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1 EURASIAN UNIVERSITIES UNION Academic JOURNAL Winter ISSN: Volume:3, No:1, Winter 2015 Istanbul/Turkey

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3 CONCESSIONNAIRE ON BEHALF EURAS Dr. Mustafa AYDIN Eurasian Universities Union President EDITOR IN CHIEF Muzaffer BACA Eurasian Universities Union EDITORIAL BOARD Kurban Kurbanmagamedov, The Institute Of Moscow State Open University, Dagestan Saimat Salmanova, The Institute Of Moscow State Open University, Dagestan Firuz Demir Yaşamış, American University in Emirates, UAE Anastas Angjeli, Mediterranean University Of Albania, Albania Fabio L. Grassi, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy Zeynep Banu Dalaman, Istanbul Aydin University, Turkey Sulo Haderi, Mediterranean University Of Albania, Albania Mahdieh Aghazadehkhoei, İstanbul Aydın University, Turkey Tabagari Sergo, David Tvildiani Medical University, Georgia Aurelian A.Bondrea, Spuri Haret University, Romania Özüm Sezin Uzun, Istanbul Aydin University, Turkey Georgescu Stefan, Andrei Saguna University, Romania Filiz Katman, Istanbul Aydin University, Turkey Agron Beka, European Collage Juridica, Kosovo Judit Hidasi, Budapest Business School, Hungary Ibrahim Gashi, University of Prishtina, Kosovo Zafer Aslan, Istanbul Aydın University, Turkey Kürşat Güleş, Selçuk University, Turkey Avdi Smajljaj, Epoka University, Albania Ateş Uslu, Istanbul University, Turkey Faisal Aftab, Bahria University, Pakistan Bekir Çınar, Epoka University, Albania

4 EDITORIAL OFFICE Euras Secretariat EURAS TEAM Dr. Mustafa AYDIN, President Muzaffer BACA, General Secretary Han TEZKANLI, General Coordinator İpek ÇALIŞIR, Communication Coordinator Miraç ŞAHIN, Project Coordinator DESIGN The Visual Design Department of Istanbul Aydin University PUBLISHER Eurasian Universities Union (EURAS) ISSN: ADDRESS Beşyol Mah. Inönü Caddesi No: 38 Sefaköy, Küçükçekmece Istanbul / TURKEY Tel: Fax: Website: Academic Journal is an international peer reviewed journal published quarterly. The opinions, thoughts, postulations or proposals within articles are but reflections of authors do not, in any way, represent those of Eurasian Universities Union.

5 CONTENT Editorial Muzaffer BACA Youth Gangs: Not Just an American Phenomenon Prof.Dr.Finn-Aage ESBENSEN Arbitration Conflict Resolution in Antiquity (500 Bc- 350bc) Adil CALAP - Özcan ERDOĞAN Quantum Jumps in Renewable Energy Technologies Prof.Dr.Hayrettin KILIÇ The Arab Spring Balance of Power in Middle East Marian ZIDARU-Stefan GEORGESCU Clustering G-20 Countries Using Euclidian Method Fuzzy Logic Esra DEMİR - Çiğdem ÖZARI Iran s Foreign Policy Approach Towards Central Asia Caucasus Mahdieh AGHAZADEH Unpacking Crime Over Life Course: Causes of Offending in a High Risk Sample of Women Lee Ann SLOCUM - Sally S. SIMPSON Students Social Mobility in Dialogue of Education Culture in Modern University Leila Munirova

