Kundiman love songs from the Philippines: their development from folksong to art song and an examination of representative repertoire

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Kundiman love songs from the Philippines: their development from folksong to art song and an examination of representative repertoire"

Transcription

1 University of Iowa Iowa Research Online Theses and Dissertations 2015 Kundiman love songs from the Philippines: their development from folksong to art song and an examination of representative repertoire Quiliano Niñeza Anderson University of Iowa Copyright 2015 Quiliano Nineza Anderson This dissertation is available at Iowa Research Online: Recommended Citation Anderson, Quiliano Niñeza. "Kundiman love songs from the Philippines: their development from folksong to art song and an examination of representative repertoire." DMA (Doctor of Musical Arts) thesis, University of Iowa, Follow this and additional works at: Part of the Music Commons

2 KUNDIMAN LOVE SONGS FROM THE PHILIPPINES: THEIR DEVELOPMENT FROM FOLKSONG TO ART SONG AND AN EXAMINATION OF REPRESENTATIVE REPERTOIRE by Quiliano Niñeza Anderson An essay submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Musical Arts degree in the Graduate College of The University of Iowa August 2015 Essay Supervisor: Professor John Muriello

3 Copyright by QUILIANO NIÑEZA ANDERSON 2015 All Rights Reserved

4 Graduate College The University of Iowa Iowa City, Iowa CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL D.M.A. ESSAY This is to certify that the D.M.A. essay of Quiliano Niñeza Anderson has been approved by the Examining Committee for the essay requirement for the Doctor of Musical Arts degree at the August 2015 graduation. Essay Committee: John Muriello, Essay Supervisor Stephen Swanson William La Rue Jones Susan Sondrol Jones William Theisen

5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to acknowledge my voice professor and mentor, Dr. John Muriello for guiding me during my research on Kundiman art songs. I have learned much about this scholarly work and have been inspired to do more research in this topic. Secondly, I would like to thank Dr. José Uriarte, D.M.A. graduate in Piano Performance from the University of Minnesota and private piano instructor at McPhail Center for the Arts, Minneapolis, MN, for his language expertise and contributions in proof-reading my text translations of the Kundiman art song selections in my essay. I would also like to thank Dr. Colleen Jennings for her encouragement and making it possible for me to become acquainted with Dr. Raymond Leslie Diaz, a Senior Lecturer at the University of the Philippines and Voice Faculty member at St. Scholastica s College in Manila. His unique knowledge and experience with the International Phonetic Alphabet system as it relates to the Tagalog language has given me a deeper insight in transcribing the special nuances in the pronunciation of the Tagalog language. Last but not least, I would like to thank my mother, Mrs. Josie Anderson, for inspiring me and exposing me to numerous Filipino folk songs and Kundiman songs since I was a child in the Philippines. She has been a great resource on my Tagalog language translations. Her love for singing has made me what I am today. ii

6 PUBLIC ABSTRACT In the Philippines, a type of love song known as the Kundiman had existed since the early 19 th century. But in the early 20 th century Kundiman had developed into art song. The term Kundiman comes from the Tagalog phrase kung hindi man or if it were not so. Written in the Tagalog language, these folksongs were subtly patriotic but typically disguised as love songs. Filipinos, in their long struggle against an oppressive Spanish regime, saw it as a tool that would ultimately unite Filipino revolutionaries to wage war against the Spaniards in 1896 during the Spanish-American War. The composer Francisco Santiago ( ) is sometimes called the Father of Kundiman Art Song. While his masterpiece is considered to be his Concerto in B flat minor for pianoforte and orchestra, one of his most significant piece is his song Kundiman, (Anak- Dalita), the first Kundiman art song. Santiago regarded the Kundiman art song as something that expresses the lofty sentiment of love, and even heroism in a melancholy mood. Given the cross-fertilization of Spanish and Filipino cultures in the 19 th century, Kundiman art songs were typically a blend of melodic material from native folksong and European music traditions. The result is a song characterized by smooth flowing lines and beautiful melodies. The piano accompaniments are typically full in texture, sometimes containing countermelodies, sometimes merely harmonizing with the vocal line in thirds and sixths. One other significant early composer of Kundiman art songs was Nicanor Abelardo ( ). His songs, together with those of Santiago s became models for other Filipino composers such as Constancio De Guzman ( ) and Miguel Velarde, Jr. ( ) in the decades following Abelardo s death. The purpose of this essay is to shed some light on this unique genre of song, and provide the tools necessary to study and perform these representations of Filipino culture and history. To iii

7 do this, I have provided brief background information on the origins of Kundiman art song. I have also provided a guide to pronunciation, grammar and the idiosyncracies of the Tagalog dialect. Finally, this essay contains a performance guide for 20 representative Kundiman art songs, including original texts, literal and prose translations, International Phonetic Alphabet (I.P.A.) transcriptions, and suggestions for interpretation and style. In researching and analyzing these songs I have gained an understanding of the aesthetic appeal of Kundiman art songs. More importantly, these songs are not widely known in the classical world. But because of their unique connection to Filipino history and culture, they deserve serious attention. These songs would indeed make a great addition to a recital program. iv

8 Table of Contents List of Music Examples... vii List of Figures... viii Chapter One: Introduction... 1 Kundiman: Beginnings and Influences... 1 A Cultural Melting Pot: Inspiration for the study of Kundiman art songs... 3 Need for study... 4 Methodology... 4 Literature Review... 5 Santos, Ramon Pagayon, Tunugan: Four Essays on Filipino Music, (Quezon City: University of the Phlippines Press), Hila, Antonio C., Music in History: History in Music, Manila: University of Santo Tomas Press, 2004, pp Chapter Two: Background on the origin of Kundiman... 8 Philippine Culture: Beginnings and Transformation... 8 Earliest Existence of Kundiman Songs... 9 Spanish Influence in Music and Culture Nationalism in Kundiman From Folksong to Art Song: Francisco Santiago and Nicanor Abelardo Chapter Three: A Brief Description of the Tagalog language Consonant sounds Vowel sounds Syllabic stress Reduplication Affixes Tagalog Grammar Gender Chapter Four: A Performance Guide to 20 Representative Kundiman Art Songs Notes on analyses and interpretation Song Selections Kundiman by Francisco Santiago / text by Deogracias A. Rosario Pakiúsap by Francisco Santiago / text by Jose Corazon De Jesus Madaling Araw by Francisco Santiago / text by Jose Corazon De Jesus Ano Kayâ Ang Kapalaran Music and text by Francisco Santiago Kung Hindî Man Music and text by Nicanor Abelardo Nasaán Ka Irog? by Nicanor Abelardo / text by Jose Corazon de Jesus v

9 7. Pahimakas by Nicanor Abelardo / text by Jose Corazon De Jesus Bituing Marikit by Nicanor Abelardo / text by S. Angeles Himutok Music and text by Nicanor Abelardo Ikaw Rin! Music and text by Nicanor Abelardo Kundiman by Bonifacio Abdon / text by Pat Mariano Bayan Ko (My Country) Music and text by Constancio De Guzman Babalik Ka Rin Music and text by Constancio De Guzman Ang Tangì Kong Pag-íbig Music and text by Constancio C. De Guzman Dáhil Sa Iyó by Miguel Velarde, Jr. / text by Dominador Santiago Lahat Ng Araw by Miguel Velarde, Jr. / text by Dominador Santiago Ugoy Ng Duyan by Lucio San Pedro / text by Levi Celerio Hindî Kitá Malímot Music and text by Josefino Cenizal Ang Una Kong Pag-íbig Music and text by Francisco Buencamino Ulila Sa Pag-íbig by J.S. de Hernandez / text by Deogracias A. Rosario Conclusion Appendix A Copyright Permissions Documentation Appendix B Vowel and Consonant Sounds in Tagalog Interview with Dr. Raymond Leslie Diaz: Bibliography vi

10 List of Music Examples Music Example 1: May Isang Bulaklak Na Ibig Lumitao Music Example 2: Kundiman: Cancion Filipina Music Example 3: Kundiman: Cancion Filipina Music Example 4: Pakiúsap Music Example 5: Pakiusap - B section Music Example 6: Pakiusap - A section Music Example 7: Madaling Araw Music Example 8: Madaling Araw Music Example 9: Ano Kaya Ang Kapalaran Music Example 10: Ano Kaya Ang Kapalaran Music Example 11: Leron-Leron Sinta Music Example 12: Ano Kaya Ang Kapalaran Music Example 13: Ano Kaya Ang Kapalaran Music Example 14: Santiago s Kundiman in Music Example 15: Kung Hindi Man Music Example 16: Kung Hindi Man - B section Music Example 17: Nasaan Ka Irog? Music Example 18: Nasaan Ka Irog Music Example 19: Pahimakas Music Example 20: Pahimakas Music Example 21: Bituing Marikit Music Example 22: Bituing Marikit Music Example 23: Himutok Music Example 24: Himutok Music Example 25: Himutok - B section Music Example 26: Ikaw Rin! Music Example 27: Kundiman Music Example 28: Bayan Ko Music Example 29: Bayan ko Music Example 30: Babalik Ka Rin Music Example 31: Babalik Ka Rin - B section Music Example 32: Ang Tángi Kong Pag-íbig Music Example 33: Ang Tángi Kong Pag-íbig Music Example 34: Dahil Sa Yo Music Example 35: Dahil Sa 'Yo Music Example 36: Lahat Ng Araw Music Example 37: Lahat Ng Araw Music Example 38: Ugoy Ng Duyan Music Example 39: Hindi Kita Malimot Music Example 40: Ang Una Kong Pag-ibig - A section Music Example 41: Ang Una Kong Pag-ibig - B section Music Example 42: Ang Una Kong Pag-ibig - C section Music Example 43: Ulila Sa Pag-ibig vii

11 List of Figures Figure 1: Consonant Sounds Figure 2: Affixes Figure 3: Pronouns viii

12 Chapter One: Introduction Kundiman: Beginnings and Influences The term Kundiman translates from the Tagalog as if it were not so. But I would interpret this phrase as if it were only to signify a lover s wish to be united with his or her beloved. Kundiman folksongs came into being in the early 19 th century as love songs that originated from the Tagalog-speaking regions in the Batangas province of the Philippines. When the Spaniards arrived in the Philippines in 1521, Western influence became an important part in the early development of Kundiman folksongs. Spanish colonization brought Christianity and Spanish culture to the Filipino people. But it was also their plan to assimilate Filipinos into Spanish culture. They did not make an effort to preserve the customs and traditions of the Filipino people. However, as Filipinos assimilated Western influences brought about by Spain, they realized that they could actually write songs that pertained to their own culture and began to incorporate Spanish music styles into their own. It was in this sort of crossfertilization that the first Kundiman folksong, Kundiman Ng (Of) 1800 was created by an anonymous composer in But the cultural and religious changes imposed upon the Filipino people were met with a growing resistance that led to a revolt in Filipino revolutionaries, led by the katipunan movement (a secret society of Filipino revolutionaries let by Andrés Bonifacio ( )), waged war against the Spanish regime. 2 The revolution came to an end when the United States, seeing that the katipuneros revolutionaries were no match against the 1 Antonio C. Hila, Music in History, History in Music; (Manila: UST Publishing House, University of Santo Tomas, 2004) p Raul M. Sunico, Mga Awit Ng Himagsikan: Songs of the Philippine Revolution, , (Quezon City: Tawid Publications. 1997). p. iii. 1

13 Spanish army, stepped in and helped defeat the Spaniards during th e Spanish-American war of 1898 at the Battle of Manila Bay. 3 It was during this time that the revolutionaries used Kundiman folksongs to inspire unity and nationalism among the Filipinos. And while Kundiman folksongs are largely about love and courtship, the songs often contained undertones of subtle nationalism, and a yearning for liberty. The typical themes of unrequited love found in Kundiman songs became symbols of the chains of Spanish oppression. The songs therefore provided the inspiration for Filipinos not only to gain their freedom from foreign rule, but also to create a national identity. It is ironic that U.S. annexation of the Philippines began a year later in Now within an American educational system, Filipinos learned both English and Tagalog (the newly designated national language of the Philippines.) Additionally, buoyed by the continued exposure to Western music and culture by way of such visiting performers as violin virtuosos Eduard Reményi (1886), Mischa Elman (1921), Yehudi Menuhin (1948), guitar master Andrés Segovia (1929), pianists Jan Kubelík (1929) and Rudolf Friml (1933), and cellist Pierre Fournier (1949), Kundiman art songs couldn t help but take on the vestiges of Western music. 5 The strong educational system established by the United States contributed to quality music training at the newly established University of the Philippines in The Conservatory of Music Annex was later established in As music education in the Philippines strengthened over the next several years, there was a push to preserve the country s beautiful 3 Ibid., p. vi. 4 Teodoro Agoncillo, Philippine History. Manila: Inang Wika Publishing Co., 1969, p Ramon Pagayon Santos, Tunugan: Four Essays on Filipino Music, (Diliman, Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2005), p. 3. 2

14 culture. To that end a group of faculty members from the University of the Philippines formed a committee in 1934 to collect folksongs and dances from the various regions of the country. Interestingly, Francisco Santiago made significant contributions to this project by setting them to music notation and harmonizing many of the folksongs. The significance of these folksong harmonizations became apparent as other Filipino composers began to follow the examples of Santiago and Nicanor Abelardo by using segments from folksongs and converting them into art songs. It wasn t until 1946 that the Filipino nation gained its independence from U.S. sovereignty. Nonetheless, throughout these periods of turmoil and uncertainty, Kundiman folk songs were the underlying thread that accompanied the Filipino struggles for independence. A Cultural Melting Pot: Inspiration for the study of Kundiman art songs Filipino culture itself is a melting pot of various indigenous peoples. They live in separate regions or provinces each with their individual dialects and traditions. The dialects spoken in the various regions are distinct enough to be considered individual languages. Indeed, people from different regions typically cannot understand one another beyond common words from the Spanish language. To further add to this multiculturalism, centuries ago the neighboring countries of China and Malaysia established long lasting trade exchanges with the Philippines even before the Spanish occupation in the mid-16 th century. Yet, since the U.S. annexation of the country in the early 20 th century, Tagalog became the official language of the Philippines. However, the Philippines has had a long history of cultural pluralism, and it is appropriate for them to have a representative blend of these cultures in their art and music. 3

15 Need for study Kundiman art songs are not well known among Western musicians, yet they are a significant representation of the merging of Filipino folksong and Western Music traditions. Because of the historical significance of Kundiman art songs in the Philippines, these songs stand as an interesting repertoire of music that would appeal to singers who are interested in songs from a different culture. By virtue of their multicultural form, the distinctiveness of these songs will provide a refreshing change of pace for the adventurous art song recitalist. With these songs I hope to educate musicians, specifically vocalists, and expose people to Kundiman art songs and their reflections of the pluralism found within the Philippines. Methodology In order to understand and perform a Kundiman art song well, particularly given the relative obscurity of Philipino language, history and culture to Westerners, I will provide brief background information on the origins of Kundiman. The majority of Kundiman art songs texts are in Tagalog, the principle dialect of the Filipino language. A brief discussion of Tagalog that includes the origin of the dialect, some basic rules of grammar and word structure, and a phonetic description of Tagalog pronunciation are necessary. A performance guide to 20 representative Kundiman art songs by various Filipino composers is included. The guide includes literal and poetic translations, and I.P.A. transcriptions of each song text. For each song, I will offer my own thoughts and interpretive ideas in order to shed light on some subtle nuances in the songs, and thus make the performance of the songs more authentic. No such performance guide to the Kundiman art song repertoire currently exists. And while the songs discussed in this essay are but a small fraction of the repertoire, this guide can serve as the beginning steps into this exciting new area of the art song genre. 4

16 Literature Review Santos, Ramon Pagayon, Tunugan: Four Essays on Filipino Music, (Quezon City: University of the Phlippines Press), A current scholar on Filipino music, Ramon Pagayon Santos, wrote four essays about Filipino music in Tunugan: Four Essays on Filipino music. Santos describes how the Kundiman song genre became elevated into art song status, with the help of Francisco Santiago and Nicanor Abelardo. The works of both of these composers were milestones in the development of Kundiman art song. Both were also music directors at the Conservatory of Music at the University of the Philippines when it was first established in Santos continues to describe early accounts of Nicanor Abelardo s ( ) biography. Abelardo was considered a young prodigy, composing and performing piano as early as eight years old. He was able to experience performances by various Western artists who visited and gave concerts in the Philippines. Abelardo began his formal music training at the University of the Philippines in 1916 studying composition, receiving a teacher s certificate in He later became Director of Composition at the University of Philippines Music Conservatory. Abelardo was known for his Kundiman art songs, and like Santiago, he was able to elevate the genre of Kundiman folk song into an art song with his output between 1920 and Abelardo also wrote overtures, piano sonatas, a cavatina for violin and piano, a nocturne, and various short compositions. 6 Abelardo s first Kundiman art song and one of the song selections in this essay, Kung Hindî Man (If It Were Not So) in 1920 is based on a melodic fragment from a folk song. The piano accompaniment generally follows the contour of the melody. The inner voices of harmony 6 Ocampo, Ambeth, Ang Buhay At Musika Ni Maestro Nicanor Abelardo, (Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines, 1980), p.25. 5

17 run in contrary motion to the melody. Abelardo set the text to music, making the piano accompaniment match the declamation of the text and creating text painting. 7 His subsequent song compositions showed a more mature technique of text painting with more interplay between text and music. He also used various ranges in the piano to achieve tone colors that match the text. 8 The Conservatory of Music at the University of the Philippines became a venue for introducing Western Music tradition under the colonization of the United States in the late teens through the 1920s. 9 This essay describes the development of Kundiman art song from its early beginnings as folk songs in the early 1800s to its transformation to art song genre in the 1920s and 1930s. Francisco Santiago and Nicanor Abelardo were instrumental in developing Kundiman into a genre of art song, thanks to their formal music training at the University of the Philippines as well as their studies abroad. They have succeeded in creating a unique representation of Filipino culture through the incorporation of Western influence and traditional Filipino folksongs. Hila, Antonio C., Music in History: History in Music, Manila: University of Santo Tomas Press, 2004, pp Hila s chapter on Defining the Nationalist Tradition in Philippine Music begins by describing nationalism in the early 20 th century that was essentially a protest against anything that was foreign. In the 1930s, Francisco Santiago had already reached the peak of his 7 Ramon Pagayon Santos, Tunugan: Four Essays on Filipino Music, (Diliman, Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 2005), p Ibid., p Ibid., p

