1 CGMB 123 MULTIMEDIA APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT Chapter 7 Instructional System Design Models T.J.Iskandar Abd. Aziz
2 Part I Instructional Design Terms & Definition
3 Objectives 3 Upon completing this section, you should be able to: 1. Definition Of Instructional Design 2. Other Definitions of "Instructional" Words 3. Overview of ID 4. Who are the people involved? 5. Characteristics of Instructional Design 6. Processes in Instructional Design 7. ISD Process 8. ADDIE Model
4 Definition Of ID 4 1. An intellectual process which systematically analyzes the needs of learners and provides features to assist designers construct structured possibilities to responsively address those needs. (Shambaugh & Magliaro, S.G., 1997, p.24) 2. An organized procedure for developing instructional materials or programs which include the steps of analysis (defining what is to be learned), designing specifying how the learning should occur), developing (Authoring or producing the material), implementing using the materials for strategies in context) and evaluating determining the adequacy of instruction). (Barbara & Rita, 1994).
5 Other Definitions of "Instructional 5 Instructional System: An instructional system is an arrangement of resources and procedures to promote learning. Instructional design is the systematic process of developing instructional systems Instructional development is the process of implementing the system or plan.
6 Other Definitions of "Instructional 6 Instructional Technology: Instructional technology is the systematic application of strategies and techniques derived from behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist theories to the solution of instructional problems. Instructional Technology = Instructional Design + Instructional Development Instructional technology is the systematic application of theory and other organized knowledge to the task of instructional design and development.
7 Overview 7 ID involves : Identifying what is needed to be learnt Plan to make sure learning is going on Measuring learning outcomes to test whether our objectives has been met Refine everything including involvement, teaching and strategy until we achieves the objectives
8 Who are the people involved? 8 The person responsible for instructional design effort is called Instructional Designer (or simply known as ID). Instructional Designers should possess the following characteristics: Ability to move from abstract to concrete materials. Ability to attend to details with high tolerance for ambiguity. Ability to accept constructive criticism and to communicate effectively. Ability to produce richer writing skills. Ability to conceptualize a deeper framework for classifying instructional strategies.
9 Who are the people involved? 9 IDs have to work in a team, which may comprises of: Project Manager Instructional Designers Art Director and Graphic Designers, Lead Programmer and Multimedia Programmers, Audio-Video Specialist, Subject Matter Experts. IDs with the appropriate knowledge, skills, and attitude will always be the determining factor in the success of training.
10 Processes in Instructional Design 10 Instructional Design adheres to a set of processes. A famous model for ID process, which is widely used for education and training is the ADDIE model. The model can be classified into five major phases: Analysis Design Development Implementation Evaluation
11 Characteristics of ID 11 I. Selecting contents based on data from empirical study or pre-defined curriculum. II. Teaching Strategy based on learning theory and styles III. Assessment based on standards of achievement. IV. The use of technology to optimize cost and efficiency -CBT methodologies).
12 ISD Process 12 Systematic approach to the Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of learning materials and activities. aims for a learner-centered rather than the traditional teacher-centered approach to instruction, so that effective learning can take place. every component of the instruction is governed by the learning outcomes, which have been determined after a thorough analysis of the learners needs. Phases sometimes overlap and can be interrelated; however, they provide a dynamic, flexible guideline for developing effective and efficient instruction.
13 Instructional design aims for a learner-centered rather than the traditional teacher-centered approach to instruction, so that effective learning can take place. This means that every component of the instruction is governed by the learning outcomes, which have been determined after a thorough analysis of the learners needs. Content Sequencing Learning Outcomes 13 Assessment Methods
14 ADDIE Model 14 The ADDIE Design Model is a generic 5 phase process that can be used in developing any kind of software product. Basically, in the first phase, a thorough analysis of the project is performed. This phase is followed by a design phase. In the third phase, instruction is developed, tested and implemented. In this model, all of the phases involve a process of evaluation and revision (fifth phase).
15 ADDIE Model 15 Analysis Design Development Implementation Delivery & Maintenance Formative Evaluation Summative Evaluation The ADDIE Model is an iterative ID process. The results of formative evaluation of each phase may lead the instructional designer back to any previous phase. The end product of one phase is the starting product of the next phase.
16 Analysis 16 The Analysis phase is the foundation for all other phases of instructional design. During this phase define the problem, identify the source of the problem and determine possible solutions. include specific research techniques such as needs analysis, job analysis and task analysis. The outputs of this phase often include the instructional goals, and a list of tasks to be instructed. These outputs will be the inputs for the Design phase.
17 Design 17 The Design phase use the outputs from the Analysis phase to plan a strategy for developing the instruction. In this phase outline how to reach the instructional goals determined during the analysis phase and expand the instructional foundation. may include writing a target population description, conducting a learning analysis, writing objectives and test items, selecting a delivery system, and sequencing the instruction. The outputs of the Design phase will be the inputs for the Develop phase.