6 Dr. Mustafa AYDIN The President of Eurasian Universities Union

7 EURASIAN UNIVERSITIES UNION ACTIVITIES IMPACT ON THE REGION IS OBVIOUS Eurasian Universities Union, established in 2008, managed to promote intellectual capacity of region contributed by best for educational capacity building. By networking more than 80 prominent universities all over region we managed to transfer knowledge best practices between member universities benefit m from experiences that ir partners benefited. By organizing regional conferences as in Dubai, Bucharest, Baku Komrat we managed to draw attention of international stakeholders on education to issues related with se regions mobilize m for better results. Through students academicians exchanges, cultural interaction between members was highest priority it helped for strengning bilateral relations promoting peace in our region. Involving prominent leaders to Leaders Conferences programs we launched helped very much to introduce regional strategic importance to World. Our publications, conferences projects will be a step forward to intensify our activities in more areas as transforming EURAS to a regional play maker on educational capacity building development. Main targets of new re-scheduling must be promotion of peace dialogue in region through universities whom we are encouraging to take part in a more actively way for settlement of issues as democratization, human rights, worldwide regional peace, environment cultural sustainability. Eurasian Universities Union proved its capacity on such structuring invites all members to mobilize ir academic network student s capacity for more accurate concentrated to regional issues campaigns. The region, hosting 2/3 of World population must have a more powerful voice, at least on academic sphere, for world events submit its opinion intellectual treasure to influence se events for brooder benefit of humankind eliminate in-equalities on worldwide extend. We do believe that EURAS Journal will continue to be a platform to submit research academic papers of our academicians to world intellectual circles prove once again that we academicians of Eurasian Region are capable to generate projects programs not only affecting our region but on worldwide basis. Dr. Mustafa AYDIN EURAS President

8 THE GREAT GREEK PHILOSOPHER DEMOCRITUS SAYS (What we Think We Become)...It is reality of life. If you don t dream you can t develop yourself or contribute to humanity. Eurasian Universities Union was our dream for years. It was for developments prosperity of nations that lost great race of development in 20th Century. When launched EURAS founding members were just seven, from Turkey, Azerbaijan, Romania Moldova. WE organized our last General Assembly on 7th November 2014 members are 84.. Our prominent new members as La Sapienza University from Italy, a University operating for centuries have increased our capacity for contributing to academic capacity of EURAS. We have new members from all over Eurasia as from Afghanistan, Philippines, South Korea, UK or far east Asian territories. We became a very powerful family with a strong voice concerning regional issues settlements we are offering through our scientific academic infrastructure. Through conferences we are organizing on regional basis we are focused to influence 8 Volume:3, No:1, Winter 2015

9 public opinion for better solutions involvement. By launching a new member status-observer member, we started to involve United Nations, World Bank, European Union, OSCE or international organizations to activities of Eurasian universities Union. That integrated EURAS in a more powerful way to World agendas. As an example we organized Conference about (Security of Europe Turkey Role) toger with OSCE in Istanbul. For Year 2015, we will focus mostly on regional issues in Balkans, Caucasus Central Asia. In this framework conferences about Balkan interests are organized in Tirana, Belgrade Istanbul. This year we are planning Annual Youth Festival of EURAS in a member country we are waiting for cidate member s to inform us about ir plans involvement capacity. As EURAS What we thought we become.. It is now turn of our members with ir great ideas proposals to develop our activities capacity EURAS General Secretariat is keen to implement m With my best regards Muzaffer BACA Secretary General Volume:3, No:1, Winter

10 Youth Gangs: Not Just an American Phenomenon Prof.Dr.Finn-Aage Esbensen Department of Criminology Criminal Justice University of Missouri-St. Louis ABSTRACT Gang research has a long history in United States gangs are often portrayed as an American problem. Much of gang literature gang lore would lead one to believe that stereotypical gang is organized, hierarchical, territorial, racially/ethnically homogeneous that gang members are male, members of racial/ethnic minority groups concentrated in economically socially marginalized neighborhoods. These stereotypes have contributed to a belief that gangs are not found in a number of communities in USA or in or countries. The truth of matter is that gangs come in many shapes sizes gang members represent communities in which y reside. A relatively recent emergence of comparative multi-method research conducted as part of Eurogang Program of Research suggests that gangs not only exist throughout world but that y are remarkably similar in terms of gang gang member characteristics. Youth Gangs: Not Just an American Phenomenon Gang research in United States of America can be traced back to seminal work by Thrasher (1927). Over ensuing years, most gang research has relied on case studies (including ethnographies, in depth studies of individuals /or groups) that have provided rich, descriptive accounts of gang members gangs. More recently, largely stimulated by work of Walter Miller in 1970s, gang researchers drew from law enforcement data to address extent nature of gangs associated illegal activity. Journalists mass media have also been intrigued with gangs have introduced general population to gangs (including gangs of American Wild West, such as Jesse James gang in Midwest Hole in Wall Gang featuring Butch Cassidy Sundance Kid but also including more current images introduced in films such as Colors in Gangsta Rap videos). Many of ethnographic contemporary journalistic accounts have focused on gangs in traditional gang cities including Chicago, Los Angeles, New York City. These various sources of information have contributed to a 10 Volume:3, No:1, Winter