18 productivity with his Kundiman art songs. Noted poets were being used for song texts as well as using text painting to enhance the collaboration between music and text. The two resources outlined above represent the current principle scholarship on Kundiman song. They provide useful background information on the origins of Kundiman, as well as its significance in Filipino history and culture. However, neither resource provides the necessary information to perform these songs, particularly crucial guidance with the Tagalog language, stylistic information and suggestions for interpretation for the singer unfamiliar with the language or the style. Through my translations and some help from my mother, Josie Anderson, a speaker of Tagalog, I have made music analyses as well as performance guides for interpreting each of the song selections. 7

19 Chapter Two: Background on the origin of Kundiman Philippine Culture: Beginnings and Transformation Anthropological studies have shown that a developed Filipino culture had existed prior to the arrival of the Spaniards in Furthermore, archeological excavations have found evidence of tools that date back to the Stone Age and the Bronze Age. The early period of the Philippines consisted of the Negritos tribe migrating from Southeastern Asia. The Indonesians and the Malays followed between 200 and 1500 C.E. In addition, Chinese merchants were known to have traded goods with Filipino natives beginning in the 10 th century, indicating a thriving commerce as well as a variety of ethnicities in the Philippines. 10 However, historical records of the Philippines have been greatly limited because of the way their history was recorded. Cultural traditions had been handed down through generations but were written down on perishable materials such as bamboo, leaves and tree bark. 11 As a result, ancient records were lost. Furthermore, when the Spaniards came in 1521 they saw little value in Filipino culture and history, and did nothing to preserve what records existed. With Spanish colonization came the spread of Catholicism among the Filipinos. Franciscan and Jesuit missionary priests taught Filipinos about their religion and Western culture. 12 Christian celebrations such as Easter and Christmas depended upon the use of singers and instrumentalists. Spanish clergy trained the Filipinos to read and play music, and to make musical instruments such as violins, guitars, flutes, and an organ constructed from bamboo. Hymns and chants composed by friars were written in Latin as well as in the native 10 Raymundo C. Bañas, Filipino Music and Theatre, (Quezon City: Manlapaz Publishing Co., 1969), p Ibid., p Antonio C. Hila, Music in History: History in Music, (Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House, 2004), p. 4. 8

20 languages of the various regions. Such music training proved to be invaluable to the advancement of Catholicism in the Philippines. At the peak of Spanish occupation in the early 19 th century, western secular music was also taught to Filipinos, and was received with great enthusiasm. Perhaps more than religious music training, it was through secular music education (typically Spanish dances such as the habañera, danza, and marcha or paso doble) that Kundiman began as a Filipino folksong tradition. 13 The introduction of Western music cultivated an environment for vibrant musical creativity in the Philippines. Earliest Existence of Kundiman Songs The word Kundiman had its beginnings in the early 19 th century. There are three theories as to how the word Kundiman first began. The first theory claims that Kundiman was mentioned in a song composition containing the word, cundiman (Kundiman lullaby). 14 A second theory asserts that origin of Kundiman, simply first appeared in the title of the song, Kundiman Ng 1800 (Kundiman of 1800). A third theory claims that Kundiman was a red piece of cloth worn by males during rituals of dance performances. But the relationship of this cloth to Kundiman folksong is not precisely known. It is possible that it grew out of the Kumintang, a type of war song that was sung as part of festivities that honored triumphant warriors. Kumintang later developed into a more plaintive type of song that accompanied a dance performed by a man and a woman involving a fermented drink. A sexual connotation is implied with this dance. This was performed usually before a 13 Ibid., p Ibid., p

21 battle, hummed by the aborigines to strengthen the courage of the warriors. 15 Eventually the Kumintang was probably replaced by Kundiman folksongs because of their popularity, representing a new Filipino folk song tradition. Spanish Influence in Music and Culture With the influx of Spanish music and culture, Filipinos began to realize how important it was to transcribe their own folk music. They began to create their own music within the formal education they received from the Spaniards. Filipinos created music that imitated many Spanish song genres. These folksongs were a spontaneous kind of song that was created by people who were not formally trained in music. In most cases writers typically remained anonymous. But overall, the influence of Spanish culture was a vital ingredient of Kundiman folksongs. 16 An example of this influence is found in the song, May Isang Bulaklak Na Íbig Lumitao (1800) translated There is one flower that wishes to float up. Emilia S. Cavan arranged the music excerp song from a harmonization realized by This harmonization by Francisco Santiago in Notice the tempo marking adopts a habañera style (a dance that originates from Cuba) (see Music Example 1). 15 Raymundo C. Bañas, Pilipino Music and Theater, (Quezon City: Manlapaz Publishing Co., 1975), Antonio C. Hila, Music in History: History in Music, (Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House, 2004), p

22 Music Example 1: May Isang Bulaklak Na Ibig Lumitao 17 Nationalism in Kundiman There were two significant events in the late 19 th century that would spur the Filipino people to rise up against the four century-long oppressive rule by Spain. In 1872 three Filipino 17 Emilia Cavan. "Filipino Folk Songs / Collected and Arranged by Emilia S. Cavan ; Harmonized by Francisco Santiago." Filipino Folk Songs / Collected and Arranged by Emilia S. Cavan. Accessed March 12, text;view=image. p

23 priests were executed for their part in a small revolt by shipyard workers in Cavite. Then in 1896, the novelist Dr. Jose Rizal ( ) was executed by firing squad for his published criticism of the oppressive rule of the Spaniards. His fearless indictment of the treatment of Filipinos appeared in his novels, an even in some of the Kundiman songs he wrote, such as Kundiman Ni Rizal (Kundiman of Rizal). Truly, the tongue and heart are silenced, for the country has been oppressed, conquered, and made to yield. Because of the neglect of the colonizers freedom is lost, happiness has died. Truly, happiness has died. 18 Rizal s execution eventually led to an uprising in 1896 that culminated in the end of Spanish rule and the eventual annexation of the Philippines by the United States. All during these tumultuous years, Kundiman folksongs were a potent vehicle for the emotional life of Filipinos as they struggled against oppression from foreign rule. From Folksong to Art Song: Francisco Santiago and Nicanor Abelardo Francisco Santiago described Kundiman art song as a song that expresses the lofty sentiment of love, and even heroism, in a melancholy mood. 19 Inspired by the work of Santiago, composer Nicanor Abelardo published his first Kundiman art song in Like Santiago, he was a music instructor at the Conservatory of Music at the University of the Philippines. After his teaching career at the Conservatory, Abelardo studied composition at the 18 Raul M. Sunico, Mga Awit Ng Himagsikan = Songs of the Philippine Revolution of (Quezon City, Philippines: Tawid Publications, 1997), p Hila, Antonio C., Music in history, history in music, (Manila: UST Publishing Press, 2004), p.7. 12

24 Chicago Musical College in the United States, where he refined his compositional skills, and brought greater sophistication to this new genre of song. 20 These two pioneers of the genre would inspire other Filipino composers after them to write Kundiman art songs, nurturing a nationalistic music trend that lasted until the outbreak of the 2 nd World War. 20 Ramon Pagayon Santos, Tunugan: Four Essays on Filipino Music, (Quezon City: The University of the Philippines Press, 2005), p

25 Chapter Three: A Brief Description of the Tagalog language The Philippine archipelago is made up of over seven thousand islands whose inhabitants lived in relative isolation for centuries. Because of this there exist some one hundred seventyfive varying dialects within the eight major cultural-linguistic groups Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Tagalog, and Waray-waray. 21 While some of the dialects have common words, many are different enough to cause considerable language barriers. These different dialects in the Philippines, therefore, are more accurately described as languages. In 1939 Tagalog was designated the national language, as it was spoken by the most influential segments of Philippine society. It has been taught in the public schools since the late 1930s. Today more than half the Filipino population understand Tagalog, although not everyone can speak it fluently. The original Tagalog script was used by Tagalog speakers in the period before the Spanish colonization. They used an Indic syllabary consisting of three vowels and fifteen consonants. The Latin letters promptly replaced the original Tagalog script when the Spaniards arrived in the mid-1500s. The three vowels used previously by the Indic syllabary were now replaced by five vowels. The ancient vowel symbol was replaced by /e/ and /i/; vowel symbol was replaced by /o/ and /u/; and vowel symbol was replaced by /a/. 22 Modern Tagalog uses 20 letters as illustrated in the alphabet below: A B K D E G H I L M N NG O P R S T U W Y 21 William R. Pfeiffer, Indigenious, Folk, Modern Filipino Music, (Dumaguete City: Silliman Music Foundation, Inc., 1976), p Carl R. Galvez Rubino, Tagalog-English, English-Tagalog Dictionary (Revised and Expanded Version), (New York, NY: Hipprocrene Books, Inc. 2002). p

26 The letters C, F, J, Q, V, X and Z do not exist in Tagalog, and K really is the third letter of the alphabet. In addition, the frequently occurring consonant sound [ŋ] exists as its own letter NG. 23 Further examples of vowel and consonant sounds with specific word examples are found in Appendix B. An important aspect of Tagalog pronunciation is the glottal stop, wherein the affected vowel sound is abruptly cut short. There are many instances where this stop occurs. As it is beyond the scope of this essay to list them all, I advise the reader to refer to a reliable dictionary such as the Hippocrene Standard Dictionary, edited by Carl. R. Galvez Rubino. In this particular resource the glottal stop is indicated by a circumflex accent above the stopped vowel. The IPA transcriptions of the songs discussed in this essay also indicate where a glottal stop should occur with the phonetic symbol [ʔ]. 23 Ibid., p

27 Consonant sounds A note about Tagalog consonants: spoken Tagalog uses consonants in a way that makes the flow of speech sound somewhat percussive. It is not as liquid as Italian. This has to do with the short duration of the vowels. The vowel /a/ for instance will often move quickly towards a nasalized /n/, or a dental, labial, bi-labial or plosive consonant. In addition, many words will also have a glottal sound within a word. Some will appear in words that end with a vowel that must be pronounced with a glottal stop, such as luha [lu.haʔ] (tear) or po [poʔ] (sir). A combination of all these factors creates an overall atmosphere of sound that is percussive in nature. It is important to keep these linguistic nuances in mind when singing Kundiman art songs. Figure 1 is designed to help the reader understand the various consonant sounds and glottal stops that are common in Tagalog language. 24 Voicing Bilabial Dental/ Alveo-palatal Velar Glottal Alveolar Stops - p t (ts, t(i)y) [tʃ] k [ʔ] + b d (dy) [ʤ] g Fricatives - s h Nasals + m n (ny) [ɲ] ng [ŋ] Laterals + l Trill/Flap + (r) Glides + w y Figure 1: Consonant Sounds Carl R. Galvez Rubino, Tagalog-English, English-Tagalog Dictionary (Revised and Expanded Version), (New York, NY: Hipprocrene Books, Inc. 2002), p Ibid., p

28 Vowel sounds Tagalog has five vowels. These are pronounced the same as English: a [a] e [e] i [i] o [o] u [u] The vowels /a/ and /i/ occur more frequently than the vowels /e/, /o/ and /u/. According to Professor Raymond Leslie Diaz, Senior Lecturer at the University of the Philippines, Diliman and Voice Faculty member at St. Scholastica s College in Manila, there are just five vowels in the Filipino language but one may hear several versions of any vowel depending on regional/dialect, social and educational factors. 26 He describes the vowels as follows: [a] is the Filipino ah vowel. It is very similar to the Italian [a] [ɛ] open eh can sometimes be heard as closed [e]. Diaz believes that the open [ɛ] is closer to a closed [e] and definitely not like the Italian open [ɛ] as in bella [bɛl:la]. [i] is the standard Filipino [i] vowel. [o] is more of a closed [o] rather than an open [ɔ] [u] is the same as the Italian [u] Diphthongs (vowels with two sounds, as in ride and dual ) occur less frequently, except in words that contain glides such as pamilya [pa.ˈmil.ja] (family) and bumbilya [bum.ˈbil.ja] (lightbulb). Neighboring vowels are separated by a glottal sound. The word babae [ba.ˈba.ʔe] or woman illustrates this. Another example, kaíbigan [ka.ʔi.ˈbi.gan] or 26 Raymond Leslie Diaz. "International Phonetic Alphabet Transcription of Tagalog." interview by author. May 19,

29 friendship has two vowels in the first syllable. The first vowel /a/ is followed by a glottal /i/. It does not form a diphthong; for example, boot and deer. Syllabic stress The stress in a word generally falls on either the last or penultimate syllable. Stressing the correct syllable is quite important in Tagalog because the meaning of a word can change depending on which syllable is being stressed. Reduplication Reduplication is repetition of a word or word segment to augment or diminish its meaning. For example, the word mahiyahiya (from hiya or to be ashamed ) repeats the last two syllables of the word. In this instance, reduplication diminishes the potency of the the word and its meaning becomes to be a little ashamed. 27 Affixes To modify the meaning of a word, Tagalog uses a variety of prefixes, suffixes and infixes (an affix placed in the middle of a word). 28 The following examples illustrate the use of affixes in the Tagalog language: 27 Ibid., p Ibid., p. 9 18

30 Prefixes: kaipagi- di- (with hyphen) Examples: ka-tuwaan (from tuwaan), ka-looban, ka-pangalan ipag-tagumpay (from tagumpay), ipag-tawa, ipag-buwis i-hadlang, i-galang, i-damit di-mataba, di-maari, di-malayo Infixes: -in- b-in-asa (past tense of read, from root word basa) h-in-intay (past tense of wait, from hintay). Suffixes: - an ting-an (from tingin) sulat-an (from sulat) -ero, -era (Spanish) basur-ero (addition of suffix makes basura (garbage) into a garbage man, the noun form. -ado (Spanish) muskul-ado (changes muskul into an adjective, muscular ) kontrol-ado (changes kontrola into an adjective, kontrolado (controlled)) Figure 2: Affixes 19

31 Tagalog Grammar Unlike English, Tagalog sentences usually begin with the predicate phrase in front followed by the subject. For example, Kumakain sila (They are eating) has a predicate verb phrase kumakain in the beginning of the sentence and subject sila at the end. A literal translation would read, eating-are-they. In some cases the subject begins the sentence but will have a linking verb ay (am) after it: Ako ay mayaman (I am rich). However, this particular example of a subject-predicate order would not apply to Kumakain sila. It would be grammitcally improper to say, Sila ay kumakain (They are eating). A prefix will determine the meaning of a sentence. When using negation, the word hindî is simply added in front of the phrase or sentence: Hindî kumakain ang mga bata (The children are not eating). When asking a question beginning with the word What, ano (what) is placed in front of the sentence: Ano ang kinakain ng mga bata? (What are the children eating?). When asking yes or no questions, the word ba (then) is inserted after the first word of the sentence: 29 for example, Kumakain ba ang mga bata? (Are the children eating?) Sometimes ba can be placed after the second word of a sentence; for example, Kumakain ka ba? (Are you eating?) To make a word plural, the article mga is added in front of the word: mga plus noun. This is illustrated in the following example: mga Pilipino (the Filipinos). When using articles and determiners, the words ang (singular form of the ), mga and ang mga (plural form of the ), are placed in front of the noun that they modify. Personal forms include the words si and sina or ni, niná, kay, and kiná as an indirect object article 29 Ibid., p

32 and/or determiner. Their equivalent words in English are his, her or their. The determiners si and sina have no corresponding word in English. Gender Gender specific pronouns do not exist in native Tagalog, except for words that were borrowed from Spanish with o and a endings. These denote masculine and feminine forms. But generally masculine and feminine pronouns (he/she, him/her) are given the same word. The following table shows the translation of pronouns and their cases in Tagalog: 30 Pronoun Topic Genitive Oblique I akó ko sa akin You (fam.) ikaw ka, mo sa iyó s/he siyá niyá sa kaniyá we (excl.) kami naming sa amin we (incl.) tayo natin sa atin you (pl, pol.) kayó ninyó sa inyó they silá nilá sa kanilá Figure 3: Pronouns 31 Like most languages, Tagalog has many idiosyncrasies. This overview should help in understanding some basic structures of the language. There now remains the challenge of 30 Ibid., p Ibid. 21

33 authentic pronunciation. The IPA transcriptions in Chapter Four will serve as a guide to achieving an authentic declamation of the Tagalog text. 22

34 Chapter Four: A Performance Guide to 20 Representative Kundiman Art Songs Notes on analyses and interpretation As a performance guide, I have included my own translations and pronunciation guides using the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) system. These are especially helpful for non- Tagalog speakers in pronouncing each word and expressing them with some authenticity. The IPA is a very useful tool in helping to understand the linguistic nuances of the Tagalog language. The genre of Kundiman includes Tagalog language, Visayan language and other regional dialects that are spoken in various islands of the Philippines. However, I have excluded these other dialects of Kundiman from my essay in order to focus specifically on Tagalog Kundiman. I decided to choose works mainly by Francisco Santiago (4) and Nicanor Abelardo (6) because of their significance in this genre. Seven other composers were included to show a range in compositional styles. Most of the songs in the following selections are in public domain. However, those songs requiring permissions are noted in the music examples. Please refer to Appendix A for Permission Letters. The songs discussed can be obtained via WordCat, which is an online reference source. 23

