Innovations in retail payments

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1 Innovations in retail payments CPMI-BCRP Seminar Lima, Peru, May 2016 The views expressed here are those of the authors only. No responsibility of them should be attributed to the Bank of Canada Ben Fung Currency Department Bank of Canada

2 CPMI WG on Innovations of Retail Payments (2012) Trends identified Only a few innovations have a significant effect Most innovations are for the domestic market Increased focus on faster payment processing Financial inclusion is an important driver Increased role of nonbanks 2

3 Outline of presentation The changing landscape for retail payments and the drivers of innovations The importance and challenges of innovation, and their implications The role of central banks and public authorities 3

4 The changing landscape for retail payments and the drivers for innovation 4

5 Main drivers for payment innovations Technological developments: e.g. the Internet, smart phones, NFC, blockchain/distributed ledger New players and new business models: e.g. Google, Apple, Samsung, Facebook, Microsoft, Amazon, Tencent, Alibaba, Ripple User needs: online commerce and payments; P2P payments, faster payments, 24/7 availability, convenience Appetite for new product and services, e.g. shared economy (Uber, Airbnb), P2P lending International remittances: increased labour mobility New and changing regulations, e.g. EU s PSD2, e-money laws Financial inclusion: In many countries, e-money provides access to payment services without the need of a bank account 5

6 Innovations in retail payments: some examples E-payments E-money Digital currency Bank a/c Yes No No POS Online P2P Remittance EMV/contactless cards; Mobile payments (Apple/Android Pay, Square), prepaid cards card tokenization; ideal, Interac Online, Braintree, Stripe Venmo, WeChat, Interac e-transfer, Swish, Dwolla MoneyGram Online, Global Money Transfer Octopus card (Hong Kong), Suica (Japan), Alipay, WeChat Pay, PayPal, Bim PayPal prepaid balance, Alipay, WeChat Pay M-PESA in Kenya, Bim, Facebook Messenger PayPal, Alipay Cryptocurrencies e.g. Bitcoin; Coinbase Cryptocurrencies, e.g. Bitcoin Cryptocurrencies e.g. Ripple Bill payment Epost, Bpay, PPS, WU Pay 6

7 Examples of payment gaps Safety/privacy non-monetary costs fees POS Don t trust certain sellers Cash only merchants; cost of withdrawing cash; access to financial services Merchant card fees Online security and privacy concerns Cost of setting up an online account, e.g. PayPal; inconvenience of entering card information PayPal and card fees, esp. for micropayments P2P Cost of going to ATM or downloading and learning new apps Cost and fees Remittance Sending cash is unsafe access to financial services; take time for funds to arrive Fees of Western Union, PayPal and banks. 7

8 Electronic payment methods are broadly available in Canada (2013) 8

9 Canadians are using less cash and more electronic payments at the POS, including newer payment innovations Volume % 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Cash Debit Contactless Debit Credit Contacless credit Stored-value cards Cheque Value % 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Cash Debit Contactless Debit Credit Contactless Credit Stored-value cards Cheque 9

10 The importance and challenges of innovations in retail payments, and their implications

11 The importance of innovation Enable consumers to do transactions that they were not able to do before (foregone transaction): improve efficiency Allow consumers to conduct existing transactions at a lower cost and in a safer or more convenient way increase competition, access and usage 11

12 Chip and pin help reduce payment card fraud in Canada at the point-of-sale Debit card fraud is declining Credit card fraud remains high owing to rising card not present fraud $16.2 M Debit card fraud losses in $million Transaction value in $billion Other card fraud (mainly domestic counterfeit) Card not present (e.g. fraudlent e-commerce, data from 2006 only) Transaction value in $billion Source: Interac Association Source: Canadian Bankers Association 12

13 Successful innovations need to overcome the network effect in a two-sided market 13

14 Few innovations were able to achieve the network effect in a two-sided market Successful examples Debit cards it is the ATM card Credit cards consumer likes interest-free and rewards Octopus cards in Hong Kong almost everybody takes public transportation and owns an Octopus card already M-PESA in Kenya more people have mobile phones than bank accounts Not so successful examples Mondex, Facebook Credit and Messenger, Google Wallet, PayPal at the POS Among all the latest innovations in retail payments around the world, how many of them will be broadly adopted and accepted (Bitcoin/Ripple, Apple Pay, )? 14

15 Apple Pay usage in the United States at its lowest rate since introduction 15

16 Adoption of innovations takes time: The S-curve Debit cards in Canada Contactless credit cards in Canada 16

17 Other challenges Standardization, interoperability and cooperation E.g. Many mobile payment schemes (initially) tend to be platform specific: require a particular combination of mobile carriers, mobile phone OS, banks, card schemes Regulatory requirements definitions of e-money and cryptocurrency, prepaid products, compliance with KYC and AML requirements, the use of new technology by FIs under supervision Competition and barriers to entry 17

