 2, WEP, and TKIP encryption o "802.1x authentication o "Pre-Shared Key (PSK) o "MAC Address Filtering
14 "Advanced Security o "NAT o "Website Blocking o "Web Service Blocking o "Parental Control o "Customizable Filtering Policies per Computer o "Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) o "Advanced DMZ o "IP Protocol Filtering" (ActionTec, 2010) The ActionTec modem enables the user to connect devices directly using Ethernet cabling with RJ-45 connectors or to connect devices using wireless technologies. The ActionTec modem has four ports to allow four devices to be simultaneously connected via Ethernet cabling and is able to support speeds up to 1000 Mbps. The wireless technologies that ActionTec modem uses is n; n supports speeds from 54 Mbps to 600 Mbps. Additionally, this modem supports "...MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) smart antenna technology..." (ActionTec, 2010) which allows the modem to have an increased wireless range throughout the house; approximately 70 meters (230 ft) compared to 30 meters (100 ft) for g (Panko & Panko, 2013). Although there are other third-party wireless routers that Jane could purchase separately and implement, i.e.-bridge connections, with Bell Aliant's ActionTec modem, the features that are currently offered by the ActionTec modem are quite comparable, and in some cases, superior to those offered by the third-party wireless routers. Essentially, Jane will be able to utilize these features without the added expense and configuration required by purchasing a separate wireless router. It is our recommendation that Jane chooses to implement Bell Aliant's ActionTec modem for her WLAN.
15 3.1.2 Network Adapters: Network adapters, also referred to as network interface controllers (NICs) or LAN adapters, are hardware components that enable a device to connect to the internet or a LAN. Most PCs contain a network adapter, although, depending on the age of the PC and whether or not the PC is a desktop or a laptop, the network adapter may not have wireless capabilities; connect only via RJ-45 Ethernet cabling. We will assume that Jane's two laptops were purchased new and already contain a wireless b/g/n network adapter and that her two desktop computers currently do not contain a wireless network adapter. In order to configure Jane's two laptop PCs, Jane will simply have to connect to her wireless network, as defined by her ActionTec modem, and enter her network password. To connect her two desktop PCs, Jane will have to purchase two wireless network adapters. The wireless adapters should support n technology; the wireless adapters could still function if they only supported b or g technologies, however, the usability ranges and speeds will suffer by using these two technologies. There are typically two different types of wireless network adapters that Jane could purchase - USB adapter and PCI adapter. A USB adapter plugs into a USB port on the computer and then allows the computer to connect to a wireless network. The main advantage of the USB adapter is convenience; the trade-off for convenience is a diminished usability range and strength of the overall wireless connection. A PCI adapter is a piece of hardware that is physically installed in the computer. The key advantage of using a PCI adapter is that it is able to support the full functionality of the n technology, i.e.-spatial multiplexing; the PCI adapter typically contains an array of antennas (Murphy, 2011). Since the two desktop computers are going to be set-up in Jane's office and they will not be moved around, it is recommended that Jane should purchase and install the PCI wireless adapters for her two desktop PCs. Although there are many different makes and models of wireless PCI adapters, Jane should purchase a wireless PCI adapter from a reputable company. The D-Link Xtreme N Wireless PCI adapter has received very good reviews and is reasonably priced at
16 $59.99; Jane should purchase two of these wireless PCI adapters, one for each of her desktop PCs. Once the hardware is installed and the drivers are installed, connecting to the wireless network will be the same as it was for the laptops; select the network, as defined by the ActionTec modem, and enter the network password. Internet Service Provider (ISP) Fibre Optic Cabling Laptop Internal b/g/n Wireless Adapter MAC Address: 90:00:4E:65:7E:48 Network Address: Wireless Signal Optical Network Terminal (ONT) Cat 5 UTP Cabling Wireless Signal Desktop D-Link N Wireless PCI Adapter MAC Address: 90:84:0D:02:3C:63 Network Address: Wireless Signal Laptop Internal b/g/n Wireless Adapter MAC Address: 78:A3:E4:A2:F1:1D Network Address: ActionTec Wireless N Modem Contains Robust FireWall Network Address: Wireless Signal Desktop D-Link N Wireless PCI Adapter MAC Address: D8:50:E6:80:1C:C9 Network Address: Figure 1 The following figure depicts how the ISP, modem, and PCs are connected. The link from the ISP to the ONT is carried over fibre optic cabling. From the ONT to the ActionTec modem is Cat 5 UTP. Each PC connects wirelessly to the ActionTec modem, which effectively depicts the layout of a WLAN. CHAPTER 4: IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES Before a WLAN is implemented, it is important to identify any potential issues that can arise from using the wireless technology. This report will focus on propagation and security related issues with a wireless LAN implementation.