18 Development 18 The Develop phase builds on both the Analyze and Design phases. The purpose of this phase is to generate the lesson plans and lesson materials. During this phase you will develop the instruction, all media that will be used in the instruction, and any supporting documentation. This may include hardware (e.g., simulation equipment) and software (e.g., computer-based instruction).
19 Implementation 19 The Implementation phase refers to the actual delivery of the instruction, whether it's classroom-based, lab-based, or computerbased. The purpose of this phase is the effective and efficient delivery of instruction. This phase promote student s understanding of material, support the student s mastery of objectives, and ensure the student s transfer of knowledge from the instructional setting to the job.
20 Evaluation 20 This phase measures the effectiveness and efficiency of the instruction. Evaluation should actually occur throughout the entire instructional design process - within phases, between phases, and after implementation. Evaluation may be Formative or Summative.
21 Evaluation 21 Formative Evaluation ongoing during and between phases. To improve the instruction before the final version is implemented. Summative Evaluation occurs after the final version of instruction is implemented. Assesses the overall effectiveness of the instruction. Data from the Summative Evaluation is often used to make a decision about the instruction (such as whether to purchase an instructional package or continue/discontinue instruction).
22 Phase 1 Analyze Phase 2 Design Phase 3 Develop Phase 4 Implement Phase 5 Evaluate Analyze System Develop Objectives List Learner Activity Management Plan Internal Evaluation Compile Task Inventory ID Learning Steps Select Delivery System Conduct Training External Evaluation Select Tasks Develop Tests Review Existing Material Revise System Build Performance Measures List Entry Behaviors Develop Instruction Choose Instructional Setting Synthesize 22 Estimate Training Costs Validate Instruction
23 Making The System Effective 23 Early focus on the clients through interviews, observations, surveys Ensure that the clients are made owners of the training program throughout the entire process. If they feel the program is being shoved down their throats the program will fail. The ADDIE five phases should be under one management team to ensure that a symmetrical program is constructed. The design must be an empirical one. This requires observation, measurement of behavior, careful evaluation of feedback, and a strong motivation to make design changes when needed.
24 Making The System Effective 24 The process of implementation, testing, feedback, evaluation, and change must be repeated throughout the training system's life to improve upon it. Do NOT fall into the old adage, "If it ain't broke don't fix it." Make it better before your competitors do! Records must be maintained. The audit trail should contain the data gathered in the analysis, the reasons for developing a piece of courseware, and documents that explain why certain decisions were made. This information could prove invaluable in the future when changes are needed or when a similar program must be built.
25 Benefits of the ISD Process 25 The learner s knowledge and performance are increased. Training time and cost per student are reduced. ISD helps keep training targeted and effective!
26 Part II ID Models
27 Objectives 27 Upon completing this section, you should be able to: 1. To describe the classifications of ID models 2. To identify terms and concepts of various ID models 3. To identify the various ID models Dick & Carey, Hannafin & Peck, Knirk & Gustafson, Gerlach & Ely, Rapid Prototyping, Layers Of Necessity, Jarrold Kemp
28 What is ID Models? 28 simulation of a process, concept or operation provide procedural framework guidelines / sets of strategies for teaching represent real situation / reality explain complex systems shows things that we might overlook overview of design process
29 Classification - Context 29 Instructional design is normally directed toward one of four contexts. These are: Secondary education, higher education, business training and government training.
30 Classification - Purposes & Uses 30 Instructional Design Models can be used to produce material ranging from modules for lessons, courses in a college curriculum or public health education for an entire population. Some models of instructional design can also be used to teach instructional design.
31 DICK & CAREY Model 31 This model describes all the phases of an interactive process that starts by identifying instructional goals and ends with summative evaluation It also uses a systems approach for designing instruction It is similar to designing instruction of software engineering It is applicable across a range of context areas and users
32 32 DICK & CAREY Model
33 DICK & CAREY Model 33 Dick & Carey Model can be divided into 9 stages: Stage 1: Instructional Goals Stage 2: Instructional Analysis Stage 3: Entry Behavior and Learner Characteristics Stage 4: Performance Objectives Stage 5: Develop Assessment Instruments Stage 6: Instructional Strategy Stage 7: Instructional Materials Stage 8: Formative Evaluation Stage 9: Summative Evaluation
34 DICK & CAREY Model 34 Stage 1: Instructional Goals Conduct needs assessment. Determine what is it that you want learners to be able to do when they have completed the instruction. Need Analysis is analysis of a discrepancy between an instructional goal and the present state of affairs or a personal perception of needs.
35 DICK & CAREY Model 35 Stage 2: Instructional Analysis The procedure applied to an instructional goal and results in the identification of the relevant steps for performing a goal and the subordinate skills required for a student to achieve the goal. Step 1: Classify the goal into 4 domains of learning: psychomotor skills, verbal information, intellectual skill and attitude. Step 2: Identify major steps the learners must do to achieve the goals in a most efficient order.