11 stereotypical image of gangs gang members: members are generally viewed as males of racial/ethnic minority status residing in impoverished urban settings (see, for example, work of Esbensen Tusinski, 2007). One over-riding notion is that se gangs are an American phenomenon that does not exist in or nations. The past 25+ years have witnessed a shift in gang research. Survey methodology, including cross-sectional longitudinal studies utilizing in-person interviews of youth in general samples, self-administered questionnaires completed by students in school, interviews with incarcerated samples, has been incorporated into study of gangs. Findings from se research projects have challenges stereotypical picture of gangs gang members (Esbensen Huizinga, 1993; Esbensen Winfree, 1998; Fagan, 1989; Thornberry et al., 1993). While gang research has a long history tradition in USA, re is a lack of consensus about what constitutes a gang or a gang member. These definitional issues have received considerable attention (for a review of definitional debate, consult Curry et al., 2014; Klein Maxson, 2006). One common refrain used by law enforcement representatives defies definition relies on description: if it walks like a duck, talks like a duck, looks like a duck; it s a duck. This approach of relying upon physical characteristics of potential gang members may have some utility but caution must be urged. True, some gangs gang members have denotable characteristics such as favoring one color (often blue or red), specific tattoos h signals to identify members, wearing specific clothing. But, with dissemination of culture language through mass media social media, such clothing styles, tattoos, or gang symbols have been adopted by non-gang youth. So, while it may look like a duck, it may not be a duck. This reliance upon descriptive characteristics could well result in an over-identification of youth as gang involved. A better approach to defining gangs gang members is required. One potential definition is provided by US Department of Justice. DOJ developed a working definition of a gang as a group or association of three or more persons who may have a common identifying sign, symbol, or name who are involved in criminal activity which creates an atmosphere of fear intimidation (GAO, 2009). This definition continues to rely on descriptive characteristics, which could be used to identify sports teams such as Swiss National Football team. The inclusion of involvement in criminal activity creates an atmosphere of fear intimidation begins to narrow scope of interest but may still include groups that would not or should not be considered gangs. This is a rar important issue given introduction of 2 Volume:3, No:1, Winter