17 4.1 PROPAGATION: Wireless LANs can have the following major propagation problems: Inverse Square Law Attenuation, Absorptive Attenuation, Shadow Zones, Multipath Interference, and Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Additionally, wireless LANs can have issues with the frequency that is being used to broadcast the wireless signal, which are called frequency dependent attenuation problems. Wireless LAN signals are broadcasted in a spherical shape and the diameter of the sphere is dependent on the strength of the source signal; a larger diameter sphere emits stronger signals further than a smaller diameter sphere. Since the area of a sphere is dependent on its radius and calculated with the inverse square law, the attenuation that is created by this is called the inverse square law attenuation. Jane lives in a residential area and she would not have any problems caused by the inverse square law attenuation because nowadays, almost all wireless access points and/or wireless routers have a range of 50 to 100 meters (Panko & Panko, 2013). When wireless LANs are transmitting the signals are being absorbed by many objects in the environment. For example, the signals are absorbed by the air molecules, plants, glass, dry wall, and many other objects; the attenuation caused by this effect is called absorptive attenuation (Panko & Panko, 2013). Since Jane will have a wireless modem/router in her home, she might have minor issues with absorptive attenuation; the assumption will be made that Jane has plants both in and outside of her house. Also, since absorptive attenuation gets worse as the distance increases, she could have more signal issues if she lives in a big house; however, if she lives in a small or medium sized house it is likely that she will have very little problems, if any. Wireless LAN signals have the ability to travel through and/or around objects to a certain point. When the signals from the sender cannot reach to the receiver, the receiver is in a shadow zone or dead zone. Dead zones are more common indoors but they can also happen outdoors if there are too many buildings in the same area as the wireless LAN signal. Depending on the house that Jane is living in and the location of the wireless modem/router in the house, Jane might have problems with shadow zones. For example, if there are many walls in between the sender and the receiver, Jane will have problems with connectivity. Also, if Jane's house is too big and the
18 wireless modem/router is placed in a corner and the receiver is placed in opposite corner, there is a possibility that Jane will have connection problems. The same connectivity issue can occur if the wireless modem/router is placed on the second floor of the house and the computers are trying to connect from the basement. Wireless LAN signals have the ability to bounce off of surfaces, and if this bounced signal and another direct signal from the sender arrives at the receiver at the exact same time, the two signals can cancel each other out. Also, the signals from a different wireless LAN can interfere with the signals of our wireless LAN; this is called multipath interference (Panko & Panko, 2013). Since Jane lives in a residential neighborhood, multipath interference has the potential of being a major problem. Nowadays, wireless LANs are very popular, and most residential areas are crowded with different wireless LANs. Since the wireless LAN channels are limited, most of these wireless LANs end up running on the same channels and frequencies. If Jane uses the 2.4 GHz frequency she will probably have a lot of interference from her neighbors; Jane should change the channels on the router if there is too much interference. On the other hand if Jane uses the 5 GHz frequency, she will have much more absorptive attenuation and shadow zone problems. The last issue with wireless LANs is electromagnetic interference. Electromagnetic interference is a loss of data caused by two or more devices emitting the same frequency. The frequency emitted by wireless signals and other electronic devices in the same vicinity can create electromagnetic interference because these electronic devices can create signals at the same frequency as wireless LANs. The most common electronic devices that can emit the same frequency as wireless LANs are cordless phones, walkie-talkies, cell phones, and microwaves WLAN Positioning: In order to limit the amount of propagation and interference with Jane`s WLAN, it is critical to position her modem/router in an effective location. As stated in the assumptions, Jane lives in a nice residential neighborhood and the assumption will be made that the house is less than 5 years old and contains a modern telecommunication infrastructure. Most modern telecommunication