35 Song Selections 1. Kundiman by Francisco Santiago / text by Deogracias A. Rosario Ako y anak ng dalita At tigib ng luha Ang naritong humihibik Na bigyan ang awa Buksán mo ang langit At kusa mong pakinggan Ang áking ligalig Saka pagdaramdam. Ay kung hindî ka mahahabag Sa lungkót kong di naranas Puso t diwang nabibihag Sa libing masasadlak Magtanong ka kung di tunay Sa kislap ng mga tala Magtanong ka rin sa ulap Ng taglay kong dalita Sa dilim ng gabing aking nilalamay Tánging larawan mo Ang nagiging ilaw. Kung ikaw ay mahimbing Sa gitna ng dilim Ang iyong ihulog Puso mo sa akin. Ang iyong ihulog Buhay pag-asa. I am a child of poverty And overflowing with tears I am here crying out for your mercy Open the heavens And listen with purpose My obsession And what I am feeling. If you will not have pity On my sadness that is unrealized Heart and spirit are captivated To fall into the grave. Ask if it s not real To the twinkling stars Also ask the sky Of this poverty I carry. In the dark of night I stay up thinking, Only your image Will be my light If you are sleepy In the middle of the night What you will bring To me is your heart. What you will bring Is a life of hope. Ako y anak ng dalita [ʔa.'koɪ ʔa.'nak naŋ 'da.li.ta] I am child of poverty At tigib ng luha [ʔat ti.'gib naŋ 'lu.ha] And filled with tears 24

36 Ang naritong humihibik [ʔaŋ 'na.ri.toŋ hu.'mi.hi.'bik] The here pleading Na bigyan ang awa [na big.'jan ʔaŋ 'ʔa.waʔ] To give the compassion Buksán mo ang langit [buk.'san mo ʔaŋ 'la.ŋit] Open you the heaven At kusa mong pakinggan [ʔat 'ku.sa moŋ pa.kiŋ.'gan] And voluntarily you listen Ang aking ligalig [ʔaŋ 'ʔa.kiŋ li.'ga.lig The my trouble sa sa of-the kapagdaramdam. ka.pag.'da.ram.'dam] feelings Ay kung hindî [ʔaɪ kuŋ hin.'di] Is if not ka [ka you mahahabag ma.'ha.ha.'bag] feel-pity Sa lungkót kong di naranas [sa luŋ.'kot koŋ di na.'ra.nas] Of loneliness my not experience Puso t diwang nabibihag ['pu.sot 'di.waŋ na.bi.'bi.hag] Heart-and spirit captured Sa libing masasadlak [sa li.'biŋ ma.sa.sad.'lak] To grave to keep 25

37 Magtanong ka kung di tunay [mag.ta.'noŋ ka kuŋ di 'tu.naɪ] Ask you if not real Sa kislap ng mga tala [sa kis.'lap naŋ ma.ŋa 'ta.la] To sparkle of the stars Magtanong ka rin sa ulap [mag.ta.'noŋ ka rin sa 'u.lap] Ask you also to clouds Ng taglay kong dalita [naŋ tag.'laɪ koŋ 'da.li.ta] Of endured my anguish Sa dilim ng gabing [sa di.'lim naŋ ga.'biŋ] To darkness of night-that aking ['ʔa.kiŋ My nilalamay ni.la.'la.maɪ] keep-vigil Tánging larawan mo ['ta.ŋiŋ la.'ra.wan mo] Only image your Ang nagiging ilaw. [ʔaŋ na.'gi.giŋ 'ʔi.laʊ] The becomes light Kung ikaw ay mahimbing [kuŋ ʔi.'kaʊ ʔaɪ ma.him.'biŋ] If you are weary Sa gitna ng dilim [sa git.'na naŋ di.'lim] In middle of darkness Ang iyong ihulog [ʔaŋ ʔi.'joŋ ʔi.'hu.log] The your deposit 26

38 Puso mo sa akin. ['pu.so mo sa 'ʔa.kin] Heart your to me Ang iyong ihulog [ʔaŋ ʔi.'joŋ ʔi.'hu.log] The your deposit Buhay [bu.haɪ Life pag-asa. pag.'ʔasa] hope One of the most frequently performed Kundiman songs is Kundiman: Cancion Filipina. Written in ternary form with an added violin part, this was Francisco Santiago s very first Kundiman art song. The poetic text written by Deogracias A. Rosario depicts a lover who hopes that the girl he is serenading would open her window and give her heart to him. The violin seems to flow along harmoniously and sometimes contrapuntally with the singer s vocal line. Sometimes it enhances the melody of the vocal line by playing eighth-note figures to accompany the long notes in the vocal line. But overall, the violin part functions as a supportive imitation and harmony to the voice part. Santiago has successfully created a trio ensemble that flourishes and complements each other in a contrapuntal manner. In mm the violin answers the vocal phrase ang iyong ihulog (what you will bring) and imitates the vocal line from the previous measures at the beginning of the C section. The chords in the piano accompaniment become more full in texture. To contrast the forte and pianissimo dynamics in the vocal line (measure 50), it is answered by a short four-measure instrumental interlude in measure 54 with a fortississimo dynamic marking. In measure 58 the vocal line re-enters with a softer dynamic marking. The piano accompaniment becomes more subdued and allows the vocal line to be sung in piano marking. Hence, the text tanging larawan mo ang nagiging ilaw (only 27

39 your image will be my light) is supported by a chordal accompaniment that imitates the quarter note rhythm of the vocal line (see Music Example 2). Music Example 2: Kundiman: Cancion Filipina 32 Overall, the vocal melody is lyrical, moving smoothly and fluidly as the waltz-like rhythm matches the declamation of the text. At the beginning the piano accompaniment is simple and sparse so as not to get in the way of the vocal line and the violin. It functions as chordal harmony in ascending block chords. But as soon as the violin solo begins, the piano texture becomes fuller. In the C section (mm ) the dynamics of the vocal line builds and 32 Ibid., p

40 the vocal range rises to a higher tessitura, requiring more breath support using a full voice on the higher notes (see Music Example 3). Music Example 3: Kundiman: Cancion Filipina Ibid. 29

41 2. Pakiúsap by Francisco Santiago / text by Jose Corazon De Jesus Natutulog ka man Irog kong matimtiman Tungháyan mo man lámang Ang nagpapa-álam. Dáhan-dáhan mutyâ Buksán mo ang bintána Tanáwin mo t kahabágan Ang sa iyó y nagmamahál Kung sakali ma t salát Sa yama t pangárap May isang sumpáng wagas Ang áking paglíngap Pakiúsap ko sa iyó Kaawaan mo akó Kahit mamatáy Pag-íbig ko y minsan lámang You are asleep My modest darling Only look out To one who bids farewell. Slowly my jewel Open your window View with pity The one who loves you. If you are in need Of wealth and dreams There is one oath pure: It is my thought. My plea to you Is to have pity on me Even to death My love only happens once. Natutulog ka man [na.tu.'tu.log ka man] Sleeping you are Irog kong matimti man ['ʔi.rog koŋ ma.tim.'ti.man] Darling my modest Tungháyan mo man [tuŋ.'ha.jan mo man] Look at you even-if Ang [ʔaŋ The-one Dáhan-dáhan [da.han.'da.han Slowly nag-papa-álam. nag.pa.pa.'ʔa.lam] who-says-goodbye. mutyâ mut.'jaʔ] jewel Buksán mo ang bintana [buk.'san mo ʔaŋ bin.'ta.na] Open you the window 30

42 Tanawin mo t kahabagan [ta.'na.win mot ka.ha.'ba.gan] Look-at you-and compassion Ang sa yo y nagmamahál [ʔaŋ sa joɪ nag.ma.ma.'hal] The to you-are who-loves Kung sakali ma t salat [kuŋ sa.'ka.li mat sa.'lat] If perhaps even if in-need Sa yama t pangárap [sa 'ja.mat pa.'ŋa.rap] Of wealth-and dreams May isang sumpang [maɪ ʔi.'saŋ sum.'paŋ There-is one oath Ang aking paglingap [ʔaŋ 'ʔa.kiŋ pag.'li.ŋap] The my thought Pakiúsap ko sa yo [pa.ki.'ʔu.sap ko sa jo] Plea my to you Kaawaan mo ako [ka.ʔa.'wa.ʔan mo ʔa.'ko] Have-pity you me Kahit ['ka.hit Even-if mamatáy ma.ma.'taɪ] to-die Pag-íbig ko y minsan lámang [pag.'ʔi.big koɪ min.'san 'la.maŋ] Love my-is once only 31

43 This text by Jose Corazon de Jesus describes how the purity of one s love is the only thing that matters. The protagonist has no wealth to give but only the pureness of his oath of love. He remains constant until death. Therefore his final plea is for her to have pity on him and consider his undying love. Pakiúsap or plea, written in 1921, draws upon this sentiment of purity of love. The poet makes a plea to declare his love to his beloved. Francisco Santiago has effectively set to music the proper flow of the Tagalog language. He frequently sets to music a syllabic stress on the second syllable of each line of text. This demonstrates the typical style of Kundiman. A stress is usually found in the second beat of the beginning of each musical phrase, and sometimes it is on the first beat of the measure. This method of text setting also follows the natural flow of declamation in the poetry. An example is shown in the opening line Natutulog ka man, irog kong matimtiman (You are asleep, my dear who is modest.) Letters in bold signify the proper syllabic stress for these two words. A singer should pay close attention to the syllabic stress of each line of text in order to accurately express the meaning of the text and the flow of the language. The second sentence contains syllables that have glottal stops. For example, the fourth syllable of the word nagpapaálam or bidding farewell is pronounced with a glottal /a/. It is up to the singer to observe the glottal stops at the ends of phrases. But sometimes, for the sake of maintaining a legato, it will be necessary to make a compromise. As a result, not all glottal strokes will be observed. For example, the final /a/ of the word mutyâ will have a glottal stop during regular conversations in the Tagalog language. However, when sung, the word mutyâ should not have a glottal stop after the final syllable. Overall, these linguistic idiosyncrasies play an important part in expressing the nuances of the Tagalog language. Certain words that end a phrase or sentence like mutyâ (jewel), 32

44 adhikâ (desire) or dalitâ (pauper) are pronounced with a glottal stop at the end of the /a/ vowel. This is unusual for non-tagalog speakers because it abruptly breaks the flow of the legato line in classical singing. It is usually designated by the circumflex accent â. This only happens in some words with ending /a/ vowels that contain a cieumflex accent. There is no general rule that requires a Tagalog word that ends with /a/ to be given a glottal stop. It only happens to specific words. To be sure of this, I would suggest consulting an unabridged Tagalog-English dictionary or the Hippocrene Standard Dictionary. 34 A lyrical melodic structure is depicted throughout the song. The smooth flowing contour of the melodic line is similar in character to the smooth flowing melodies inherent in the Western Romantic musical style. The lower and upper neighbor notes in the opening line functions as a leading tone to the dominant note of G in the key of c minor. This effectively accentuates the sadness portrayed about unrequited love (see Music Example 4). Music Example 4: Pakiúsap 35 After some analysis, I have surmised that this song imitates the smooth waltz style of Viennese operettas similar to the style of Franz Lehar after the turn of the 20 th century. In 34, Carl R. Galvez Rubino, and Maria Gracia Tan Llenado. Tagalog-English, English-Tagalog Dictionary. Rev. & Expanded ed. Conshohocken, PA: Hippocrene Books, Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports Department of Education, Culture and Sports. Kundiman At Iba Pa. (Manila: Likhawit Enterprises, 1994), p

45 general, these songs render a swaying effect. A Romantic style of performance is essential to the accurate stylistic portrayal of this song. This is more apparent in the B section of this song on the text, Kung sakali ma t salat sa yama t pangárap. A slight rubato should be played on the second beat of the first and following measures to be consistent with Kundiman style of Francisco Santiago. There should also be a slight cresecendo and decrescendo from the first beat going into second beat of measure 25 and tapering off after the second beat on the words, Kung sakáli (If perhaps) and repeating the crescendo into the words, ma t salát (even if in need) at the remainder of the two measure phrase (see Music Example 5). Music Example 5: Pakiusap 36 B section Overall, the top line of the right hand piano accompaniment doubles the vocal melody. In general the chordal texture is thick, and there are some slight chromaticisms found in the inner voices, giving it an interesting characteristic similar to the style of the Romantic period. 36 Ibid. 34

46 The phrase, ang nag-papaalam (one who bids farewell) begins with a neighboring tone of A-sharp that leads to B-natural which is the third tone of the G major chord in ang nagpapaalam in mm (see Music Example 6). Music Example 6: Pakiusap 37 A section The melody then leaps to a high note G 4. Underneath this note is a first inversion c minor chord with chromatic passing tone in the second beat of the measure leading to a second inversion dominant G major chord in the third beat. The mixture of chromatic passing tones in the inner voices of the piano gives this song a mood of anguish that enhances the poet s intention of bidding farewell to his beloved. This Romantic style of piano accompaniment by Francisco Santiago successfully merges with the melancholic mood of the text. 37 Ibid. 35

47 3. Madaling Araw by Francisco Santiago / text by Jose Corazon De Jesus Irog ko y dinggin Ang tibók ng puso Sana y damdamín Hirap ng sumuyo Manong itunghay Ang matang mapungay Na siyang tánging ilaw Ng buhay kong papanaw Sa gitna ng kadimlan Magmadaling araw ka At akó ay lawítan Ng habag at pagsintá Kung akó y mamamatáy Sa lungkót niaring buhay Lumápit ka lang At mabubuhay. At kung magkagayon mutyâ Mapalad na ang buhay ko Magdaranas akó ng t wa Ng dáhil sa iyó Madaling araw ka sintá Liwanag ko t tanglaw Halina irog ko, At mahálin mo akó. Mutyâ y mapalad na ang buhay ko Ng dáhilan sa ganda mo Liwayway ng puso ko t tanglaw Halina Irog ko At mahalín mo akó. Manungaw ka liyag Ilaw ko t pangárap At madaling araw na! Listen my darling To the beating of my heart Wishing you could feel The sufferings of one who woos Elder brother look At the tender eyes; That she is the only light To my fading life. In the heart of darkness Let your dawn come And I am suspended In mercy and passion. If I am to die Of sorrow in this life Only come near to me And I will live. And if we are together beloved My life would be blessed I will feel delight Because of you. You are the dawn, my love; My light and my torch Come now, my beloved, And love me. My life is now blessed Because of your beauty. Dawn of my heart and my torch; Come now, my beloved, And love me. Look my darling, My light and my dream. And here is the dawn! Irog ko y dinggin ['ʔi.rog koɪ diŋ.'gin] Dear my listen 36

48 Ang tibók ng puso [ʔaŋ ti.'bok naŋ 'pu.so] The pulse of heart Sana y ['sa.naɪ Hoping-that damdamín dam.da.'min] you feel Hirap ng sumuyo ['hi.rap naŋ su.'mu.yo] Suffering of beloved Manong [ma.'noŋ Older brother itunghay ʔi.tuŋ.'haɪ] raise-up Ang matang mapungay [ʔaŋ ma.'taŋ ma.'pu ŋaɪ] The eyes-that languid Na siyang tánging ilaw [na si.'jaŋ 'ta.ŋiŋ ʔi.laʊ] That she-is the-only light Ng buhay kong papanaw [naŋ 'bu.haɪ koŋ pa.'pa.naʊ] Of life my that-is-fading Sa gitna ng kadimlan [sa git.'na naŋ ka.dim.'lan] In middle of darkness Magmadaling araw ka [mag.ma.da.'liŋ ʔa.raʊ ka] Become dawn you At ako ay lawítan [ʔat ʔa.'ko ʔaɪ la.'wi.tan] And I am suspended Ng habag at pagsintá [naŋ 'ha.bag ʔat pag.sin.'ta] Of compassion and love 37

49 Kung ako y mamamatáy [kuŋ ʔa.'koɪ ma.'ma.ma.'taɪ] If I-am going-to-die Sa lungkót niaring buhay [sa luŋ.'kot 'ɲa.riŋ 'bu.haɪ] Of loneliness in-this life Lumapit ka lang [lu.'ma.pit ka lʔaŋ] Be near you only At [ʔat And mabubuhay. ma.bu.'bu.haɪ] will-live At kung magkagayon mutyâ [ʔat kuŋ mag.ka.ga.'yon mut.'jaʔ] And if we-are-united beloved Mapalad na ang buhay ko [ma.'pa.lad na ʔaŋ 'bu.haɪ ko] Fortunate now the life mine Magdaranas ako ng t wa [mag.da.'ra.nas ʔa.'ko naŋ twa] Feel I of joy Ng dáhil sa iyó [naŋ 'da.hil sa ʔi.'jo] Of because to you Madaling araw ka sintá [ma.da.'liŋ 'ʔa.raʊ ka sin.'ta] Become dawn you beloved Liwanag ko t tanglaw [li.'wa.nag kot taŋ.'laʊ] Light my-and lamp Halina irog ko, [ha.'li.na 'ʔi.rog ko] Come dear my 38

50 At mahálin mo ako. [ʔat ma.ha.'lin mo ʔa.'ko] And love you me Mutyâ y mapalad na [mut.'jaɪ ma.'pa.lad na] Treasure-is fortunate now ang buhay ko [ʔaŋ 'bu.haɪ ko] the life my Ng dáhilan sa ganda mo [naŋ da.hi.'lan sa gan.da 'mo] Of because to beauty your Liwayway ng puso ko t tanglaw [li.waɪ.'waɪ naŋ 'pu.so kot taŋ.'laʊ] Ray of heart my-and light Halina irog ko [ha.'li.na ʔi.rog ko] Come dear my At mahalin mo ako. [ʔat ma.ha.'lin mo ʔa.'ko] And love you me Manungaw ka liyag [ma.'nu.ŋaʊ ka li.'jag] Gaze you beloved Ilaw ko t pangárap ['ʔi.laʊ kot pa.'ŋa.rap] Light my-and dream At madaling araw na! [ʔat ma.da.'liŋ 'ʔa.raʊ na] And become dawn now 39