12 enhanced sentencing guidelines for gang-involved crimes /or crimes committed by gang members. Being identified as a gang member can result in many more years in prison. With such real-world consequences, it is essential that label of gang member be correctly applied. I will return to this topic later in this chapter. As mentioned above, re has been continues to be debate about how to define gangs gang membership. Researchers in American context have adopted self-nomination method. Similar to self-reported delinquency, researcher relies upon study participant to indicate wher or not y are a gang member. This self-nomination technique (also used by law enforcement) has proven to be particularly robust, especially in American gang research (see, for example, Esbensen et al. 2001). However, how well does such an approach work in different languages different cultures? Gangs Outside of USA During 1990s gangs gang culture proliferated. At same time USA experienced a drastic increase in youth violence, drug sales, overall homicide rate. Some suggest that se two phenomena were inter-related that gangs were involved with distribution of crack cocaine that this drug trade was particularly violent (see, for instance, volume by Blumstein Wallman, 2000). Two Los Angeles-based gangs, Bloods Crips, contributed to notion that gangs were establishing satellite sets while creating a national drug crime distribution network. Gangsta rap was widely disseminated music videos popularized gangster look (e.g., wearing specific colors, wearing a hat in a certain manner, hanging a bana out of your pocket, sagging your pants, etc.) leading to impression that gangs were developing everywhere. The question raised by se wannabes was wher y were real gangs gang members or simply imitating this American phenomenon. By mid- to late 1990s, gang research in United States had exped beyond traditional gang cities found that gangs gang-involved youth were found in a variety of settings, including large urban areas, suburbs small cities, even in rural areas (e.g., Egley et al., 2004; Esbensen Peterson Lynskey, 2001). Several researchers wondered if or countries, especially within Europe, were experiencing this same emergence or identification of gangs (e.g., Klein et al., 2001). In an attempt to address this question, a group of approximately 50 researchers policy makers from USA throughout Europe convened a workshop in In course of this three-day meeting, it became clear that in order to answer this question, re would be 3 12 Volume:3, No:1, Winter 2015

13 a need for agreement on a definition as well as more systematic research. Some European researchers commented: we don t have gangs like you do in US. This was an interesting observation because it highlighted extent to which those individuals were responding to stereotypical image of gangs presented in media not empirical reality that not all gangs are large, hierarchical, organized, territorial. This initial meeting in Germany led to formation of Eurogang Program of Research which has produced a number of research instruments (Weerman et al., 2009) as well as four volumes describing gang research in Europe United States as well as several comparative research projects (e.g., Decker Weerman, 2005; Esbensen Maxson, 2012; van Gemert et al. 2008; Klein et al., 2001). Over course of four years (five meetings numerous telephone exchanges), this group of researchers agreed on a nominal definition of gangs: a street gang is any durable, street-oriented youth group whose involvement in illegal activities is part of its group identity. This definition incorporates following defining elements of a gang. The group must consist of 1) 3 or more people, 2) who are mostly between ages of years of age, 3) spend a lot of time in public places, 4) been in existence for more than 3 months,, importantly, 5) accept actually participate in illegal activity. One objective of this definition was to define key elements of a gang rar than description of characteristics. Early research conducted by se international scholars tended to be qualitative accounts similar to those produced by American ethnographers studying gangs. These case studies tended to mirror findings from American qualitative research that had been traditionally conducted in single sites (usually New York, Chicago, Los Angeles but also including St. Louis) confirmed impression that gangs were disproportionately male immigrant groups. Some examples of se studies follow. In Nerls, van Gemert (2001) described a Moroccan gang thusly: Of 24 members all are Moroccan with exception of a Dutch, a Surinamese, a Dutch Philippine boy three non-moroccan boys are Moroccanized. Mares (2001) described group he studied in Manchester, UK as (a)bout 80 percent of gang members are of ethnic descent, mostly Afro-Caribbean. Lien s (2001) description of Oslo gangs furr highlights ethnic status of members: Immigrant gangs, both homogeneous multiethnic, represent a new phenomenon that has emerged during eighties. The most famous of se is a gang composed of Pakistani youths called Young Guns. came to attention of media through a series of fights with or gangs, among m a Pakistani group called Killers, a Filipino gang called Outsiders. 4 Volume:3, No:1, Winter