19 infrastructures contain structured cabling in a cabinet or closet, either in the basement or the main floor, in the center of the house. The positioning of the Smart Media Panel is designed to ensure that all telecommunication cabling home runs contain the least amount of cabling and is centrally located to ensure wireless connectivity throughout the house. For Jane's house, the assumption will be made that the office is located on the main level of the house and the Smart Media Panel is located in a closet/cabinet that is in the office; the ActionTec modem will be installed in the media panel. The position of the media panel and the ActionTec modem is ideal because all areas of the house will be within the wireless range of the modem and the WLAN; the wireless range is approximately 70 meters, which provides a radius of 35 meters in any direction. Additionally, since the house contains modern telecommunications, i.e.-all of the rooms are prewired with Cat5 UTP, Jane could hard-wire the LAN if she had any issues with the wireless signal in any of the rooms, although this statement is outside of the scope of this report, it simply depicts future use of the cabling if required. 4.2 SECURITY: Wireless LAN has three security standards: Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP), Wireless Protected Access (WPA) and i (WPA2). The Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) standard was the first security standard that was introduced in 1997 with wireless LAN. It uses a key or a password to encrypt the communication. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a very weak standard because with WEP everyone that is sharing an access point or a router has the same key; WEP has no mechanism to automatically change the key. Nowadays with the right tools this standard can be cracked under 15 minutes (Panko & Panko, 2013). The Wireless Protected Access (WPA) standard was created after the WEP cracked as a stop gap before the Working Group finalized the i standard. It was created by using the blueprints of the i standard but it used lower security protocols. Today, WPA has been partially cracked, however, it still provides adequate security (Panko & Panko, 2013).
20 802.11i (WPA2) is considered to be the golden standard of wireless LAN security today. It uses a very strong AES-CCMP encryption. AES-CCMP encryption has a 128 bit key and it has a mechanism to change keys automatically (Panko & Panko, 2013). Although not required, it is highly recommended that Jane invests in some anti-virus software for her PCs. At present, the ActionTec modem contains a robust firewall and has advanced security on it, and although this offers Jane a level of security, you can never be too careful and should have a second line of defense against threats. Jane should purchase, or at the very least, download a free/trial version of some anti-virus software. Two well known anti-virus software products are Vipre Internet Security and AVG Internet Security, both of which contain a firewall and web-browsing support, as well as antivirus and malware protection Configuration: It is recommended that Jane should use WPA2 security with her wireless LAN. As mentioned previously, it is the golden standard of wireless security and it has not been cracked. Most modems/routers come from the factory with WPA or WPA2 security pre-set, meaning that the modem/router is already configured for the user. If the modem/router is not configured for WPA2 security, Jane will have to access the modem/router's configuration. The modem/router's configuration is typically accessed through a web browser at one of the following addresses: x.x x.x to x.x 10.x.x.x Note: If the modem/router configuration cannot be accessed using one of the aforementioned addresses, consult the modem's user manual and/or the ISP. Once inside the modem/router configuration, Jane can change the wireless LAN security of the modem/router and set the security to be WPA2-PSK and she can also set-up the password for the network; it is recommended that the password should be at least 25 characters in length and should contain a mixture of upper case/lower case characters, numbers, and symbols.