51 In the opening line of Madaling Araw (Break of Dawn) (1929), the melody begins with an anacrusis on the phrase, Irog ko y or My dear that arrives at the word dinggin or to hear. Similarly the word puso or heart in measure 13 is emphasized by an appoggiatura that imitates a sigh (see Music Example 7). This motivic line repeats throughout the whole song. Francisco Santiago skillfully sets the flow of the text through his use of melodic phrases that fit the rhyming scheme of the poetry. Certain nuances in the Tagalog language such as glottal stops in the word ang or the need to be observed, especially in the opening line, in order to achieve a level of authenticity and specificity in linguistic expression. Santiago is able to demonstrate the declamation of Tagalog by giving emphasis to specific words and syllables. In essence the composer carefully chooses the word hirap in measure 16 as a word that represents the overall mood of the piece. This common use of minor keys and melodic devices that create a general mood of a sigh is typical of the Kundiman art song style (see Music Example 7) 40

52 Music Example 7: Madaling Araw 38 In the same example above, one can see that piano accompaniment imitates the vocal line. In this case it is accompanied by parallel thirds that harmonize with the vocal melody. Overall, Santiago uses this harmonic style to support the singer s line. However, in the last page of the song, in the C section, the piano accompaniment takes on a more prominent role (see Music Example 8). 38 Ibid., p

53 Music Example 8: Madaling Araw 39 The vocal part then becomes more like an instrument that supports the piano line. The interaction between the piano and the voice are seen in the switching of roles (see mm ). The C section takes on a completely different character where the both the piano and the voice take part in an ensemble sharing the spot light. 39 Ibid., p

54 4. Ano Kayâ Ang Kapalaran Music and text by Francisco Santiago Dito sa mundó y Walâng kasing tamís Gaya ng umáwit Ng sariling himig Bawa t tagintíng. Ang wika y pag-íbig Siyang humahabi Ng pusong nagiliw. Mahirap nga palang umirog, Sintá y dalhin-dalhing may lunos. Araw gabi ang puso Ang tibók ay siphayò Ano kaya ang kapalaran Ng abat imbing lagáy. Asahan mo t di palad, Kakamtan mo y sakláp. Ah! Araw gabi y ang puso, Ang tibók ay siphayò, Ah! Ng abat imbing lagáy Asahan mo t di palad Kakamtan mo y sakláp, Ah! Here in this world Nothing is more pleasant Than to sing One s own melody. With every sound The language is love. She weaves A heart that is charmed. How hard it is to love, My dear quickly bring compassion. Day and night The beating heart is oppressed. What fate lies ahead Of a humble state. Expect not fortune, You will receive bitterness. Ah! Day and night The beating heart is oppressed Of humble state Expect not fortune You will receive bitterness, Ah! Dito sa mundo y ['di.to sa mun.'doɪ] Here on earth is Walâng kasing tamis [wa.'laŋ ka.'siŋ ta.'mis] None as sweet Gaya ng umáwit ['ga.ja naŋ ʔu.'ma.wit] Like as to-sing Ng sariling himig [naŋ sa.'ri.liŋ 'hi.mig] Of own melody 43

55 Bawa t ['ba.wat Every tagintíng. ta.gin.'tiŋ] sound Ang wika y pag-íbig [ʔaŋ 'wi.kaɪ pag.'i.big] The language-is love Siyang [sjaŋ She humahabi hu.ma.ha.'bi] weaves Ng pusong nagiliw. [naŋ 'pu.soŋ na.'gi.liʊ] Of heart charmed Mahirap nga palang [ma.'hi.rap ŋa pa.'laŋ Difficult indeed then Sintá y dalhin-dalhing may lunos. [sin.'taɪ dal.'hin.dal.'hiŋ maɪ 'lu.nos] Dear is bringing some compassion Araw gabi ang puso ['ʔa.raʊ ga.'bi ʔaŋ 'pu.so] Day night the heart Ang tibók ay siphayò [ʔaŋ ti.'bok ʔaɪ sip.'ha.jo] The heartbeat is sadness Ano kaya ang kapalaran [ʔa 'no ka 'ja ʔaŋ ka pa 'la ran] What then the fate Ng aba t imbing lagáy. [naŋ ʔa.'bat im.'biŋ la.'gaɪ] Of mistreated humble state. Asahan mo t di palad, [ʔa.'sa.han mot di 'pa.lad] Hope you-and not fortune 44

56 Kakamtan mo y sakláp. [ka.kam.'tan moɪ sak.'lap] Receive you-is bitterness Written in 1938, the seemingly cheerful melody of the song starkly contrasts with the sad mood of the text. The dance-like rhythm depicts a matter-of-fact treatment of the gloomy disposition in the text. A jovial mood is found in this Kundiman waltz but it is a mere façade when compared to the mournfulness of the text. In the end, bitterness is the outcome when pursuing love and happiness. It is a state of helplessness that tends to be a recurrent theme in Kundiman art songs. Happiness is not necessarily about finding one s beloved but being free to sing his or her own melody as an expression of one s self. The B section modulates from the previous d minor key of the A section to the parallel key of D major (see Music Example 9). 45

57 Music Example 9: Ano Kaya Ang Kapalaran 40 Overall, the song is arranged in ABB binary form, where the B section is a modified embellishment of the B section. The melismatic section of this song makes it suitable for a coloratura soprano. Ascending staccato eight notes on ah require a light vocal mechanism that engages breath control. An example of this is found in measure 91 (see Music Example 10). Music Example 10: Ano Kaya Ang Kapalaran? Ibid., p Ibid., p

58 This skipping pattern of eighth notes represents freedom and an inherent ability to express one s self without consequence of oppression. Moreover, the vocal freedom of the coloratura portion in this song could prove a challenge for a young aspiring soprano because of the vocal agility that is required. It is also interesting that Santiago directly quotes the opening phrase of a popular folk song, Leron-Leron Sintá (Sea Shells, Sea Shells, Darling) (See Music Example 11). Music Example 11: Leron-Leron Sinta 42 He then combines these note segments to form a unique composition that is similar to the previously mentioned popular folksong (See Music Example 12). 42 Cavan, Emilia S., Filipino Folk Songs: Collected and Arranged by Mrs. Emilia S. Cavan (harmonized by Francisco Santiago), 1924, p

59 Music Example 12: Ano Kaya Ang Kapalaran 43 In the text araw gabi (day and night) the piano accompaniment is chordal and climaxes with an octave leap of the f-sharp minor chord in second inversion. The octave leap in measure 65 functions as an interjection or a music exclamation point that answers the text of the vocal line (see Music Example 13). Music Example 13: Ano Kaya Ang Kapalaran Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports Department of Education, Culture and Sports. Kundiman At Iba Pa. (Manila: Likhawit Enterprises, 1994), p Ibid., p

60 Similarly, this occurs in the text ang tibok ay siphayo (beating is oppressed). In this occurrence the octave displacement of the G chord is strategically place between ay (is) and siphayo (oppressed). The seemingly comic nature of this octave leaping chord is used as a device for irony to the one who searches for love. Out of the four songs by Santiago selected in this essay, this song seems to be the most light-hearted. This serves as a nice change of pace for the usual melancholic music theme. 49

61 5. Kung Hindî Man Music and text by Nicanor Abelardo Irog sandaling dinggin Ang áking pagtángis Irog sandaling tunghan Ang humihibik Kung di man nararapat Sa iyong dikit Isang sulyap mo lámang Aliw na ng dibdib. Kung sa ki y walâ nang Inilaang paglingap At ang pagdurusa ko Ang siya mong pangárap Sa isang ngiti mong Sa aki y igawad Libo mang kamatayan Aking tinatanggap. Beloved, for a moment listen To my weeping. Beloved, for a moment look At the one who pleads, And see if he is not deserving Of your loveliness. Only one glance from you And my heart will be comforted. If I have already lost A compassionate care, And my suffering Is your dream, If I but receive One glance from you, Even a thousand deaths I would accept. Irog sandaling dinggin ['ʔi.rog san.da.'liŋ diŋ.'gin] Beloved for-a-moment hear Ang aking pagtángis [ʔaŋ 'ʔa.kiŋ pag.'ta.ŋis] The my weeping Irog sandaling tunghan ['ʔi.rog san.da.'liŋ tuŋ.'han] Beloved for-a-moment look-at Ang [ʔaŋ The humihibik hu.mi.hi.'bik] one-who-pleads Kung di man nararápat [kuŋ di man na.ra.'ra.pat] If not too worthy Sa iyong dikít [sa ʔi.'joŋ di.'kit] Of your loveliness 50

62 Isáng sulyáp mo lámang [ʔi.'saŋ sul.'jap mo 'la.maŋ] One glance your only Aliw na ng dibdib. ['ʔa.liʊ na naŋ dib.'dib] Comfort now of heart Kung sa ki y walâ [kuŋ sa ki wa.'la] If to my lost I-ni-laang [ʔi.ni.'la.ʔaŋ Provided paglingap pag.'li.ŋap] care At ang pagdurusa ko [ʔat ʔaŋ pag.du.'ru.sa ko] And the suffering my Ang siya mong pangárap [ʔaŋ si.'ja moŋ pa.'ŋa.rap] The she your dream Sa isang ngitî mong [sa ʔi.'saŋ ŋi.'tiʔ moŋ] To one smile your Sa aki y igawad [sa 'ʔa.ki ʔi.'ga.wad] To me grant Libo mang kamatáyan ['li.bo maŋ ka.ma.'ta.jan] A-thousand ever deaths Aking ['ʔa.kiŋ I-will tinatanggáp. ti.'na.taŋ.'gap] accept 51

63 Kung Hindi Man (If It Were Not So) (1920) by Nicanor Abelardo is set in binary form. More specifically, it is in AABB form. Abelardo uses this binary form to make a contrast between the melancholic A section in the key of g minor and the hopefulness of the B section in the parallel key of G major. It begins in the key of g minor because it represents a main character who longs for his beloved. Additionally, Abelardo In the opening four measures, mm. 6-9, the vocal line loosely resembles a Kundiman folksong, Kundiman in 1800 (see Music Example 14). Music Example 14: Santiago s Kundiman in Notice the similarity in the opening vocal line in Abelardo s Kung Hindi Man. Both songs have opening eighth-note patterns followed by a dotted eighth/sixteenth note combination and a half note in mm. 6-7 (see Music Example 15). 45 Cavan, Emilia S., "Filipino Folk Songs / Collected and Arranged by Emilia S. Cavan; Harmonized by Francisco Santiago, Accessed March 26,

64 Music Example 15: Kung Hindi Man 46 The opening melody directly quotes the folksong and transforms this thematic material into the g minor instead of the original major key from which the popular Kundiman folk song Kundiman in 1800 was inspired. In Kung Hindi Man, the piano accompaniment mirrors the melodic line in the treble line. The vocal line outlines a g minor chord. This in turn is supported by some upper and lower neighbor tones in the right hand of the piano line which moves in unison with the vocal line. The vocal line gives the music statement and the piano line anwers with its own harmonic commentary on the given melodic line. Some important words in the first stanza are: dinggin (listen); pagtángis (weeping); humihibik (pleading) from the root word hibik (pleading) with added prefix, humi- that transforms a root word to a verb phrase that means the act of [doing something] ; dikit (loveliness); and dibdib (breast or heart). 46 Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports Department of Education, Culture and Sports. Kundiman At Iba Pa. (Manila: Likhawit Enterprises, 1994), p

65 The word dinggin (listen), which is represented in IPA as [diŋ.gin], consists of two inner consonants /ng/ and /g/ that are pronounced simultaneously. Incidentally, the consonant sound [ŋ] seems to be prevalent in this song. By contrast, the B section has a more positive musical outlook despite the seemingly hopeless situation (see Music Example 16). Music Example 16: "Kung Hindi Man" 47 - B section The right hand of the piano accompaniment doubles the vocal line, a common feature of these early Kundiman art songs. However, here the left hand of the accompaniment finishes each short phrase with an eighth-note figure, which maintains the flow of the song. 47 Ibid., p

66 According to the poem, the character needs but one little smile from his beloved and he will have enough courage to face a thousand deaths. The sudden optimism is manifested in the major key quality and is a contrast to the minor key quality of the previous A section. This song follows a strict binary form rather than the ternary form that was introduced in Santiago s new Kundiman genre. It would seem that Abelardo has achieved the same end result of having new material in the final section but with a major key, representing hopefulness and confidence. It symbolizes a renewed love for country and nationalism. 55

67 6. Nasaán Ka Irog? by Nicanor Abelardo / text by Jose Corazon de Jesus Nasaán ka Irog? At dagling naparam Ang iyong pag-giliw Di baga sumpa mong Ako y mamahálin? Iyong itatángi Magpahanggáng libíng Subalit nasaán Ang iyong pagtingín? Nasaán ka Irog At natiti-ìs mong Ako y mangulila At hanap-hanapin ikaw Sa ala-ála? Nasaán ang sabi mong Ako y iyong ligaya t Ngayong nalulungkót, Ay di ka makitá. Irog ko y tandaan Kung akó man ay iyong Ngayo y sinipháyo Mangá sumpa t lambing Pinaram mong bo-o Ang lahat sa buhay ko Ay hindî maglalaho t Magsisilbing bakas Ng nagdaan tang pagsuyo Tandaan mo Irog, Irog ko y tandaan, Ang lahat sa buhay ko Ay hindî maglalaho t Magsisilbing bakas Ng nagdaan tang pagsuyo. Nasaán ka Irog! Nasaán ka Irog? Where are you, beloved? Suddenly your affection Has faded Did you not promise You will love me? You would set me apart Until death. But where Is your gaze? Where are you, beloved, How can you endure My being orphaned While I search for you In my memory? Where now is your assertion That I am your happiness? So sad it is for me To not see you. Beloved remember! Even if you Now reproach me, Your promises and tenderness You take away Everything in my life, They will not fade away But will serve as a memory Of our past affection. Remember beloved, My beloved remember, Everything in my life Will not fade away But will serve as a memory Of our past affection. Where are you beloved! Where are you beloved? Nasaán ka Irog? [na.sa.'ʔan ka 'ʔi.rog] Where-are you beloved 56

68 At dagling naparam [ʔat dag.'liŋ na.'pa.ram] And suddenly faded Ang iyong pag-giliw [ʔaŋ ʔi.'yoŋ pag:'gi.liʊ] The your affection Di (hindi) ba gasumpa mong [di ba ga.sum.'pa moŋ] Did-not was promised your Ako y [ʔa.'koɪ Me-you-will Iyong [ʔi.'yoŋ You-will Magpahanggáng [mag.pa.haŋ.'gaŋ Until Subalit [su.'ba.lit But mamahalín? 'ma.ma.ha.'lin] love? itatángi ʔi.ta.'ta.ŋi] determine libíng li.'biŋ] death nasaán na.sa.'ʔan] where Ang iyong pagtingín? [ʔaŋ ʔi.'yoŋ pag.ti.'ŋin] The your gaze? Nasaán ka Irog, [na.sa.'ʔan ka 'ʔi.rog] Where-are you beloved At natiti-ìs mong [ʔat na.ti.ti.'ʔis moŋ] And suffering your Ako y [ʔa.'koɪ I-am mangulila maŋ.u.'li.laʔ] make-orphan 57

69 At hanap-hanapin ikaw [ʔat ha.nap.ha.'na.pin ʔi 'kaʊ] And searching you Sa [sa Of ala-ála? ʔa.la.'ʔa.la] memories Nasaán ang sabi mong [na.sa.'ʔan ʔaŋ 'sa.bi moŋ] Where the said your Ako y iyong ligaya t [ʔa.'koɪ ʔi.'joŋ li.'ga.jat] I-am your happiness Ngayong [ŋa.'joŋ Now nalulungkót, na.lu.luŋ.'kot] saddened Ay di ka makitâ. [ʔaɪ di ka ma.'ki.ta] Is not you see Irog ko y tandaan [ ʔi.rog koɪ tan.da.'ʔan] Dear my remember Kung ako man ay iyong [kuŋ ʔa.'ko man ʔaɪ ʔi.'joŋ] If I too am your Ngayo y [ŋa.'joɪ Now sinipháyo si.nip.'ha.jo] to-mistreat Mangá sumpa t lambing [ma.'ŋa sum.'pat lam.'biŋ] Some promise-and caressing Pinaram mong bo-o [pi.'na.ram moŋ bo.'ʔo] Vanish you whole 58

70 Ang lahat sa buhay ko [ʔaŋ la.'hat sa 'bu.haɪ ko] The all of life my Ay hindî maglalaho t [ʔaɪ hin.'di mag.la.'la.hot] Is not vanish-and Magsisilbing [mag.si.sil.'biŋ To-serve-as bakas ba.'kas] footprint Ng nagdaan tang pagsuyo [naŋ nag.da.'ʔan taŋ pag.'su. jo] Of past our affection Tandaan mo Irog, [tan.da.'ʔan mo 'ʔi.rog] Remember you beloved Irog ko y tandaan, ['ʔi.rog koɪ tan.da.'ʔan] Beloved my remember Ang lahat sa buhay ko [ʔaŋ la.'hat sa 'bu.haɪ ko] The all of life my Ay hindî maglalaho t [ʔaɪ hin.'di mag.la.'la.hot] Is not vanish-and Magsisilbing [mag.'si.sil.'biŋ To-serve-as bakas ba.'kas] footprint Ng nagdaan tang pagsuyo. [naŋ nag.da.'ʔan taŋ pag.'su.jo] Of past our affection Nasaán ka Irog! [na.sa.'ʔan ka 'ʔi.rog] Where-are you beloved! 59

71 Nicanor Abelardo inadvertently created a music term, tempo di Kundiman, similar to andante cantabile. A singer should pay special attention to how the word irog (beloved) is given emphasis on the first syllable with a pure /i/ sound and less emphasis on the final syllable. Similarly, the two g s in the word pag-giliw [pag:'gi.liʊ] (regard) should be treated as a double consonant. Emphasis should be given on the syllable gi of giliw. Additionally, the syllable liw is produced by combining an [i] and [ʊ]vowel to form a dipthong. The sudden leap of an octave from an eighth-note F3 to half-note F4 in subali t nasaán in measure 20 fits the text declamation well (see Music Example 17). Music Example 17: Nasaan Ka Irog? 48 The word nasaán (where) has an emphasis on the final syllable that is separated by a glottal stop on the vowel /a/. It categorically has three syllables; namely, na, sa and an. Tagalog has three syllables for where, which provides for more emotional expression, especially with the glottal an from the word nasaan (where) that is produced viscerally from the diaphragm. 48 Ibid., p