14 In addition to agreeing on a common definition, Eurogang Program of Research also encouraged researchers to adopt instruments that had been developed for use in multi-method, multi-site studies (Weerman et al., 2009). The importance of multiple methods research is underscored by ethnographic studies that, like ir American counterparts, focused attention on males racial/ethnic minorities. To what extent were se studies representative of gangs in those countries? The quotes from qualitative research highlight similarity to media generated picture. However, a growing body of research finds that gang members are representative of communities from which y hail (Esbensen Carson, 2012). As survey studies have moved beyond traditional gang cities out of high-risk neighborhoods included wider representation of youth, emerging picture is not consistent with stereotypical picture painted by media or even that depicted in qualitative research. For example, studies have increasingly identified girls in gangs, ranging from around 25% to 50% with norm being more in 33% range. Studies in USA, UK, Denmark, Norway, Italy, Germany, Nerls ( recently also in China Trinidad Tobago) consistently report that girls account for one quarter to one-half of all youth gang members (Bendixen et al., 2005; Esbensen Weerman, 2005; Gatti et al., 2011; Huizinga Schumann, 2001; Pedersen Lindstadt, 2012; Pyrooz et al., 2012; Weerman, 2012). These largely school-based surveys conducted in numerous nations during past decade also cast doubt on notion that gangs consist primarily of immigrant or minority youth. Klein concluded that While both scholars practitioners often specify gang differences according to ethnic backgrounds or neighborhood (community) characteristics, my own experience a good deal of research suggest that group processes trump ethnicity neighborhood (2012:296). In ir comparison of gang-involved youth in Nerls USA, Esbensen Weerman (2005), for instance, found native born Dutch to be proportionately represented in youth gangs. In addition to sex ethnic background of gang members relative to non-gang members, various studies utilizing Eurogang definition have reported presence of youth gangs in all nations studied. The prevalence rates vary but generally hover between five 10 percent of youth being classified as gang involved. The International Self-Report Delinquency study was conducted in 30 nations across globe. They report gang prevalence rates ranging from a low of 0.4 to a high of 16.8 percent (Gatti et al., 2011; Haymoz et al., 2013). Clearly American phenomenon of youth gangs is not exclusively domain of American setting. Gangs Delinquent Behavior 5 14 Volume:3, No:1, Winter 2015

15 The prevalence rates vary but generally hover between five 10 percent of youth being classified as gang involved. The International Self-Report Delinquency study was conducted in 30 nations across globe. They report gang prevalence rates ranging from a low of 0.4 to a high of 16.8 percent (Gatti et al., 2011; Haymoz et al., 2013). Clearly American phenomenon of youth gangs is not exclusively domain of American setting. Gangs Delinquent Behavior 5 One of reasons that gangs are of interest to researchers practitioners is that y commit a disproportionate amount of crime. You will recall from Eurogang definition that a defining element of that definition was that it was okay to commit illegal acts that doing so was part of group identity. Some might argue that this aspect of definition makes it tautological to say that gang members are more delinquent than non-gang members. Two points are relevant: 1) difference in offending rates exist even when involvement in illegal behavior is not part of definition (e.g., Esbensen et al., 2001) 2) order of magnitude in differences in offending rates is such that it cannot be attributed solely to definitional issues. Several studies have found that gang boys girls commit approximately four times as many offenses as ir non-gang counterparts but ratio increases with severity of offending (Esbensen Weerman, 2005; Huizinga Schumann, 2001; Pedersen Lindstadt, 2012). In American context, two large studies reported that gang members in those samples, while accounting for a minority of sample, accounted for more than 75 percent of violent offenses (Huizinga et al., 2003; Thornberry, 1998). It is important to note that gang girls are also engaged in delinquent activity of gang; y are not just affiliates who st by while boys fight. One factor that has been related to levels of offending by gang members is sex composition of gangs. To date, only studies in US Nerls have examined this feature but results were similar. First, a minority of gangs are exclusively male or female. The relative distribution of girls boys in gangs seem to influence group dynamics, including delinquency. Female offending is higher among girls who are in majority male gangs rar than sexbalanced gangs. Likewise, boys in sex balanced gangs commit fewer crimes than those in majority male gangs (e.g., Peterson et al., 2001; Peterson Carson, 2012; Weerman, 2012). Gang Member Stability The gang effect With introduction of longitudinal studies including gang involved youth, researchers have been able to examine a number of issues associated with gang membership. For example, what are risk factors contributing to joining a gang? What are consequences of leaving gang? Are youth delinquent prior to joining gang or does gang facilitate delinquent involvement? While cross-sectional studies of youth can provide a lot of information provide a snapshot of ir lives, longitudinal studies allow for examining changes stability over time. Two early panel studies (that is, following same individuals across time) highlighted fact that gangs enhance youths involvement in crime. While gang members had slightly higher rates of delinquency prior to joining gang, those rates skyrocketed during time youth was in gang n declined 6 Volume:3, No:1, Winter

