1 Instructional Design: A Postcard View Brian Querry EDTECH 503 Spring 2011
2 List of Postcards SLIDES CONTENT 3-4 The History of Instructional Design 5-6 Definition of "Instructional Design" 7-8 Systematic Approach 9-10 Using Instructional Design Models ID model # ID model # ID model # ID model # ID model # ID model # Constructivism Empiricism Behaviorism Information Processing Theory Relating Instructional Design and Educational Technology 33 References
4 History of Instructional Design In all of my research, I have found it difficult to identify a single event or "product" that launched instructional design. Many writers reference early work in the field relating to Skinner and "programmed instruction", beginning from the time of World War II through the 1950's. In addition, other psychologists and educators, including Robert Gagne, developed training materials for the military. These experts used research, theory, instruction, and learning to develop more effective ways to deliver instruction. Some experts published independent and limited studies as early as 1910, with John Dewey's "How We Think". I chose a picture of a digital map of brain functions. All of the aspects of instructional design focus on different aspects of the learning process and how the human brain processes and sequences learning. This picture is a modern look at the human brain. Though we study the processes of the human brain in this way today, we have studied and observed how the human brain has worked for years.
6 Definition of "Instructional Design" Instructional design is the creation, development, and delivery of information and related activities. The activities that are developed are designed to help students reach specific learning goals. Design of the selected activities is done through careful analysis of the environment and learning structure, strategic planning of targeted steps, and evaluation of the effectiveness of those steps in reaching the target goals. I selected the picture of the face with a blueprint for two reasons. First, the stages of the design process function just like a blueprint, whereas there is an initial analysis, strategic planning of stages and activities, and effective reflection and evaluation on the overall plan. Second, instructional design is directly related to providing a positive outcome for the student. An instructional designer develops the plan, the teacher implements the plan, and the students reap the benefits in reaching instructional goals.
8 Systematic Approach A systematic approach to instructional design approaches the elements in a way where all components have a direct affect on the end result. According to Dick and Carey, "Components such as the instructor, learners, materials, instructional activities, delivery system, and learning and performance environments interact with each other and work together to bring about the desired student learning outcomes". The model addresses instruction as an entire system, focusing on the interrelationship between context, content, learning and instruction. The "Circle of Fifths" is a cycle of musical chords. Throughout the musical alphabet of chords, if you move from chord to chord by the interval of the fifth, you will eventually make a cycle and return to the original chord. This graphic is the only place that all of the chords are seen together, and how they relate. Otherwise, the chords are independent of each other and applied as needed in music composition. As in the systematic approach, the chords are components that, though independent of each other, directly rely on working together to make the entire piece of music what it is.
10 Using Instructional Design Models Instructional designers must anticipate the needs of learners and design instruction that builds in appropriate resources, activities, assessment, feedback, etc. In today's technological society, appropriate delivery mode must also be considered. Instructional design models can be used to guide instructors in creating materials. They can also be used to evaluate existing instruction, or as a guide for general planning. The benefits of using instructional design models outweigh the negatives, regardless of what type of model may be followed. I chose the image of the "education equation" because of both the visual metaphor and the statement on the bottom. First, we've all heard the phrase that our children are our future. We must not only educate them for their future, but educate them using 21st century strategies. The strategies we use go beyond the chalkboard. As the phrase says on the bottom, we have not just a responsibility, but an "opportunity" in educating our children. Using instructional design models is an opportunity to help our children excel.
11 The Smith & Ragan Model
12 ID Model 1 SMITH AND RAGAN The Smith and Ragan model, formalized in 1999, has three phases. First is an analysis of the learners, the task, and the learning environment. Second, one must develop instructional strategies for organizing and managing instruction. Finally, a formal evaluation is conducted to judge the effectiveness of the strategies and tools utilized. This model reflects a systematic, problemsolving process, and the belief that applying such a process can lead to effective, learner-centered instruction.
13 The Gentry Model
14 ID Model 2 GENTRY The Gentry model is a very complex and detailed process. Gentry's model both DEVELOPS components, as well as SUPPORTS components, by considering both during the design process. The development phase has eight components, covering all aspects from a needs assessment clear through evaluation. The support phase addresses five areas that support the development process, including facility integration, budgeting, and personnel. The rationale behind this model is the need for both the development element and all contributing factors to be considered during design.
15 The Bergman and Moore Model
16 ID Model 3 BERGMAN AND MOORE The Bergman and Moore model, published in 1990, was specifically designed with a focus on managing multimedia products. This model focuses specifically on managing the design process. Steps to effectively manage completion of a product starts with providing input, whether it be through a proposal, description, or summary. After completion of necessary activities, groups create the "deliverable" product, and then evaluate the product and process to reaching that product. The model is designed to work effectively in group settings and with multimedia products.
18 ID Model 4 BATES The Bates model was designed with distance learning in mind. This model focuses heavily on pre-planning and a design that allows for flexible activities and pace. The first phase, developing a course outline, involves identifying the target group, content, and teaching strategies. This makes the model very "front-end heavy". The second phase involves selecting media necessary to deliver the content. The third phase highlights developing materials using the selected media to deliver content. The final phase in the course delivery of the materials, content, and media. Other factors, such as cost, available technology, and online housing can affect all aspects of the model.