72 In general, the piano accompaniment parallels the vocal line, sometimes in intervals of parallel thirds and sometimes in parallel sixths. In the opening prelude, the piano summarizes the melody of the vocal line. Afterwards, the vocal line enters with a recitative-like motif, which is answered by a short piano motif with a dotted eight and sixteenth note followed by a quarter note chord in the dominant chord of C from the f minor tonic chord in measure 6 (see Music Example 18). Music Example 18: Nasaan Ka Irog Ibid. 61

73 7. Pahimakas by Nicanor Abelardo / text by Jose Corazon De Jesus Umága na nag-aawítan Ang ibon sa parang Ang kasawí-an ko y Pinag-uusápan Ay! Walâ na Hangáng mag-umága y Ayaw ka-pang manungaw Pa-âlam na Irog Kung di man ini-ìbig Ng nabúhay pa Ang bangkáy ko man lámang Ka-awáan mo na Ako y pa-álam na Hindî ko malaman Ang patutunguhan Kung akó ay dáratal Sa luksáng libíngan kung di na magbalík Iyong ipalagáy Na akó y walâ na Pa-álam, pa-álam. Kung sa tapat ninyo Magdaán ang bangkay Makipaglibing ka Ikaw ay umílaw Ako y ipagdasal Ay! Pa-álam! Morning comes And the birds sing in the meadow My misfortune that They chat about It is gone. Even in the morning You do not bother to wake up. Farewell then, my love If you do not love me While I am alive. At least have pity On my corpse. I bid you farewell. I know not Where my journey lies. If I arrive At my mournful grave, If I do not return, Assume that I am gone. Farewell, farewell! If in your path You come across my corpse, Please bury me. Light up a candle And pray for me Ah! Farewell! Umága na nag-aawítan [ʔu.ma.ga na nag.ʔa.ʔa.wi.tan] Morning now they-are-singing Ang íbon sa parang [ʔaŋ ʔi.bon sa pa.raŋ] The birds in the meadow Ang kasawí-an ko y pinag-úusápan [ʔaŋ ka.sa.'wi.ʔan koɪ] pi.nag.'ʔu.ʔu.'sa.pan] The misfortune my-is talked-about 62

74 Ay! Walâ na [ʔaɪ wa.la na] Ah! Gone now Hangang [haŋ.gaŋ Until mag-umága y mag.ʔu.ma.gaɪ] morning-is Ayaw kapáng manungáw [ʔa.jaʊ ka.paŋ ma.nu.ŋaʊ] Reject you-still to-look Pa-álam na Irog [pa.ʔa.lam na ʔi.rog] Farewell now beloved Kung di man ini-ìbig [kuŋ di man ʔi.ni.'ʔi.big] If not ever loved Ng nabúhay pa [naŋ na.bu.haɪ pa] While living still Ang bángkay ko man lámang [ʔaŋ baŋ.kaɪ ko man la.maŋ] The corpse my ever alone Ka-awáan mo na [ka.ʔa.wa.ʔan mo na] Have-pity you now Ako y pa-álam na [ʔa.koɪ pa.ʔa.lam na] I-am bid-farewell now Hindî ko maláman [hin.di ko ma.'la.man] Not I know Ang [ʔaŋ The patutungúhan pa.'tu.tu.'ŋu.han] path 63

75 Kung ako ay dáratal [kuŋ ʔa.'ko ʔaɪ 'da.ra.tal] If I am going-to-reach Sa luksáng libíngan [sa luk.'saŋ li.'bi.ŋan] To mourning burial kung di na magbalík [kuŋ di na mag.ba.'lik] If not now return Iyong [ʔi.'yoŋ You ipalagáy ʔi.pa.la.'gaɪ] assume Na ako y walâ na [na ʔa.'koɪ wa.'la na] That I-am gone now Pa-álam, [pa.'ʔa.lam Farewell pa-álam. pa.'ʔa.lam] farewell Kung sa tapat ninyo [kuŋ sa ta.'pat nin.'jo] If in front-of you Magdaán ang bangkay [mag.da.'ʔan ʔaŋ baŋ.'kaɪ] Pass-by the dead-body Makipaglibing [ma.ki.pag.li.'biŋ Bury-me ka ka] you Ikaw ay umílaw [ʔi.'kaʊ ʔaɪ ʔu.'mi.laʊ] You are lit-up Ako y [ʔa.'koɪ I-am ipagdasal ʔi.pag.da.'sal] prayed-for 64

76 Ay! [ʔaɪ Ah Pa-álam! pa.'ʔa.lam] farewell! Written in 1925, Pahimakas (Farewell) was composed in a binary form, AABB. In the A section the verse is repeated twice without any variation in the text. The B section consists of new material that corresponds with new text that enters into a deeper level of despair and disorientation. Then it repeats in B section but only as an incomplete version. The B section is shorter and begins with the phrase Hindi ko malaman ang patutunguhan (I know not where my journey lies). In the opening vocal line the main character, being disheartened, departs from his beloved thinking that he will never be with her again. Because she does not share a mutual love, he finds it necessary to bid her farewell. The word pa-álam translates to farewell and seems to represent the singular mood of this poem. This word is repeated twelve times in the entire song and hence it is important to be able to pronounce this word properly. The word pa-álam [pa-ʔalam] must be pronounced with a glottal stop on the second /a/ vowel that follows the prefix pa-. Equally important is how the [a] vowel must be pronounced as a pure vowel, being careful to keep the vowel bright. Likewise, the author s method of repeating this key word, paálam, also brings to light the use of the glottal stop. The poem evolves drastically as a farewell to life in the second stanza as the main character wallows in his despair. If he can t obtain the love of his life then he prefers not to live at all. But he wishes at least for her to have mercy on his corpse if she happens to pass by it. It is interesting to note that Abelardo departs from his usual doubling of the vocal line in the right hand piano accompaniment. Instead, the piano introduction presents some playful 65

77 motifs that sound like a gypsy violin melody. In the beginning, the piano intro presents some short playful motifs with an overall descending pattern (see Music Example 19). Music Example 19: Pahimakas 50 Notice the basic chordal accompaniment and the flourishes in the right hand. While this may look like supportive material for the voice, in effect this text painting gives prominence to the piano accompaniment (see Music Example 20). 50 Ibid., p

78 Music Example 20: Pahimakas Ibid. 67

79 8. Bituing Marikit by Nicanor Abelardo / text by S. Angeles Bituíng marikit Sa gabi ng buhay Ang bawat kislap mo y Ligaya ang taglay Yaring áking palad Iyong patnubayan At kahit nasinag Ako y bahaginan. Natanim sa puso ko Yaong isang pag-íbig Na pinaka-sasamba Sa lo-ob ng dibdib Sa iyong luning-ning Laging na-sasabik Ikaw ang pangárap Bituíng marikit. Lapitan mo akó Halina bitu-in Ating pag-isahin Ang mangá damdamin Ang sabik kong diway. Huwag mong uhawin Sa batis ng iyong wagas Na pag-giliw. Beautiful star Of the night of life With every little twinkle Happiness is possessed. My destiny You will guide, Though you spread your rays You share it with me. In my heart A certain love is planted That is most worshipped. In your heart In your sparkle Always I m eager. You are my dream, Beautiful star. Approach me Come to me, star. Let us make one The feelings, My eagerness for beauty. Do not deprive me Of the brook of your pureness, Of your affection. Bituíng [bi.tu.'wiŋ Star marikit ma.ri.'kit] lovely Sa gabi ng buhay [sa ga.'bi naŋ 'bu.haɪ] To night of life Ang bawat kislap mo y [ʔaŋ 'ba.wat kis.'lap moɪ] The each shine of-yours-is Ligaya ang taglay [li.'ga.ja ʔaŋ tag.'laɪ] Happiness the possess 68

80 Yaring aking palad ['ja.riŋ 'ʔa.kiŋ 'pa.lad] This my destiny Iyong [ʔi.'yoŋ You patnubayan pat.nu.'ba.jan] guide At kahit nasinag [ʔat 'ka.hit na.'si.nag] And even-if beaming Ako y [ʔa.'koɪ I-am bahaginan. ba.ha.'gi.nan] dispensed Natanim sa puso ko [na.ta.'nim sa 'pu.so ko] Planted in heart my Yaong isang pag-íbig [ja.ʔoŋ ʔi.'saŋ pag.'ʔi big] That one love Na [na Of pinaka-sasamba pi.na.ka.'sa.sam.ba] most-worshipped Sa lo-ob ng dibdib [sa lo.'ʔob naŋ dib.'dib] From inside of chest Sa iyong luning-ning [sa ʔi.'yoŋ lu.niŋ.'niŋ] To your sparkle Laging ['la.giŋ Always nasasabik na.'sa.sa.bik] eager Ikaw ang pangárap [ʔi.'kaʊ ʔaŋ pa.'ŋa.rap] You the dream 69

81 Bituing [bi.tu.'wiŋ Star marikit. ma.ri.'kit] lovely Lapitan mo akó [la.'pi.tan mo ʔa.'ko] Come-near you me Halina [ha.'li.na Come-now Ating ['ʔa.tiŋ We bituín bi.tu.'win] star pag-isahin pag.ʔi.'sa hin] join-together Ang mangá damdámin [ʔaŋ ma.'ŋa dam.'da.min] The those feelings Ang sabik kong diway [ʔaŋ sa.'bik koŋ 'di.waɪ] The eager my spirit Huwag mong uhawin [hwag moŋ u.'ha.win] Do not you thirst Sa batis ng iyong wagas [sa ba.'tis naŋ ʔi.'yoŋ wa.'gas] To spring of your pureness Na [na Of pag-giliw. pag:'gi.liʊ] affection. At the opening section of the piano prelude in mm. 1-6, Abelardo uses a repeating pattern of short sighing motifs that occurs in a descending sequence. This sighing motif is a nice contrast to the regularity of the habañera rhythm in the accompaniment that repeats throughout 70

82 the entire song. Although this motif does not develop itself compositionally in the melody, it does relate to the melancholic disposition of the song. Harmonically, the opening A section (mm. 9-12) with the text bituing marikit sa gabi ng buhay (beautiful star in the night of life) in the tonic chord of f minor is followed by a subdominant chord that also has a minor quality in b-flat minor with the words sa gabi ng buhay (in the night of life) (see Music Example 21). Music Example 21: Bituing Marikit 52 This points out an interesting pattern because the prepositional phrase sa gabi ng buhay is an elaboration on the sadness of the beginning noun phrase bituing marikit (beautiful star). Two important words here are gabi (night) and buhay (life) and are two likely places where word emphasis is appropriate. In contrast, the transitional chord to E-flat major in yaring áking palad (of this is my destiny) in mm is a dominant chord that modulates for a brief moment to A-flat major in 52 Ibid., p

83 iyong patnubabyan (you will guide) (see Music Example 22). Measure 18 begins a sequence of modulations: Music Example 22: Bituing Marikit 53 It modulates further to its final key of C major in measure 24 of this transitional section. This sudden change to a major chord quality foreshadows what it would be like to achieve happiness. Here is a representation of the concept of Kundiman. It describes what the situation would be like if love had no obstacles. After the A section is repeated it is followed by a transitional B section that develops into it goal key of F major, which is found in the C section. At this point the mood changes to one of flirtation and optimism, having fulfilled the dream of love. This song is not very long only two pages, but the numerous key changes represent the anguish and unrequited love that the character in the poem is experiencing. 53 Ibid. 72

84 9. Himutok Music and text by Nicanor Abelardo Dibdib ko y tumanggáp Ng matindíng sakit, Sanhi sa pagsintá t Wagas na pag-íbig Puso ko y lúnod na Sa dagsá ng hapis Saán kukúha pa Ng pagtiti-ìs? Gayon iyong alám Nawalâ ng lúnas Sa hírap kong itó Kung di ang iyong habag Ano t natutuwáng Iyó pang ma-málas Mangá mapapa-it Na lúhang nana ah! O giliw ko t áking mutyâ Nasaán ang iyong awa, Dina makaya pang bathin Ang dulot mong hilahil; Bigyán mo ng pag-ása Yaring pusong sumisintá! My heart accepts The extreme agony Caused by the passion And purenes of love. My heart drowns In the torrent of anguish. How much more Can I endure it? For you know There is no remedy To my suffering Without your compassion. How delightful that You can perceive The bitter Tears of pus, ah! Oh, my beloved and my jewel, Where is your mercy? I can no longer endure Your offering of distress; Give hope To my heart that loves! Dibdib ko y tumanggáp [dib.dib koɪ tu.maŋ.'gap] Heart my accepts Ng matindíng sakit, [naŋ ma.tin.'diŋ sa.'kit] Of deep pain Sanhi sa pagsintá t [san.'hi sa pag.sin.'tat] Caused by love Wagas na pag-íbig [wa.'gas na pag.'ʔí big] Pure of love 73

85 Puso ko y lunod na ['pu.so koɪ 'lu.nod na] Heart my sinking now Sa dagsá ng hapis [sa dag.'sa naŋ ha.'pis] Of crowd of gloom Saán kukuha pa [sa.'ʔan ku.'ku.ha pa] Where to-take still Ng [naŋ Of pagtiti-ìs? pag.'ti.ti.'ʔis] suffering Gayon iyong alam [ga.'jon ʔi.'yoŋ ʔa.'lam] Like you know Nawalâ ng lunas [na.wa.'la naŋ 'lu.nas] Lost of remedy Sa hirap kong ito [sa 'hi.rap koŋ ʔi.'to] To hardship my this Kung di ang iyong habag [kuŋ di ʔaŋ ʔi.'yoŋ ha.'bag] If not the your charity Ano t [ʔa.'not Why-and natutuwang na.'tu.tu.waŋ] is-pleased Iyó pang ma-malas [ʔi.'yo paŋ ma.'ma.las] You still be-unlucky Mangá [Ma.'ŋa Some mapapa-it ma.'pa.pa.'ʔit] bitter 74

86 Na luhang nana ah! [Na 'lu.haŋ 'na.naʔ ʔa] Of tears-of pus ah! O giliw ko t aking mutyâ [o 'gi.liʊ kot 'ʔa.kiŋ mut.'jaʔ] O beloved my-and my jewel Nasaán ang iyong awa, [na.sa.'ʔan ʔaŋ ʔi.'yoŋ 'ʔa.waʔ] Where the your compassion Dina makaya pang bathin ['di.na ma.'ka ja paŋ bat.'hin] I-cannot able yet endure Ang dulot mong hilahil; [ʔaŋ 'du.lot moŋ hi.'la.hil] The offering your hardship Bigyán mo ng pag-ása [big.'jan mo naŋ pag.'ʔa.sa] Give-me you of hope Yaring pusong sumisintá! ['ja.riŋ 'pu.soŋ su.mi.sin.'ta] This heart-that loves! In the opening line, the poet seems to accept his fate of unrequited love. It is important to give emphasis to the phrase matinding sakit (extreme agony), making sure that on the word matinding, the letter t is pronounced deliberately and that both i s are pure /i/ to give the word a more heartfelt significance. The word that follows should also have a stress on the first syllable of sakit (agony) in order not to be confused with the word sakit or illness, which has an unstressed first syllable and a stressed second syllable. 75

87 Consequently, this text is set to music with a perspective that detaches itself from the emotion of the poetry. The apparent mood of detachment comes with the composer s use of a chord progression that momentarily shifts to an A-flat chord on the words pagsintá t wagas (passion and pureness) in mm (see Music Example 23). Music Example 23: Himutok 54 For a moment this cadence alters the intended authentic proper cadence. This thirdperson view emphasizes a quality of nonchalance that occurs with the disruption of the A-flat chord in measure 10. Additionally, the s on the word wagas (pureness) should be given a slight bit more duration and the setting of two eighth notes should be more like a sixteenth note followed by a dotted eighth note, for interpretive purposes. As a rule, hyphenated words will have a glottal stop on the vowel sound that follows the hyphen. The word pag-íbig (love) must have a glottal sound after the prefix on the first vowel 54 Ibid., p

88 on the root word íbig, and the word sa-an [sa.'ʔan] (where) will have a glottal sound at the beginning of the second syllable. The subsequent lines of text are set to a sequence of phrases taken from the introductory motif with an anacrusis of five eight-notes that leads to half note and quarter note combinations. These phrases are presented in a statement and answer form, which resolve to a half cadence on a dominant chord in measure 20 (see Music Example 24). Music Example 24: Himutok 55 However, the B section contains a key change that modulates from the original key of g minor to its dominant key relationship in D major. Not only does it depart the previous key but it also progresses to new music material that seems to be unrelated to the A section of the song. In this section, the new music material is accompanied by a mood of hopefulness. In slow waltz 55 Ibid. 77

89 rhythm, the B section proceeds with a simpler scheme of pulsing quarter notes combined with half notes. Beginning in measure 30, the text Oh, giliw ko t aking mutya, nasaan and iyong awa (Oh my beloved and my jewel, where is your mercy) is set to music with quarter notes (see Music Example 25). Music Example 25: Himutok 56 - B section In the above example, the poet no longer dwells on the sorrows of unrequited love but picks himself up to have hope once again. Now he is able to gather enough courage to ask for her love in the B section. In a similar fashion, the piano accompaniment imitates the melody by having the top line of the right hand chord follow the notes of the vocal line. 56 Ibid., p