16 upon leaving gang (Esbensen Huizinga, 1993; Thornberry et al., 1993). Since publication of se findings, y have been replicated in or panel studies conducted in US (Battin et al., 1998; Gordon et al., 2004; Melde Esbensen, 2011, 2013, 2014; Peterson et al., 2004; Thornberry et al., 2003), Canada (Gatti et al., 2005), Norway (Bendixen et al., 2005). In addition to identification of enhancement effect, se studies highlighted fact that gang membership is a relatively transient experience for most gang youth. Contrary to media generated myth that once in a gang, in a gang for life or blood in, blood out, most gang youth were members of gang for less than one year (Esbensen Huizinga, 1993; Thornberry et al. 1993, 2003). Risk Factors On important question is: why do youth join gangs? In preceding sections of this chapter, it has been noted that gangs are found in a variety of settings in all nations studied. These gang youth are representative of larger adolescent population majority of youth who join a gang, remain in gang for a relatively short period of time. Are youth who join gangs in some way different from those youth who do not? To answer this question, researchers have examined risk factors that may be predictive of gang joining. To date, most of this research has been conducted in USA but re is a growing body of research in Europe that suggests that risk factors as similar across different national contexts (e.g., Bendixen et al., 2004; Esbensen Weerman, 2005; Pedersen Lindstadt, 2012) Risk factors are generally categorized into five different domains: neighborhood, family, school, peers, individual. To date, risk factors in all five domains have been linked to gang joining youth are at greater risk more risk factors y possess across different domains (see, for example, Esbensen et al., 2010). Risk factor research is hindered by fact that different researchers employ different measures of similar concepts but an important finding is that regardless of how risk factors are operationalized, y tend to produce same or similar results. In ir comparative research, Esbensen Weerman (2005) examined factors associated with gang membership in a sample of students from USA anor from Nerls. To measure parental monitoring Dutch students responded to following three questions: 1) At home, I have to do what my parents say; 2) I know what is what is not allowed for me at home; 3) My parents know where I go to outside home. In contrast, American students responded to following four questions: 1) When I go someplace, I leave a note for my parents or call m to 7 16 Volume:3, No:1, Winter 2015

17 tell m where I am; 2) My parents know where I am when I am not at home or at school; 3) I know how to get in touch with my parents if y are not at home; 4) My parents know who I am with if I am not at home. In spite of se different measures, concept of parental monitoring is identified as a risk factor in both samples. Or risk factors that have very similar patterns in two studies include: peer delinquency peer pressure, parental attachment, school commitment, impulsivity, risk seeking, moral attitudes. To date, similar risk factors have been identified in studies conducted in USA, Nerls, Denmark, Canada, China. Summary In this brief chapter I have addressed several mes related to phenomenon of youth gangs. First, definition matters: just because it walks like a duck, looks like a duck, quacks like a duck, doesn t mean it s a duck. It is important to have defining elements that move beyond sheer description of a gang. In American context, self-definition works well. For comparative research, however, a common definition that identifies key characteristics that distinguish gangs from or groups is necessary. The Eurogang Program of Research provides one definition that has received considerable support (http://www.umsl.edu/ccj/eurogang/euroganghome.html). Just as definition matters, so too does research methodology. Single methods can provide important information but researchers will benefit from incorporating multiple methods. Such an approach will provide, for instance, a broad overview of gang situation using school-based surveys while obtaining more nuanced contextual information by incorporating ethnographic /or expert surveys. While history of gang research has tended to report on single-method, single-site research, it is important for understing youth gang problem to include not only mixed/multiple methods but to include multiple sites within nations across nations. To date, studies have suggested considerable robustness consistency in nature extent of gang problem. Prevalence rates, when using a common definition, indicate gangs exist to varying degrees in all nations studied. Interestingly, especially given stereotypes, girls account for a sizable percentage (generally around 30 35%) of gang members. And, based on relatively recent research, or stereotypical depictions of youth gangs are called into question: 1) Gangs are not solely a minority or immigrant problem; 2) Gangs are found outside of economically distressed urban areas; 3) A common set of risk factors appear to be associated with gang membership; 4) Involvement in delinquent behavior especially violence is closely associated with gang joining; 8 Volume:3, No:1, Winter