18 The role of central banks 18

19 Are we nearing a cashless society? Payment innovations aim to drive out cash 19

20 Cash is no longer accepted or available everywhere All Air Canada flights accept cards only for in-flight purchases The government does not accept cash for some services, e.g. income taxes: online payments or pay at a FI or by wire transfer Online purchases are increasingly popular and cash is not accepted Around the world In the Netherlands, some retail chains (e.g. Marqt, cashless supermarket) are not accepting cash for cost and security reasons or have a limited number of cashiers that accept cash In Sweden, many banks branches don t carry or accept cash ( cash-free ), with cash available only from ATMs In Hong Kong, parking meters accept only Octopus cards3 20

21 Is Sweden on the verge of becoming the world s first cashless society? We don't accept cash Welcome to Sweden - the most cash-free society on the planet, The Guardian, Nov 12, Sweden on way to becoming cashless society, Euronews, Dec 14, 2015 In Sweden, A Cash-Free Future Nears, The New York Times, Dec 26, 2015; Why Sweden Is Going Cash-Free? Fortune, December 26, Could Sweden become the first cashless society? ComputerWeekly.com, accessed March, 20, 2016; Sweden s central bank put brakes on cash-free society, ComputerWeekly.com, accessed March, 30, 2016; 21

22 Cash is still broadly used in Australia, Canada, and the US, especially for small value transactions and P2P payments Canada Australia United States Cash share (volume) 44% 47% 40% Cash share (value) 23% 18% 14% Average value of total payment CA$43 AU$67 US$59 Average value of cash payments $18 $26 $21 Cash share (volume) in P2P payments 69% 55% 67% Average value of P2P cash payments $30 $98 $35 Cash continues to be the most frequently used payment instruments for proximity and P2P payments CPMI Report, 2012 Source: Australia (2013 SCUPM), Canada (2013 MOP Survey), and United States (Bos-Fed CPRC 2013 SCPC and 2012 Diaries). All values are in domestic currencies. 22

23 Bank notes continue to grow in a number of countries, except e.g. Sweden Source: BIS Red Book 23

24 The decline in cash demand in Sweden is mainly driven by the note of the largest denomination 6,00% 5,00% 4,00% 3,00% 2,00% 1,00% 0,00% Value of notes over GDP in Sweden 4,50% 4,00% 3,50% 3,00% 2,50% 2,00% 1,50% 1,00% 0,50% 0,00% Value of notes over GDP in Canada SEK 1000 SEK 500 and below Total notes $50 and below $100 All notes 24

25 Public policy objectives for retail payments in Canada Safety: Measure, manage and control risks appropriately What risks are raised by innovations of retail payments? Are these new or additional risks? How large are these risks? Are there reliable legal and regulatory frameworks to manage and control the risks? Efficiency: Payment needs are met and resources used to deliver the service are efficiently allocated What payment needs are not met right now (or underprovided)? Can total costs be lowered by payment innovations? Users interest:: Meet end-users needs and protect their interests 25

26 Potential roles for the central bank Facilitation or catalyst Promoting or encouraging a particular outcome through moral suasion, financial incentives and support Regulation Stable and reliable operations Protect the safety of funds Compliance with AML and counter-terrorist funding regulations Clarify the playing field, e.g. E-money directives, digital currencies Direct provision of payment instrument and services and operator of payment infrastructures How should the central bank work with other public authorities such as bank supervisors, the ministry of finance, telecom regulators, etc.? 26

27 Intervention in the payments system Intervention (regulation or direct provision) only when the market by itself will not achieve the desired outcome and public policy objectives (market failure) How to ensure users can share the benefits of innovations? What is the appropriate timing of intervention? What is the relative importance of safety versus efficiency? Are there impediments for innovations? Should/can the central bank promote innovations among players in the payment industry? How? What guidelines/policy should policymakers follow when deciding to regulate financial and payment services and provide payment services directly (e.g. Central bank digital currency)? 27

28 Some thoughts People always want to make a trade Hard to find double coincidence of wants; so will need a medium of exchange The medium will evolve over time as needs and technology change One size generally does not fit all 28

29 Conclusions Innovations in retail payments are changing the way we pay and the way to meet users needs The use of cash continues to decline relative to other payment methods and to the size of household spending Central banks should continue to monitor developments in retail payments, understand their implications (on the central bank and the economy), and review their roles regularly Ultimately, consumers make the decision to use the payment method that meet their needs and serves them the best 29

30 ATM was the only financial innovation that has improved society over the past 25 years Paul Volker, former Fed Chairman 30

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