90 10. Ikaw Rin! Music and text by Nicanor Abelardo Irog! Masdan mo ang pagtangis Ng abang pusong api Sa pag-ibig Tanging lunas na ngâ lamang Dilag moy masilip At itataghoy-taghoy Ang manga pasakit Na tini-tiis. Yaring pag-ibig ko man Ay iyong dustain Madlang pasakit Ibunton sa akin Asahan mo, Irog! Magpahangang libing Ikaw rin ang siyang gigiliw-giliwin. Beloved! Look at the mourning Of a humble heart that is deprived Of love. The sole remedy then is that I see your magnificence And that I bemoan The suffering That I endure. My love then You will mistreat; Any suffering You will pile up on me; Be assured, beloved! Until the grave I will still be fond of you. Irog! Masdan mo ang pagtangis [ˈʔi.rog mas.ˈdan mo ʔaŋ pag.ˈta.ŋis] Beloved gaze-upon from-you the mourning Ng abang pusong api [naŋ ˈʔa.baŋ ˈpu.soŋ ʔa.ˈpi] Of humble heart-that-is Maltreated (deprived) Sa [sa Of pag-ibig pag.ˈi.big] love Tanging lunas na ngâ lamang [ˈta.ŋiŋ ˈlu.nas na ŋa ˈla.maŋ] Sole remedy now then only Di.lag mo y masilip ['di.lag moɪ ma.ˈsi.lip] Magnificence your be-seen 79

91 At [ʔat And itataghoy-taghoy ʔi.ta.tag.ˈhoɪ.tag.ˈhoɪ] bemoan Ang manga pasakit na tini-tiis [ʔaŋ ma.ˈŋa pa.ˈsa.kit na ti-ˈni-ti-ʔis] The some suffering that-is endured Yaring pag-ibig ko man [ˈja.riŋ pag.ˈʔibig ko man] This love my although Ay iyong dustain [ʔaɪ ʔi.ˈjoŋ ˈdus.ta.ˈʔin] Is your to-mistreat Madlang pasakit ibunton sa akin [mad.ˈlaŋ pa.ˈsa.kit ˈi.bun.ˈton sa ˈʔa.kin] Any suffering pile-up on mine Asahan mo, Irog! [ʔa.ˈsa.han mo ˈʔi.rog] Be-assured you Beloved Magpahangang libing [mag.pa.haŋ.ˈgaŋ li.ˈbiŋ] Until-the grave Ikaw rin ang siyang gigiliw-giliwin. [ʔi.ˈkaʊ rin ʔaŋ sjaŋ gi.ˈgi.liʊ.gi.ˈli.win] You also the one to-be-fond-of Ikaw Rin (You Also) was written in Set to a pervasive, sensual habañera rhythm, the poem first speaks of the mistreatment that a lover endures from his beloved. This thought is set in the key of A minor. The song then modulates to A major when the poet assures her that he will be fond of her until his death. Abelardo uses pitch and rhythm to bring out certain important words. For example, in the first line of text in mm , the word api (maltreated) has a tonic stress on the second 80

92 syllable pi. The composer emphasizes the word by putting this syllable at the top note of the phrase within a dotted rhythm, thus effectively enhancing the meaning of the word. Likewise, the word pag-ibig (love) which immediately follows api is set to even 8 th notes with the high note on the second syllable i. These simple means effectively emphasize the conflict of the two words. (see Music Example 26). Music Example 26: Ikaw Rin! 57 Until his death, the poet assures his lover that he will always be fond of her. This thought is the underlying theme throughout the song. 57 Ibid., p

93 11. Kundiman by Bonifacio Abdon / text by Pat Mariano Sa tapát ng laging Palangiting araw Na lumalagánap Sa dágat silángan May mutyâng masúyo t Libid kayamánan Nagíliw ang handóg Sa pusong may damdám. Oh! Báyang maligáya Ng áking pag-gíliw Pusông lakambini Ka lang salamisim Ang iyong pagluha y Sandaling pigilin Ang Kundimang ito, Mutyâ! Iyong dinggin Bulaklak ng áking Laging pinithaya Ang ikaw makitáng May sariling laya t Sa dagat Silanga y Butihing diwata, Mayama t puri, Bihis sa dalita Magandang diwata! In the presence of The ever-shining sun That spreads its rays To the eastern sea. There is a pearl that is gentle And surrounded by treasures. The offering becomes affection To the heart that feels. Oh, jubilant nation Of my affection, Heart of modesty you are, My remembrance. Hold back your cries For a moment, This Kundiman, Oh jewel! Listen Oh flower Of my fervent desire, To see you With your own freedom, And in the eastern sea Is a gentle nymph, Rich and praised, Clothed with poverty, Beautiful nymph! Sa tapát ng laging [sa ta.'pat naŋ 'la.giŋ] In front of always Palangiting [pa.la.'ngi.tiŋ Shining araw 'a.raʊ] sun Na [na That lumalagánap lu.'ma.la.'ga.nap] spreads 82

94 Sa dágat silángan [sa 'da.gat si.'la.ngan] To sea eastern May mutyâng masúyo t [maɪ mut.'jaŋ ma.'su.jot] There-is pearl gentle Libid ['li.bid Surrounded kayamánan ka.ja.'ma.nan] treasures Nagíliw ang handóg [na.'gi.liʊ ʔaŋ han.'dog] Becomesaffection the offering Sa pusong may damdám. [sa 'pu.soŋ maɪ dam.'dam] To heart-that has feelings Oh! Báyang maligáya [o 'ba.jaŋ ma.li.'ga.ja] O Nation joyful Ng áking pag-gíliw [naŋ 'ʔa.kiŋ pag:'gi.liʊ] Of my affection Pusông ['pu.soŋ Heart-of lakambini la.kam.'bi.ni] muse Ka lang salamisim [ka laŋ sa.la.'mi.sim] You just remembrance Ang iyong pagluha y [ʔaŋ ʔi.'joŋ pag.'lu.haɪ] The your crying-is Sandaling [san.da.'liŋ Momentarily pigilin pi.'gi.lin] held-back 83

95 Ang Kundimang ito, Mutyâ! [ʔaŋ kun.'di.maŋ ʔi.'to mut.'jaʔ] The Kundiman this, Jewel Iyong [i.'joŋ You dinggin diŋ.'gin] hear bulaklak ng áking [bu.lak.'lak naŋ 'ʔa.kiŋ] Flower of my Laging ['la.giŋ Always pinithaya pi.nit.'ha.jaʔ] desiring Ang ikaw makitáng [ʔaŋ ʔi.'kaʊ ma.'ki.taŋ] That you be seen May sariling laya t [maɪ sa.'ri.liŋ 'la.jat] Having own freedom-and Sa dagat Silanga y [sa 'da.gat si.'la.ŋaɪ] To sea eastern-is Butihing [bu.'ti.hiŋ Gentle Mayama t [ma.'ya.mat Rich-and diwata, di.'wa.taʔ] nymph puri, 'pu.ri] praised Bihis sa dalita [bi.'his sa da.li.'taʔ] Clothed with poverty Magandang [ma.gan.'daŋ Beautiful diwata! di.'wa.taʔ] nymph! 84

96 Bonifacio Abdon was born in 1876 in Santa Cruz, Manila. He was a violinist, conductor, composer and music teacher. At an early age he sang in the choir at the Ateneo Municipal School in Pandacan, Manila. At 13 years of age, Abdon studied violin and later composition under Ladislaw Bonus. He also worked as a valet for visiting Italian opera companies and was exposed to this venue of performing arts at age 18. Abdon was known for his Tagalog sarswela (Tagalog spelling of the Spanish zarzuela) compositions in the early 1900s. These include: Ang Sampaguita, Deni, Ang Tulisan, Luha t Dugo, and Ang Anak Ng Dagat. He also wrote music for plays by Aurelio Tolentino in , was a conductor at Carmelo s Rizal Orchestra in 1902, founded the Orchestra Oriental in 1910, and was Music Director at the Ateneo Seminary Musical Group and the Asociacion Musical de Filipinas in Abdon carried on as a successful teacher of violin in his residence in Quiapo, Manila, later known as Escuela de Violin. In 1920 he was appointed as a violin instructor at the Conservatory of Music at the University of the Philippines. One of his students was renowned Filipino violinist, Ernesto Vallejo. Bonifacio Abdon s career as a violinist, music teacher, and conductor lasted until he died of chronic nephritis in Manila on April 23, Abdon wrote Kundiman in The essence of this song lies in the use of flowery imagery in the text. The imagery depicts a longing for happiness in a country that is figuratively poor with freedom but richly blessed by her beauty. Symbolically, the beautiful nymph embodies the beauty of this country. But the melancholy minor key represents the unattainable love that this nymph so richly deserves. 58 E. Arsenio Manuel, Dictionary of the Philippine Biography, vol 1. (Quezon City: Filipiniana Publications, University of the Philippines),

97 The piano introduction contains the motivic phrase that depicts the mournful nature of the song. The melody in the first measure begins with an arpeggiated c minor chord that is colored by a lower and upper neighboring tone. The opening line of the text, Sa tapat ng laging (In the heart of always) (mm. 4-5), repeats this melody, but at palangiting araw (shining sun) (mm. 6-7), the tune contains an E natural and d-flat, outlining the harmonic minor scale. This sets up the melancholic mood that pervades the song (see Music Example 27). Music Example 27: Kundiman Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports Department of Education, Culture and Sports. Kundiman At Iba Pa. (Manila: Likhawit Enterprises, 1994), p

98 A simple harmonic progression coupled with a beautiful and lyric melody makes this an easy to sing Kundiman art song. The rhythm and harmony flow continuously throughout the entire song. 87

99 12. Bayan Ko (My Country) Music and text by Constancio De Guzman Ang bayan kong Pilipinas, Lupain ng ginto t bulaklak. Pag-íbig ang sa kanyang palad Nag-alay ng ganda t dilag. At sa kanyang yumi at ganda, Dayuhan ang nahalina Bayan ko binihag ka, Nasadlak sa dusa Ibon mang may layang lumipad, Kulungin mo at umi-iyak, Bayan pa kayang sakdal dilag Ang di magnasang maka-alpás Pilipinas kong minumutyâ, Pugad ng lúha ko t dalitâ, Aking adhikâ, Makitá kang sakdal laya! My country, the Philipines, Land of gold and flowers. Love is in her fortune Offering beauty and splendor. And with her tenderness and beauty, Strangers are attracted. My country, you were imprisoned, Trapped in suffering. A bird that has freedom to fly, When caged it cries, How much more for a majestic country, To not desire to be set free? Philippines, my beloved, Nest of my tears and poverty, My desire Is to see you completely free! Ang bayan kong Pilipinas, [ʔaŋ 'ba.jan koŋ pi.li.'pi.nas] The country my Philippines Lupain ng ginto t bulaklak. ['lu.pa.ʔin naŋ gin.'tot bu.lak.'lak] Land of gold-and flowers Pag-íbig ang sa kanyang palad [pag.'ʔib.ig ʔaŋ sa kan.'jaŋ 'pa.lad] Love the to her destiny Nag-alay ng ganda t dilag. [nag.'a.laɪ naŋ gan.'dat di.'lag] Offering of beauty-and splendor At sa kanyang yumi [ʔat sa kan.'jaŋ 'ju.mi] And to her tenderness at [ʔat and ganda, gan.'da] beauty 88

100 Dayuhan ang nahalina [da.'ju.han ʔaŋ na.ha.'li.na] Foreigners the are-attracted Bayan ko binihag ka, ['ba.jan ko bi.'ni.hag ka] Country my taken you Nasadlak sa dusa [na.sad.'lak sa 'du.sa] Fallen into suffering Ibon mang may layang lumipad, ['ʔi.bon maŋ maɪ 'la.jaŋ lu.mi.'pad] Bird that has freedom to fly Kulungin mo at umi-iyak, [ku.lu.'ŋin mo ʔat u.mi.ʔi.'jak] Encage you and cries Bayan pa kayang sakdal dilag ['ba.jan pa ka.'jaŋ sak.'dal di.'lag] Country even therefore absolute beauty Ang di magnasang maka-alpás [ʔaŋ di mag.'na.saŋ ma.ka.ʔal.'pas] The not desire to-escape Pilipinas kong minumutyâ, [pi.li.'pi.nas koŋ mi.nu.mut.'jaʔ] Philippines my beloved Pugad ng luha ko t dalita ['pu.gad naŋ 'lu.ha kot 'da.li.taʔ] Nest of tears my-and poverty Aking ['ʔa.kiŋ My adhikâ, ad.'hi.kaʔ] wish Makitá kang sakdal laya! [ma.'ki.ta kaŋ sak.'dal 'la.jaʔ] To see you completely free 89

101 Constancio Canseco De Guzman was born November 11, 1903 in Guiguinto, Bulacan and died in August 16, Having grown up in Manila, De Guzman studied piano and composition under Nicanor Abelardo. In 1928 he studied at Jose Rizal College and finished his degree in BS Commerce. Interestingly, he became a certified public accountant, having passed his board exam in But De Guzman was better known for his talents as music director for movie productions with some local companies in Manila. 60 The nationalistic appeal of Bayan Ko (My Country), written in 1929, is more evident than most Kundiman songs since the word Pilipinas, the Tagalog word for Philippines is actually mentioned in the first line. This song is perceived more as a patriotic song rather than a love song. Symbolically, it is a celebration of freedom and a remembrance of a country that has been colonized by Spain for almost four centuries. The meter is set in ¾ time signature with a melancholic mood - typical of a Kundiman art song genre. The mention of a bird desiring freedom poignantly symbolizes the desire of Filipinos to gain their own freedom. Word stress is important in performing this song. Having the proper stress provides an authentic declamation of the Tagalog text. For example, in the first phrase, Ang bayan kong Pilipinas (My country the Philippines), the important stress is placed on the third syllable of the word Pilipinas (see Music Example 28). 60 Himig: The Filipino Collection of FHL. Accessed May 21,

102 Music Example 28: Bayan Ko 61 (Used with permission from Mrs. Armida Siguion Reyna, see Appendix A) Additionally notable is the text painting in the beginning of the contrasting B section that modulates from d minor to the parallel key of D major. A slight stepwise descent of eighth notes paints a picture of a bird gliding freely in the air. This melody is repeated two lines later with text describing the longing for freedom (see Music Example 29). 61 Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports Department of Education, Culture and Sports. Kundiman At Iba Pa. (Manila: Likhawit Enterprises, 1994), p

103 Music Example 29: Bayan ko 62 (Used with permission from Mrs. Armida Siguion Reyna, see Appendix A) Likewise, the piano accompaniment mirrors the voice in stepwise descent in parallel thirds in measure 22, thus setting the text, Ibon mang may layang lumipad (A bird that has freedom to fly). The composer sometimes uses parallel intervals in the piano accompaniment to emphasize the word stress. 62 Ibid., p

104 13. Babalik Ka Rin Music and text by Constancio De Guzman Bakit kaya naulila Puso y laging may dusa Nagtatampo ang ligaya At laging may lúha ang mata? Ibon and áking katulad Na di na makalipad Dáhil sa hirap at pagod Sa paghanap ng kanyang pugad. Kung batid mo lang Ang tunay kong dinaramdam Buhat ng akó ay iwan mo, Aking sintá Babalik ka rin Upang akó ay aliwin Sa mangá tinitiís kong kalungkutan. Why is one orphaned The heart is always suffering Happiness becomes brooding And eyes that always flow with tears? I m like a bird That can no longer fly Because of the hardship and tiredness Of finding its nest. If you only knew Of my true feelings Since you left me My love. Someday you will return So that you can comfort me From the loneliness I am suffering. Bakit kaya naulila ['ba.kit ka.'ja na.ʔu.'li.laʔ] Why I-wonder orphaned Puso y laging may dusa ['pu.soɪ 'la.giŋ maɪ 'du.sa] Heart always have suffering Nagtatampo ang ligaya [nag.'ta.tam.po ʔaŋ li.'ga.ya] Sulking the happiness At laging may luha ang mata? [ʔat 'la.giŋ maɪ 'lu.ha ʔaŋ ma.'ta] And always have tears the eyes? Ibon ang aking katulad ['ʔi.bon ʔaŋ 'ʔa.kiŋ ka.'tu.lad] Bird the my likeness Na di na makalipad [na di na ma.ka.li.'pad] That not now can-fly 93

105 Dáhil sa hirap at pagod ['da.hil sa 'hi.rap ʔat 'pa.god] Because of hardship and weariness Sa paghanap ng kanyang pugad. [sa pag.'ha.nap naŋ kan.'jaŋ 'pu.gad] To finding of its nest Kung batid mo lang [kuŋ ba.'tid mo laŋ] If aware you only Ang tunay kong dinaramdam [ʔaŋ 'tu.naɪ koŋ di.na.ram.'dam] The real my feelings Buhat ng ako ay iwan mo ['bu.hat naŋ ʔa.'ko ʔaɪ 'i.wan mo] Since of I am left you Aking ['ʔa.kiŋ My sintá sin.'ta] love Babalik ka rin ['ba.ba.lik ka rin] Returning you also Upang ako ay aliwin ['ʔu.paŋ ʔa.'ko ʔaɪ ʔa.li.'win] So that I am comforted Sa mangá tinitiís kong kalungkutan. [sa ma.'ŋa ti.'ni.ti.'ʔis koŋ ka.luŋ.'ku.tan] To those suffering my loneliness. The title Babalik Ka Rin (You will return again), written in 1955, shows an ambiguity of meaning and may be interpreted as an example of an underlying theme of nationalism in 94

106 Kundiman art song. On the outside, a melancholic mood reflects the loss of a lover and the longing for his or her return. Looking beyond the literal meaning of the text, it is possible to interpret this as a yearning for freedom in a country that was denied this benefit. Images of being an orphan and a bird that is tired and can no longer fly suggest symbolisms of nationalism and a country s longing for unity and freedom. Set in a habañera rhythm, this song has a distinct downbeat that coincides with the syllabic stress of the second syllable in the word ulila (orphan), intensifying the meaning of this word. (see Music Example 30). Music Example 30: Babalik Ka Rin 63 (Used with permission from Ronaldo Villar, FILSCAP member, Manila, Philippines) Set in a modified binary or AB form, Babalik Ka Rin could be seen as a more simplistic type of Kundiman art song. In the beginning of the vocal line in mm. 5-6, Bakit kaya naulila (Why is one orphaned), the descending and ascending eighth notes are mirrored by an ascending then descending line in the bass part of the piano. This functions as harmonic support. 63 Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports Department of Education, Culture and Sports. Kundiman At Iba Pa. (Manila: Likhawit Enterprises, 1994), p