18 5) Gang membership is a transitory stage in adolescence that is, average youth belongs to gang for less than one year. Much has been learned with respect to youth gangs during past two decades. Continued collaboration expansion of research to more countries will help to establish if youth gang phenomenon transcends all national boundaries or if cultural societal differences persist. To date, emerging comparative research holds promise, as we move forward, perhaps this comparative approach will be successful in identifying strategies to reduce prevalence negative consequences of youth gangs. REFERENCES 1. Battin, Sara R., Karl G. Hill, Robert D. Abbott, Richard F. Catalano, J. David Hawkins. (1998). The Contribution of Gang Membership to Delinquency beyond Delinquent Friends. Criminology 36: Bendixen, Mons, Inger M. Endresen, Dan Olweus. (2006). Joining Leaving Gangs. 3. Selection Facilitation Effects on Self-Reported Antisocial Behaviour in Early Adolescence. 4. European Journal of Criminology 3: Blumstein, Albert Joel Wallman. (2000). The crime drop in America. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 6. Curry, G, David, Scott H. Decker, David C. Pyrooz (2014). Confronting Gangs; Crime Community, 3 rd edition, New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 7. Decker, Scott H. Frank M. Weerman (2005), European Street Gangs Troublesome Youth Groups. Alta Mira Press. 8. Egley, Arlen, Jr., James C. Howell, Aline K. Major. (2004). Recent patterns in gang problems in United States: Results from National Youth Gang Survey. Pp in Finn-Aage Esbensen, Stephen G. Tibbetts, Larry Gaines (eds.) American Youth Gangs at Millennium. Long grove, IL: Wavel Press. 9. Esbensen, Finn-Aage Dena Carson. (2012). Who Are Gangsters?: An examination of age, race/ethnicity, sex, immigration status of self-reported gang members in a seven city study of American youth. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 28: Esbensen, Finn-Aage David Huizinga (1993). Gangs, drugs, delinquency in a sample of urban youth. Criminology 31: Volume:3, No:1, Winter 2015

19 11. Esbensen, Finn-Aage Cheryl L. Maxson. (2012), Youth Gangs in International Perspective: Results from Eurogang Program of Research. New York, NY: Springer. 12. Esbensen, Finn-Aage Dana Peterson Lynskey. (2001). Youth Gang Members in a School Survey. Pp in Malcolm Klein, Hans-Jurgen Kerner, Cheryl Maxson, Elmar Weitekamp (eds.) The Eurogang Paradox: Street Gangs Youth Groups in U.S. Europe. Amsterdam: Kluwer Press. 13. Esbensen, Finn-Aage, Dana Peterson, Terrance J. Taylor, Adrienne Freng. (2010). Youth Violence: Sex Race Differences in Offending, Victimization, Gang Membership. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. 14. Esbensen, Finn-Aage Karin Tusinski. (2007). Youth gangs in print media. Journal of Crime Popular Culture 14: Esbensen, Finn-Aage Frank M. Weerman. (2005). A Cross-National Comparison of Youth Gangs Troublesome Youth Groups in United States Nerls. European Journal of Criminology 2: Esbensen, Finn-Aage L. Thomas Winfree, Jr. (1998). Race Gender Differences between Gang Nongang Youth: Results from a multisite survey. Justice Quarterly 15: Esbensen, Finn-Aage, L. Thomas Winfree, Jr., Ni He, Terrance J. Taylor. (2001). Youth Gangs Definitional Issues: When is a gang a gang, why does it matter? Crime Delinquency 47: Fagan, Jeffrey. (1989). The social organization of drug use drug dealing among urban gangs. Criminology 27: Gatti, Uberto, Srine Haymoz, H. Schadee. (2011). Deviant Youth Groups in 30 Countries: Results from second international self-report delinquency study. International Criminal Justice Review 16: Gatti, Uberto, Tremblay, R. E., Vitaro, F., & McDuff, P. (2005). Youth Gangs, Delinquency Drug Use: A Test of Selection, Facilitation, Enhancement Hyposes. Journal of Child Psychology Psychiatry 46: van Gemert, Frank. (2001). Crips in Orange: Gangs groups in Nerls. Pp in Malcolm Klein, Hans-Jurgen Kerner, Cheryl Maxson, Elmar Weitekamp (eds.) The Eurogang Paradox: Street Gangs Youth Groups in U.S. Europe. Amsterdam: Kluwer Press. 22. van Gemert, Frank, Dana Peterson, Inger-Lise Lien. (2008). Youth Gangs, Migration, Ethnicity. Willan Publishing. 10 Volume:3, No:1, Winter