36 DICK & CAREY Model 36 Stage 3: Entry Behaviors and Learner Characteristics Analyze learners present skills, preferences and attitudes, characteristics of the instructional setting and setting in which the skills will eventually be used. Analyze Intellectual skills, abilities such as verbal comprehension and spatial orientation and traits of personality. Purpose: To determine which of the required enabling skills the learners bring to the learning task
37 DICK & CAREY Model 37 Stage 4: Performance Objectives Write specific statements of what the learners will be able to do when they complete the instruction. Purpose : To translate the needs and goals into specific and detailed objectives. Determine : who is the learner, what is it that the learner should be able to do, the conditions when learners carries out the task and the criteria to evaluate learners performance
38 DICK & CAREY Model 38 Stage 5: Develop Assessment Instruments Develop assessment to measure learner s ability to perform what is described in the objectives. Criterion-referenced test it is serve to test and evaluate student s progress, and provide information on the effectiveness of instruction. Test items should correspond to the instructional objectives.
39 DICK & CAREY Model 39 Stage 5: Develop Assessment Instruments When designing a test: Determine mastery level. Determine number of items. Determine types of items. Constructing test items. Sequencing test items. Writing directions. Evaluating tests and items
40 DICK & CAREY Model 40 Stage 6: Instructional Strategy Include : pre-instructional activities presentation of information practice and feedback Testing follow-through activities. The choice of strategy is dependent on current knowledge of learning research, learning process, content, learners. Purpose : To outline how instructional activities will relate to the accomplishment of the objectives.
41 DICK & CAREY Model 41 Stage 6: Instructional Strategy Instructors role instructors should use individualized materials, design and adapt existing materials and instructor s delivery of information. The best learners design: Demonstrating knowledge about the learners, tasks reflected in the objectives, and effectiveness of teaching strategies. Subject first draft to formative evaluation, avoid developing expensive and elaborate mediated materials until evaluation is carried out.
42 DICK & CAREY Model 42 Stage 7: Instructional Materials Choose existing materials or develop new materials, which typically include a learner s manual, instructional materials, tests and instructor s guide. Purpose: To select printed or other media intended to convey events of instruction. Use existing materials. The need for development of new materials. Role of teacher depends on the choice of delivery system
43 DICK & CAREY Model 43 Stage 8: Formative evaluation One-to-one: One evaluator with one learner to interview. Small-group: Determine effectiveness of changes made from one-to-one evaluation and identify remaining learning problems in the absence of instructor. Field Trial: Implement in context closely resemble those for ultimate use of instructional materials, determine if changes in small group evaluation are effective and determine if it is possible to implement the instruction administratively. Purpose : To provide data for revising and improving instructional materials. Revise the instruction so as to make it as effective as possible for larger number of students.
44 DICK & CAREY Model 44 Stage 9: Summative Evaluation Identify difficulties in achieving the objectives, revision to each stage of instructional development. Purpose : To study the effectiveness of system as a whole. Conducted after the system has passed through its formative stage. Can be big scale or small scale and long period or short period.
45 45 HANNAFIN & PECK Model
46 KNIRK & GUSTAFSON Model 46 It appears that the model is simple in its design but inclusive of details and tries to convey this inclusiveness through circles and arrows. It is a small scale model, which means that it can be used for individual lessons or units. One of the weaknesses of the Knirk and Gustafson s (1986) design model is that the focus on evaluation and development seems to be very late in the process
47 47 KNIRK & GUSTAFSON Model
48 GERLACH & ELY Model 48 Vernon S. Gerlach and Donald P. Ely created the Gerlach and Ely model (1980) with the idea that the average teacher was an instructional designer. The model takes on a systematic approach to teach and learn with most of the necessary elements contributing to instruction included. According to Dr. Ely, the model has stood the test of time and serves the classroom teachers well (Ely, 2003).
49 49 GERLACH & ELY Model
50 RAPID PROTOTYPING Model 50 Tripp & Bichelmeyer (1990)
51 LAYERS OF NECESSITY Model 51 Wedman and Tessmer
52 KEMP s model 52 It takes a holistic approach to instructional design. Virtually all factors in the learning environment are taken into consideration. The factors are subject analysis, learner characteristics, learning objectives, teaching activities, resources (computers), support services and evaluation. The process is iterative and the design is subject to constant revision.
53 KEMP s model 53 JARROLD KEMP
54 Conclusion 54 Although some find ID models inflexible and rigid, one can take the stance of Tessmer and Wedman (1990). The reason there are so many ID models is because of this need for flexibility. So we have a choice, change a key aspect of any previous model and call it a new one or realize that each time we choose to take on a new instructional problem with learners that necessarily are different from each other and one's we have met before we will ultimately create a new ID model unique and appropriate for our needs at the time.
55 Conclusion 55 Many types of models developed by designers. All have the following components : identifying and analyzing instructional problems or need planning and designing a solution to an instructional problem or need acquiring or developing and producing the solution to the problem implementing the solution in the educational setting evaluating and revising the solution based on feedback for final integration into the curriculum.
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