107 The gentle swaying rhythm of the vocal line supported by the doubling in the right hand of the piano part effectively brings out the melancholic mood of the song (see Music Example 31). Music Example 31: Babalik Ka Rin 64 - B section (Used with permission from Ronaldo Villar, FILSCAP member, Philippines) 64 Ibid., p

108 14. Ang Tangì Kong Pag-íbig Music and text by Constancio C. De Guzman Ang tangì kong pag-íbig Ay minsan lámang Ngunit ang yóng akalà Ay hindî tunay Hindî ka lilimutin Magpakylan pa man Habang akó ay narito At may buhay. Malasin mo t nagtitiís Nang kalungkutan Ang buhay kong unti-unti Nang pumapánaw. Wari ko ba sintá Ako y mamámatáy Kung di ikaw ang kapíling Habang buhay. My only love Happens just once. But what you are thinking Is not true. I will not forget you Forever more While I am here And alive. Curse me and I suffer With loneliness. My life that slowly Is fading. It seems that I will die If you are not by my side While I am alive. Ang tangi kong pag-íbig [ʔaŋ 'ta.ŋi koŋ pag.'ʔíbig] The only my love Ay minsan lamang. [ʔaɪ min.san 'la.maŋ] Is once only. Ngunit ang yong akalà [ŋu.nit ʔaŋ joŋ ʔa.'ka.la] But the your belief Ay hindî tunay [ʔaɪ hin.'di 'tu.naɪ] Is not real. Hindî ka lilimútin [hin.'di ka li.li.'mu.tin] Not you will-forget Magpakaylan pa man [mag.pa.kaɪ.'lan pa man] Forever still indeed 97

109 Habang ako ay narito ['ha.baŋ ʔa.'ko ʔaɪ na.ri.'to] While I am here At may buhay. [ʔat maɪ 'bu.haɪ] And have life Malasin mo t nagtitiís [ma.'la sin mot nag.'ti.ti.ʔis] Look-at your-and suffering Nang [naŋ Of kalungkutan ka.luŋ.'ku.tan] loneliness Ang buhay kong unti-unti [ʔaŋ 'bu.haɪ koŋ ʔun.ti.ʔun.'ti] The life my small Nang [naŋ That puma-panaw. pu.ma.'pa.naʊ] fades-away. Wari ko ba sintá [wa.ri ko ba sin.'ta] It-seems my so beloved. Ako y [ʔa.'koɪ I will mamamatay ma.'ma.ma.taɪ] die. Kung di ikaw ang kapiling [kuŋ di ʔi.'kaʊ ʔaŋ ka.'pi.liŋ] If not you the near Habang ['ha.baŋ While buhay. bu.haɪ] alive. Ang Tangi Kong Pag-ibig, written in 1955, is an example of a simple love song. According to the poem, the main character cannot live without his or her loved one. The key 98

110 signature begins and ends in g minor, suggesting a melancholy mood. De Guzman does not follow the typical ¾ time signature of a Kundiman art song. Instead, he uses a 2/4 time signature in habañera form. The melody line complements the rhythmic accompaniment with smooth flowing quarter notes and eighth notes. This pleasant swaying effect in the melody resembles the waves of a calm sea. The overall pulse of the quarter notes and eighth notes is juxtaposed with lilting sixteenth notes. Interestingly, these sixteenth notes function as an anacrusis to the strong downbeat of the measure, supporting the inflection of the word pag-íbig or love, with the stress falling on the second syllable (see Music Example 32). Music Example 32: Ang Tángi Kong Pag-íbig 65 (Used with permission from Ronaldo Villar, FILSCAP member, Philippines) 65 Ibid., p

111 In all cases, a combination of the prefix pag (to do [something]) with a hyphen connected to a root word produces the effect of a glottal sound on the first vowel in íbig, which in itself means, desire. Syllabic accent in the melody is achieved by enhancing the inflection of the phrase ang tángi kong pag-íbig, with the main syllabic stress on the second syllable of the word pag-íbig. This is followed by the text ay minsan lámang (is only a fleeting moment). In this phrase, the word lámang (only) is emphasized and a syllabic stress is placed on the syllable la. The composer made careful attempts to set the text properly by placing the proper accents on the right syllables. In mm , the text nang pumapanaw (that fades away) is set in a pattern of descending notes (see Music Example 33). Music Example 33: Ang Tángi Kong Pag-íbig 66 (Used with permission from Suarez Music Publishing Co., Quezon City, Philippines) The meaning of the text pumapanaw (fades away) is enhanced when it is set by this descending pattern of notes. Specifically, in measure 29 the third syllable pa of pumapanaw is emphasized by a quarter note downbeat in the piano, followed by a stepwise downward 66 Ibid., p

112 descent of another quarter note chord. A downward descending note pattern signifies a text painting that elaborates the sorrowful character of the word pumapanaw (fades away). The frequent use of the /a/ vowel and nasalized /ng/ consonant in the Tagalog language helps to maintain a smooth legato line in terms of diction for singing. When pronouncing the word pag-íbig one should not aspirate the ending /g/ consonant. Be careful to pronounce a glottal /i/ after the prefix. 101

113 15. Dáhil Sa Iyó by Miguel Velarde, Jr. / text by Dominador Santiago Sa buhay ko y labis Ang hirap at pasakit, Ng pusong umi-íbig Mandi y walâ ng langit At ng lumigaya. Hinango mo sa dusa, Tánging ikaw, Sintá, Ang áking pag-asa. Dáhil sa yo, Na-is kong mabuhay. Dáhil sa yo, Hanggang mamatáy. Dapat mong tantuin, Walâ ng ibang giliw, Puso ko y tanungin, Ikaw at ikaw rin. Dáhil sa yo, Ako y lumigaya, Pagmamahál ay alayan ka, Kung tunay man Ako ay alipinin mo Ang lahat sa buhay ko y Dáhil sa yo! In my life that exceeds in Hardship and pain, From a heart that loves, That knows no heaven And joy. You save me from suffering Only you, my love, Are my hope. Because of you, I wish to live. Because of you, Until I die. You should realize, There is no other love but you, Ask my heart, It is you and only you. Because of you, I will be joyful, Love is offered to you, If it is true Then enslave me Everything in my life Is because of you! Sa buhay ko y labis [sa 'bu.haɪ koɪ 'la.bis] To life my-is excess Ang hirap at pasakit, [ʔaŋ 'hi.rap ʔat pa.'sa.kit] The hardship and pain Ng pusong umi-íbig [naŋ 'pu.soŋ ʔu.mi.'ʔibig] Of heart-that loves Mandi y walâ ng langit. [man.'di wa.'la naŋ 'la.ŋit] Realizes nothing of heaven 102

114 At ng lumigaya [ʔat naŋ lu.mi.'ga.ja] And of to be happy Hinango mo sa dusa, [hi.'na.ŋo mo sa 'du.sa] Extract you of suffering Tánging ikaw, Sintá, ['ta.ŋiŋ ʔi.'kaʊ sin.'ta] Only you beloved Ang aking pag-asa. [ʔaŋ 'ʔa.kiŋ pag.'ʔa.sa] The my hope Dáhil sa yo, ['da.hil sa jo] Because of you Na-is kong mabuhay. ['na.ʔis koŋ ma.'bu.haɪ] I-wish me-to live Dáhil sa yo, ['da.hil sa jo] Because of you Hanggang [haŋ.'gaŋ Until mamatáy. ma.ma.'taɪ] death Dapat mong tantuin, ['da.pat moŋ tan.tu.'win] Should you realize Walâ ng ibang giliw, [wa.'la naŋ ʔi.'baŋ 'gi.liʊ] None of other love Puso ko y tanungin, ['pu.so koɪ ta.nu.'ŋin] Heart my ask 103

115 Ikaw at ikaw rin. [ʔi.'kaʊ ʔat ʔi.'kaʊ rin] You and you too Dáhil sa yo, ['da.hil sa jo] Because of you Ako y [ʔa.'koɪ I will lumigaya, lu.mi.'ga.ja] be happy Pagmamahál ay alayan ka, [pag.'ma.ma.'hal ʔaɪ ʔa.'la.jan ka] Love is offered you Kung tunay man [kuŋ 'tu naɪ man] If true indeed Ako ay alipinin mo [ʔa.'ko ʔaɪ ʔa.li.'pi.nin mo] I am enslave you Ang lahat sa buhay ko y [ʔaŋ la.'hat sa 'bu.haɪ koɪ] The all of life my-is Dáhil sa yo! ['da.hil sa jo] Because of you At an early age, Miguel Velarde, Jr. ( ) learned to play piano and violin from his mother. At the Zamboanga Normal School he was a member of the school orchestra. Although he began to study Medicine at the University of the Philippines, Velarde soon realized that his real passion was music and soon began to study harmony and composition from Antonio Molina and Ariston Avelino. As a jazz arranger and composer, he performed in a weekly show, Stardust Program. Velarde found a new career composing film scores with Sampaguita Films, a 104

116 company in which he became the advertising manager. During the Japanese Occupation, Velarde became the music director for Avenue Theater. His concert arrangement of a folk song Planting Rice was well-received by the audience. Velarde s talents also extended to story writing and screenplay, winning an award from the Filipino Movie Arts and Sciences (FAMAS) for Luksang Tagumpay (1960). As a song composer, Verlarde s early influences were Irving Berlin and Cole Porter. 67 Dahil Sa Yo (Because of You), written in 1938, has long been a favorite among Filipinos not only because of its beautiful melody but also because of its ability to reach out to the nationalistic sentiment of the people in the Philippines. It speaks of unrequited love for one s beloved and yet she is the symbol of hope for his life. If taken in the context of nationalism, Dáhil sa yo or Because of you can be interpreted as the love for one s own motherland and how she is the reason for living. Unrequited love is the subject matter of the first stanza. This plaintive song in ABB form begins in the key of f minor in the A section and proceeds in the B section to the parallel key of F major, signifying a shift from sorrow to hopefulness. The A section is made up of a two-measure melody with a poignant appoggiatura, sequenced in descending motion. This melodic sequencing strengthens the expression of despair moving to hope in the verse (see Music Example 34). 67 Helen F.Samson, Contemporary Filipino Composers: Biographical Interviews, (Quezon City: Manlapaz Publishing Company, 1976). 105

117 Music Example 34: Dahil Sa Yo 68 The beginning words of the B section, dáhil sa yo (because of you) are very important since they are the crux of the song. Perhaps a singer should evoke a feeling of gratefulness or love to accurately capture the mood of the song (see Music Example 35). 68 Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports Department of Education, Culture and Sports. Kundiman At Iba Pa. (Manila: Likhawit Enterprises, 1994), p

118 Music Example 35: Dahil Sa 'Yo Ibid. 107

119 16. Lahat Ng Araw by Miguel Velarde, Jr. / text by Dominador Santiago Verse: Sa bawat sandali Tayo ay magkapíling Ang bawat lunggáti Pakinggán ang hiling, Ang puso ko t budhi Ay hindî sinungáling Sana ay ulinígin, Damdamin ko giliw. Chorus (duet): Asáhan pangárap nitong buhay Lahat ng araw Kitá y mamahálin. Iwasan ang iyong alinlangan Lahat ng araw Kitá y mamahálin. Verse: Sa labis ng imbing kamatayan Itángi yaring pagmamahál Chorus (duet): Tulutang magtapat sa iyó hirang Lahat ng araw kitá y mamahálin. Every moment We are together Every aspiration Listen to my plea, My heart and conscience Does not lie. Wishing you would hearken To what I am feeling, beloved. Be assured, my life s dream Is to love you All of my days. Avoid your doubts All of my days, I will love you. From the certainty of death Set my love free. Allow me to confess to you, my beloved, I will love you all of my days. Sa báwa t sandalì [sa 'ba.wat san.da.'liʔ] With every moment Táyo ay magkapíling ['ta.jo ʔaɪ mag.ka.'pi.liŋ] We are near each other Ang báwa t lunggáti [ʔaŋ ba.wat luŋ.'ga.tiʔ] The every fervent wish Pakinggán ang hiling, [pa.kiŋ.'gan ʔaŋ 'hi.liŋ] Hear the request 108

120 Ang puso ko t budhi [ʔaŋ 'pu.so kot bud.'hiʔ] The heart my-and conscience Ay hindî sinungáling [ʔaɪ hin.'di si.nu.'ŋa.liŋ] Is not a-lie Sana ay ulinigin, ['sa.na ʔaɪ ʔu.li.'ni.gin] Hope-that is to-hear Damdamin ko giliw. [dam.da.'min ko 'gi.liʊ] Feel I beloved Asahan pangárap nitong buhay [ʔa.'sa.han pa.'ŋa.rap ni.'toŋ 'bu.haɪ] Expect dream of-this life Lahat ng araw ['la.hat naŋ 'ʔa.raʊ] All of days Kitá y [ki.'taɪ You I will mamahálin. 'ma.ma.ha.'lin] love Iwasan ang iyong alinlangan [ʔi.'wa.san ʔaŋ ʔi.'joŋ ʔa.lin.'la.ŋan] Avoid the your worry Lahat ng araw [la.'hat naŋ 'ʔa.raʊ] All of days Kitá y [ki.'taɪ You-I mamahálin. 'ma.ma.ha.'lin] will-love Sa labis ng imbing kamatayan [sa 'la.bis naŋ ʔim.'biŋ ka.ma.'ta.jan] To excess of iminent death 109

121 Itángi yaring pagmamahál [ʔi.'ta.ŋi 'ja.ring pag.'ma.ma.'hal] Distinguish this love Tulutang magtapat sa yo hirang [tu.'lu.taŋ mag.'ta.pat sa jo 'hi.raŋ] Allow to-be-honest to you chosen Lahat ng araw [la.'hat naŋ 'ʔa.raʊ] All of days Kitá y [ki.'taɪ You-I-will mamahálin. 'ma.ma.ha.'lin] love This text by Dominador Santiago is another example of his expressive poetry. The author uses a form of rhyming scheme as a poetic device. The poetry flows with regularity. In addition, the strong and weak syllables that frequently appear in most words enhance the beauty of the text and the simplicity of the melody. For example, in the B section, the phrase, Asahan pangárap nitong buhay or Hope for the dream of this life contains syllables that follow a weak to strong syllabic pattern, which is slightly similar to the iambic pentameter. I have underlined the stressed syllables and these should be pronounced with such syllabic stresses in mind. The word sandali or moment in the beginning stanza requires a glottal stop in the last syllable [san.da.liʔ]. Another glottal stop is found in budhi or conscience within the last syllable hi of budhi [bud.hiʔ] (see Music Example 36). 110

122 Music Example 36: Lahat Ng Araw 70 However, a combination of glottal stops and weak and strong syllabic stresses create a linguistic mixture that can be pleasing to listener. Note that the melodic pattern of this song is simple and repetitive. But this does not diminish the beauty of this song. In fact this simplicity is what the composer seems to be striving for. Therefore, the beauty of the poetry is enhanced without the addition of a difficult melodic theme. The duet in the B section is also noteworthy. Although this is mainly a solo piece, a second line of harmony that runs in parallel and contrary motion is the main feature of this song and complements the melody line (See Music Example 37). 70 Ibid., p

123 Music Example 37: Lahat Ng Araw 71 The piano accompaniment is simple and chordal; the top line mimics the contour of the melody line. In measure 28, the d minor chord is suspended in the second scale degree to achieve the slight elusiveness of the dream of life, which is love. The texture of the chords is not very dense and therefore complements the simplicity of the melody line. This does not require much vocal agility but rather a simple and smooth legato line. The performer might consider using a lighter sound. 71 Ibid., p

124 17. Ugoy Ng Duyan by Lucio San Pedro / text by Levi Celerio Sanay di nagmáliw Ang dati kong araw, Nang munti pang bata Sa piling ni Nanay; Nais ko y ma-úlit Ang áwit ni Inang mahál, Áwit ng pag-íbig Habang akó y na sa duyan. Sa áking pagtulog Na labis ang himbing, Ang bantay ko y tala Ang tanod ko y bit win; Sa piling ni Nanay Langit ang buhay! Puso kong may dusa y Sabik sa ugoy ng duyan Íbig kong matulog Sa dating duyan ko Inang. I wish my former days Did not disappear, When just a child In the arms of my Mother; I wish to repeat The song of my beloved mother, The song of love While I was in the cradle. In my sleep, My gentle deep sleep, My guardians are the planets; My keepers are the stars; In the presence of my mother Life is heavenly! My heart with suffering Yearns for the swing of the cradle. I wish to sleep In my old cradle, mother. Sanay di nagmáliw ['sa.naɪ di nag.'ma.liʊ] Wishing not disappear Ang dati kong araw, [ʔaŋ 'da.ti koŋ 'ʔa.raʊ] The former my days Nang munti pang bata [naŋ mun.'ti paŋ 'ba.ta] When tiny still child Sa piling ni Nanay; [sa 'pi.liŋ ni 'na.naɪ] In-the side of Mother Nais ko y ma-ulit ['na.ʔis koɪ ma.'ʔu.lit] Wishing I-am to repeat Ang áwit ni Inang mahál, [ʔaŋ 'ʔa.wit ni ʔi.'naŋ ma.'hal] The song of Mother beloved 113