20 ID Model 5 GERLACH AND ELY The Gerlach and Ely model, though containing several simultaneous steps, is generally considered a linear model. Identifying content and developing objectives happen simultaneously in the development stages of the model. Developing objectives is put to the forefront so that content can be selected that supports the objectives. Subsequently, entering students are assessed, and then appropriate activities, groupings, and strategies are utilized. The model culminates with an evaluation of student performance, analysis of student feedback, then a review of objectives and content.
22 ID Model 6 MORRISON, ROSS, AND KEMP The Morrison, Ross, and Kemp model focuses on curriculum planning. The model focuses on six identifying questions, asked from the perspective of the learner, rather than the designer. This on-going cycle contains nine important elements that can either work independently of each other or together in developing effective instructional design. In this model, the designer can begin at any point, keeping the other factors in mind. The model is appealing to many teachers because of the flexibility in start position. It continues to be developed over time.
24 Constructivism Constructivism is an educational theory that a learner generates knowledge and meaning from an interaction between experiences and their ideas. It is a theory describing how learning happens. The theory of constructivism suggests that learners construct knowledge out of their experiences. The instructor serves in the role of facilitator and guide. A classroom with a constructivist approach advocates that the learner take ownership of the "problem" and the "solution". I chose the image of the conductor for two reasons. First, the role of the conductor in a group is to be not only the leader, but the facilitator of a learning experience in an ensemble setting. Second, the members of an ensemble are not only learning as a group, but they are learning as individuals. While a conductor can provide basic guidance on things like playing together, tempo, dynamics, and expression, it is up to the individual performer to construct their learning. Students in an ensemble must learn to play their part appropriately, observe expressive markings and determine how they should be played, and determine their role as an individual member in an ensemble.
26 Empiricism Empiricism is a theory of learning that focuses on the idea that knowledge comes from experience and experimentation. Empricism emphasizes the important of using artifacts in experimentation, and the evidence that is discovered through such experimentation. One key idea of empricism is the formulation of ideas through a methodical process. The use of hypotheses and scientific method are central to empiricism. In latter years, the idea of empiricism was explored by some theorists in conjunction with rational, concept-based thinking, and how the two can be explored together. I chose the image of a young boy learning to play the trumpet. Learning to play a musical instrument is based on two things - learning basic playing technique and making the instrument "your own". Books may be able to teach correct fingerings and how to hold the instrument, but one does not truly learn to play an instrument well until they have begun playing regularly, experimenting with embouchure and playing technique, and putting the "methodical processes" taught in books into practice.
28 Behaviorism Behaviorism is based on the idea that all things that everything a learner does in the learning process should be regarded as a behavior. Behaviorism takes that stance that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. This conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment of the learner. With this theory, behavior can be studied in a systematic and observable manner. The two major types of conditioning tied to behaviorism are Classical and Operant. In classical conditioning, a naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, with the expectation that the neutral stimulus will eventually work as the naturally-occuring stimulus. In operant conditioning, learning occurs through consequence for behavior, whether that be positive or negative, reward or punishment. The image that I chose for behaviorism is a mouse searching for cheese in a maze. After reading the book "Who Moved My Cheese", I reflected on the realization that change is inevitable. In the book, the mice realize that when the cheese is moved, they have to figure out either where the cheese has gone, or a new way to survive. The mice learned from the behavior they exhibited, as a direct result of their environment. They were conditioned into acting and thinking a certain way.
30 Information Processing Theory The information processing theory developed from traditional psychological study. This theory is based on the idea that the human mind develops as one ages. As a learner gets older, the human brain matures and changes in basic components. The brain adjusts to how it responds to stimuli, and changes in how it processes information it receives. As children grow, the learner develops a heightened ability to process information. Various mechanisms in the human brain allow learners to bring information in, manipulate and dissect it for understanding, and store information necessary for the future. I believe the image I selected is appropriate, because it highlights a wide variety of devices that were and are prevalent to the information age and discipline in which they were presented. From the slide rule to the stethescope, these devices were used as tools in their respective fields to help the user gather and then process information. Though industrialization brought about new means of calculating, sorting and processing information, these tools formatted the basic ideas of the theory. Information is collected, processed, and an applicable response is given, based on the developmental ability of the user and the information provided by the tool utilized.
32 Relating Instructional Design and Educational Technology The term "educational technology" is often used to describe technological tools that are used in an educational setting. However, it is much more than that. Educational technology is often associated with learning theory. Instructional design models cover the processes and systems of learning and instruction, whether with or without technology. Educational technology encompasses not only the tools used, but the 21st century learning strategies implemented to help best utilize those tools. When using 21st century learning strategies, instructional design must often be taken into consideration, and designers must be conscious not only of the environment and the students, but also the available tools and learning strategies that are prevalent and effective for that setting. I chose the image of the teacher with students and technology for two reasons. First, technological tools are an important part of educational technology. Second, how a teacher designs effective use of these tools and designs strategies and activities that will impact students is highly important.
33 References Gagne, R.M. Instructional technology foundations. hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Gustafson, Kent L. and Branch, Robert M. Survey of instructional development models: fourth edition. Syracuse, N.Y.: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology, 2002 Reigeluth, Charles M., ed. Instructional design theories and models: an overview of their current status. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1983.
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