20 23. Gordon, Rachel A., Benjamin B. Lahey, Eriko Kawai, Rolf Loeber, Magda Stouthamer- Loeber, David P. Farrington. (2004). Antisocial Behavior Youth Gang Membership: Selection socialization. Criminology 42: Haymoz, Srine, Cheryl L. Maxson, Martin Killias. (2014). Street Gang Participation in Europe: A comparison of correlates. European Journal of Criminology 11: Huizinga, David Karl F. Schumann, (2001). Gang Membership in Bremen Denver: Comparative longitudinal data. Pp in M.W. Klein, H.-J. Kerner, C.L. Maxson, E.G.M Weitekamp (eds.) The Eurogang Paradox: Street gangs youth groups in U.S. Europe. Dordrecht, Nerls: Kluwer Academic Publishing. 26. Huizinga, David, Anne W. Weiher, Rachelle Espirutu, Finn-Aage Esbensen. (2003). Delinquency Crime: Some highlights from Denver Youth Survey. Pages in Terence P. Thornberry Marvin D. Krohn (eds.) Taking Stock of Delinquency: An overview of findings from contemporary longitudinal studies. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. 27. Klein, Malcolm W. (2012). The Next Decade of Eurogang Program Research. Pages in Finn-Aage Esbensen Cheryl L. Maxson (eds.) Youth Gangs in International Perspective: Results from Eurogang Program of Research. New York: Springer. 28. Klein, Malcolm W., Hans-Juergen Kerner, Cheryl L. Maxson, Elmar G.W. Weitekamp (2001), The Eurogang Paradox: Street Gangs Youth Groups in U.S. Europe. Amsterdam: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 29. Klein, Malcolm W. Cheryl L. Maxson. 2006). Street gang patterns policies. New York City, NY: Oxford University Press. 30. Lien, Inger-Lise. (2001). The Concept of Honor, Conflict Violent Behavior among Youths in Oslo. Pp in Malcolm Klein, Hans-Jurgen Kerner, Cheryl Maxson, Elmar Weitekamp (eds.) The Eurogang Paradox: Street Gangs Youth Groups in U.S. Europe. Amsterdam: Kluwer Press. 31. Mares, Dennis, (2001). Gangstas or Lager Louts? Working class street gangs in Manchester. Pp in Malcolm Klein, Hans-Jurgen Kerner, Cheryl Maxson, Elmar Weitekamp (eds.) The Eurogang Paradox: Street Gangs Youth Groups in U.S. Europe. Amsterdam: Kluwer Press. 32. Melde, Chris Finn-Aage Esbensen. (2011). Gang Membership as a Turning Point in Life Course. Criminology 49: Volume:3, No:1, Winter

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