125 Áwit ng pag-íbig ['ʔa.wit naŋ pag.'ʔi.big] Song of love Habang ako y na sa duyan. ['ha.baŋ ʔa.'koɪ na sa 'du.jan] While I still in cradle Sa aking pagtulog [sa 'ʔa.kiŋ pag.'tu.log] In my sleep Na labis ang himbing, [na 'la.bis ʔaŋ him.'biŋ] That excess the slumber Ang bantay ko y tala [ʔaŋ ban.'taɪ koɪ 'ta.la] The guardian my-is stars Ang tanod ko y bit win; [ʔaŋ 'ta.nod koɪ bit.'win] The custodian my-is stars Sa piling ni Nanay [sa 'pi.liŋ ni 'na.naɪ] In-the side of mother Langit ang buhay! ['la.ŋit ʔaŋ 'bu.haɪ] Heaven the life Puso kong may dusa y ['pu.so koŋ maɪ 'du.saɪ] Heart my have suffering Sabik sa ugoy ng duyan [sa.'bik sa 'ʔu.goɪ naŋ 'du.jan] Yearning to swing of cradle Íbig kong matulog ['i.big koŋ ma.'tu.log] I wish my to-sleep 114

126 Sa dating duyan ko, Inang. [sa 'da.tiŋ 'du.jan ko i.'naŋ] To former cradle my mother Lucio San Pedro was born in 1913 in Angono, Rizal in the Philippines. He died in 2002 in Quezon City, Philippines at the age of 89. As a teen, he began his music career as an organist for a local church. Later, he studied composition with Bernard Wagenaar as well as harmony and orchestration with Vittorio Giannini. Spending the rest of his career teaching at Ateneo de Manila University and at the College of Music at the University of the Philippines, he later retired in 1978 as a full professor. In 1991 he received the National Artist for Music award. 72 Ugoy Ng Duyan (Swinging of the Cradle) was written in This text by Levi Celerio depicts the speaker reminiscing of the old days when he was a child in the arms of his mother and wishing they would come back again. Images of a rocking cradle with the tenderness of a mother s love seem to fill his memories. The stars accompany him at night and being with his mother is a heavenly delight to him. She provides for him a general feeling of safety and security. But those days are gone. The beauty of this poetry seems to lie in the subject matter that most listeners can relate to: being safe in the arms of one s own mother. It is set in a prose style with no rhyming schemes but is beautifully enhanced by the choice of descriptive words and imageries. The melody itself is not wildly flourishing in character since the vocal line is contained in a limited range, about a third above and below C5. The tessitura of the song settles around C5 and can be easily sung by a high or medium voice, either male or female. Flowing eighth notes 72 Himig: The Filipino Collection of FHL. Accessed May 21,

127 in a ¾ time signature embodies the gentle character of this song. The melodic simplicity of the vocal line symbolically depicts a humble child. This modest range in vocal contours creates a somewhat contemplative mood. This lyrical vocal line is not very difficult to sing. Therefore it leaves room for a performer to be expressive, as the performer becomes mesmerized by the tangential hints of major and minor key qualities on a single vocal line. However, it would be the performer s job to break the monotone-like quality of the melody by expressing the meaning of the text. It is not unlike a monologue in which the meaning of the text has to be apparent through skillful acting and declamation of the text. The role of the piano in the beginning creates a certain mood. In particular, the accompaniment portrays a gentle lullaby through the repeated quarter notes that move back and forth in stepwise motion (see Music Example 38). 116

128 Music Example 38: Ugoy Ng Duyan 73 The pedal tone in the left hand, with its eighth notes on the afterbeats, contrasts with the alternating fourths and fifths in the right hand. By juxtaposing the vocal line with the somewhat dissonant but linear motion of the piano accompaniment, the similarly lyric but slightly linear melody line further creates a dissonance with the accompaniment that expresses a feeling of longing for the days that have long been gone as an infant. Lucio San Pedro s use of a thinly textured accompaniment is a contrast to the flourishing chordal accompaniments of his predecessors, Abelardo and Santiago. San Pedro s use of dissonance enables the listener to perceive a more pensive view of the text and melody. The lack of a third enables the listener to perceive a more pensive view. 73 Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports Department of Education, Culture and Sports. Kundiman At Iba Pa. (Manila: Likhawit Enterprises, 1994), p

129 18. Hindî Kitá Malímot Music and text by Josefino Cenizal Sa pangárap ko lámang Lagi kang nakikíta Dáhil sa nawawalâ y Ka sa akin sintá Ako y duma-dalángin Lalo na kay Bathála Upang huag kang lumímot Pagkât mahál kitá. Hindî kitá malímot Ala-ála kitá Hindî kitá malímot Minámahál kitá Isinúsumpâ ko Sa yong kagandáhan Na ikaw lámang Ang tángi kong paralúman. Hindî kitá malímot Huag kang madimdíman Hindî kitá malímot Manálig ka sintá At kung ikaw man ang lumímot Iyong ala-lahánin Mahál pa rin kitá. Only in my dreams Do I see you always, Because you are separated From me, beloved. I am praying To God even more, So that you will not forget, Because I love you. I cannot forget you, You are in my mind. I cannot forget you, Because I love you. I swear To your beauty, That only you Are my sole inspiration. I cannot forget you. Do not worry, I cannot forget you. Trust me darling, And if you Forget, Remember I still love you. Sa pangárap ko lámang [sa pa.'ŋa.rap ko 'la.maŋ] In dreams my only Lagi kang nakikíta ['la.gi kaŋ na.ki.'ki.ta] Always you I-see Dáhil sa nawawalâ y ['da.hil sa na.'wa.wa.'laɪ] Because of separating 118

130 Ka sa akin sintá [ka sa 'ʔa.kin sin.'ta] You from me beloved Ako y [ʔa.'koɪ I-am duma-dalángin du.'ma.da.'la.ŋin] praying Lalo na kay Bathala [la.lo na kaɪ bat.'ha.laʔ] Even-more now to God Upang huag kang lumimot ['ʔu.paŋ hwag kaŋ lu.'mi.mot] So-that not you forget Pagkat mahál kitá. [pag.'kat ma.'hal ki.'ta] Because I-love you Hindî kitá malímot [hin.'di ki.'ta ma.'li.mot] Not you-i forget Ala-ála [ʔa.la.'ʔa.la Remembrance kitá ki.'ta] you Hindî kitá malímot [hin.'di ki.'ta ma.'li.mot] Not you-i forget Minámahál [mi.'na.ma.'hal I-love Isinúsumpâ [i.si.'nu.sum.'pa Promise kitá ki.'ta] you ko ko] my Sa yong kagandáhan [sa joŋ ka.gan.'da.han] To your beauty 119

131 Na ikaw lámang [na ʔi.'kaʊ 'la.maŋ] That you only Ang tángi kong paralúman. [ʔaŋ 'ta.ŋi koŋ pa.ra.'lu.man] The favorite my muse Hindî kitá malímot [hin.'di ki.'ta ma.'li.mot] Not you-i forget Huag kang madimdíman [hwag kaŋ ma.dim.'dím.an] Don t you worry Hindî kitá malímot [hin.'di ki.'ta ma.'li.mot] Not you-i forget Manálig ka sintá [ma.'na.lig ka sin.'ta] Trust me beloved At kung ikaw man [ʔat kuŋ ʔi.'kaʊ man] And if you indeed ang [ʔaŋ The-one Iyong [ʔi.'joŋ You lumímot lu.'mi.mot] who-forgets ala-lahánin ʔa.'la.la.'ha.nin] remember Mahál pa rin kitá. [ma.'hal pa rin ki.'ta] I-love now still you Josefino Cenizal was born on September 14, 1919 in Tanza, Cavite, a province located south of Manila. At the age of eight, his mother enrolled Cenizal to take piano lessons from 120

132 Francisco Santiago at the University of the Philippines. Santiago reluctantly accepted him since Cenizal did not read music. Santiago would teach him only if he performed all the assigned lessons. Cenizal also took voice lessons from Reysio-Cruz and Mossesgeld Santiago. In 1948 he received a law degree from the Manila Law College. Later on he received a Foreign Service degree from Lyceum in Cenizal is known for his love song compositions. 74 Although his song Hindî kitá malímot has been performed by popular artists, the original composition in 1940 with piano accompaniment is written in a classical Kundiman style. The lyrical style of the melody allows the singer to sing with legato phrasing. In the opening line, the word pangárap or dream should have a stress on the second syllable even if it is set with a fermata. There should be a momentary hold after the first fermata on the second syllable of pangárap in order to make sense of this word. Similarly, one should not give too much emphasis on the fermata sign of the word sa in sa akin sintá or from me, my beloved because the main stress is on the first syllable of akin. There should also be a slight emphasis on this word and a glottal /a/ sound will help to give this needed emphasis. These syllabic emphases should be on other important words as well. The word dumadalángin should have a stress on the penultimate syllable. But in this case the composer had already set this to music by using a half note on this syllable. Throughout the song the composer uses a fermata at the second beat of the beginning measures of the main thematic material, which is seen in the opening phrase of the refrain Hindî kitá malímot, ala-ála kitá or I cannot forget you, you are in my mind. Most of these fermatas occur during the anacrusis to the downbeat of the main theme (see Music Example 39). 74 Himig: The Filipino Collection of FHL. Accessed May 21,

133 Music Example 39: Hindi Kita Malimot 75 In the opening line of the refrain, the fermata occurs on the word hindî (cannot) with a stress on the second syllable. Rubato should be used on the important words, such as minámahál or I love giving a stress on the last syllable hal from the word. The phrase that follows, ala-ála kitá should be performed with a glottal stop on each of the word units (ala-ála) in order to sound authentic. These syllabic stresses were not necessarily specified by the composer but the decision is left to the singer to slightly modify the note values to allow for the proper declamation of the text. 75 The Women s Board of the Manila Symphony Society, Pag-ibig Song Book, no publisher listed, no published date, p

134 19. Ang Una Kong Pag-íbig Music and text by Francisco Buencamino Sa tapát ng áking Masuyúing puso May isáng laráwang Nagbigáy siphayò Tahímik kong búhay Daglíng iguinúho Sa ubod ng balisang wari y Di maitatágo. May sakláp at may tamís Kung akin ngang nam-námin Ang búnga ng púnong Sa puso ko y nataním Di mai-isásan Ng akin ngang panimdím Diliguín ng lúhang Bumalóng sa aliw. Langit na ligáya Anóng sakláp nga ng umíbig Lalo t kung ang dáhil Ay hindî nababatíd Kauláyaw kang lagui Nga ng pangánib Sa báwa t tibók ng puso Ay pagtiti-ís. Kauláyaw kang lagui Ng ala-ála sa pangánib Sa báwa t tibók ng puso Ay pagtiti-ìs. In the middle of my Tender heart, There is one image That has given me despair. My peaceful life Is suddenly troubled. At the source, worry seems It cannot be hidden. I can taste the bittersweetness When I savor The fruit of the tree, That is planted in my heart. I cannot detach it From my feelings. Sprinkle it with tears That flow with comfort. Heavenly joy, How bitter it is to love Especially if the reason for love Is misunderstood. We are always a pair, While in distress With every beat of the heart Is enduring. We are always a pair That remembers the suffering Every beat of the heart Is enduring. Sa tapát ng áking [sa ta.'pat naŋ 'ʔa.kiŋ] From sincerity of my Masuyúing [ma.su.'ju.ʔiŋ Tender puso 'pu.so] heart May isáng laráwang [maɪ ʔi.'saŋ la.'ra.waŋ] There-is one image-that 123

135 Nagbigáy [nag.bi.'gaɪ Gave siphayò sip.'ha.jo] mistreatment Tahímik kong búhay [ta.'hí.mik koŋ 'bu.haɪ] Peaceful my life Daglíng [dag.'liŋ Suddenly iguinúho i.gi.'nu.ho] troubled Sa ubod ng balisang wari y [sa 'ʔu.bod naŋ ba.li.'saŋ 'wa.ri] At core of worry seems Di [di Not maitatágo ma.ʔi.ta.'ta.go] be-hidden May sakláp at may tamis [maɪ sak.'lap ʔat maɪ ta.'mis] There-is bitterness and there-is sweetness Kung akin ngang nam-námin [Kuŋ 'ʔa.kin ŋaŋ nam.'na.min] If I indeed taste Ang búnga ng púnong [ʔaŋ 'bu.ŋa naŋ 'pu.noŋ] The fruit of tree-that Sa puso ko y nataním [sa 'pu.so koɪ na.ta.nim] Of heart mine planted Di [di Not mai-isásan ma.ʔi.ʔi.'sa.san] separable Ng akin ngang panimdím [naŋ ʔa.kin ŋaŋ pa.nim.dim] Of my indeed feelings 124

136 Diliguín ng lúhang [di.li.'gin naŋ 'lu.haŋ] Water-it with tears-that Bumalóng sa aliw. [bu.ma.'loŋ sa 'ʔa.liʊ] Flow with comfort Langit na ligáya ['la.ŋit na li.'ga.ja] Heaven that-is happiness Anóng sakláp nga ng umibig [ʔa.'noŋ sak.'lap ŋa naŋ ʔu.'mi.big] How bitter indeed that loves Lalo t kung ang dáhil ['la.lot kuŋ ʔaŋ 'da.hil] More-and if the reason Ay hindî nababatíd [ʔaɪ hin.'di na.'ba.ba.'tid] Is not understood Kauláyaw kang lagi [ka.ʔu.'la.jaʊ kaŋ la.gi] Companion you always Nga ng pangánib [ŋa naŋ pa.'ŋa.nib] That of danger Sa báwa t tibók ng puso [sa 'ba.wat ti.'bok naŋ pu.so ] To every beat of heart Ay [ʔaɪ Is pagtiti-ís. pag.ti.ti.ʔis] suffering Kauláyaw kang lagi [ka.ʔu.'la. jaʊ kaŋ 'la.gi] Companion you always 125

137 Ng ala-ála sa pangánib [naŋ ʔa.la.'ʔa.la sa pa.'ŋa.nib] Of memory of peril Sa báwa t tibók ng puso [sa 'ba.wat ti.'bok naŋ pu.so ] To every beat of heart Ay [ʔaɪ Is pagtiti-ìs. pag.ti.ti.ʔis] suffering Francisco Buencamino, Sr. ( ) was born in San Miguel de Mayumo, Bulacan. At an early age he was taught music by his father, Fortunato Buencamino who was a church organist and band master. Later in his teens he studied composition and harmony under Marcelo Adonay at the Liceo de Manila. Buencamino composed a number of Tagalog operettas, or Tagalog sarswelas, such as Marcelo (1904), Si Tio Selo (1904, Yayang (1905) and Pangakong Hindi Natupad (1905). At the turn of the century, Buencamino began to teach at the Ateneo de Manila University. He was also head of the music department for 30 years at the Centro de Señoritas University. In 1930 he founded the Buencamino Music Academy where Nicanor Abelardo was one of his students. 76 This song composition by Buencamino is in ternary form ABBC. The melody begins with a melancholic mood in g minor that reminds the poet of the bittersweet memories that he felt with his beloved. Words like larawan (image) and siphayò (despair) are central to the mood of the first stanza. The text describes a despairing heart that has been neglected. This 76 C. Quirino, Who s who in Philippine history, (Manila: Tahanan Books, 1995). 126

138 exposition in the key of g minor pertains to the physical image of a loved one that has suddenly reminded him of the hurt that he had felt before (see Music Example 40). Music Example 40: Ang Una Kong Pag-ibig 77 - A section A modulation to its relative major key of B-flat signifies a new section that has a glimmer of hope despite the bittersweet attitude of the central character. Words such as tamis (sweetness) and bunga (fruit) create a hint of optimism. The rhythmic and melodic motifs have suddenly developed into a more forward moving flow of new music material. This is 77 The Women s Board of the Manila Symphony Society, Pag-ibig Song Book, no publisher listed, no published date. 127

139 evident in the dotted eighth and sixteenth note combination that is preceded by an anacrusis in the beginning of the B section (see Music Example 41). Music Example 41: Ang Una Kong Pag-ibig 78 - B section Finally, the song concludes in the third stanza in measure 43 with confidence in the C section. It does not return to its relative minor key of g minor but modulates to a parallel key of G major in measure 44 (see Music Example 42). 78 Ibid., p

140 Music Example 42: Ang Una Kong Pag-ibig 79 - C section This symbolizes a victorious arrival of happiness. Furthermore, this confidence is manifested in the expansion of the vocal range that peaks to a B5 with a fermata at the poco animato section. The piano accompaniment also develops into a fuller texture and builds to a climax of tremolos at the very end. It is the lover s perseverance and determination that gives him this hope and joy - the idea that everything will be better in the end. 79 Ibid., p

141 The vocal range and tessitura of this song is suitable for a tenor or a soprano. It lies in the voice s middle and upper range, up to a high note of B5. The fact that it has a very high note in the end makes it a more advanced level in terms of vocal range. 130

142 20. Ulila Sa Pag-íbig by J.S. de Hernandez / text by Deogracias A. Rosario Sa oras ng paglubog Ng araw na may hapis, Lumuluha ang buong daigdig Naulila sa pag-íbig Ang buntong hininga Sa tubig naririnig, Ng dibdib ng kanlurang May daluyong ng hinagpis. Sandaling malungkót Sa pusong sumisintá, Lalo t nalilining Na ang sukli y pangamba; At kung takip silim, Ay anong ligaya Ng mamatáy dáhil Sa pagkaulila. At the hour of sunset, At sun that is covered, The whole world cries For the one orphaned from love. A sighing breath From the water is heard, In the heart of the west There is a surge of lament. Easily saddened Is the heart that loves, It becomes more so And is strickened with anxiety; And at twilight, What joy it is To die because Of being orphaned. Sa oras ng paglubog [sa 'ʔo.ras naŋ pag.lu.'bog] At hour of setting Ng araw na may hapis [naŋ 'ʔa.raʊ na maɪ ha.'pis] Of sun that has cover Lumuluha ang buong daigdig [lu.mu.'lu.haʔ ʔaŋ bu.'ʔong da.ʔig.'dig] Crying the whole world Naulila sa pag-íbig [na.ʔu.'li.laʔ sa pag.'ʔí.big] Orphaned of love Ang buntong hininga [ʔaŋ bun.'toŋ hi.ni.'ŋaʔ] The sighing breath Sa tubig naririnig, [sa 'tu.big na.ri.ri.'nig] From water heard 131

143 Ng dibdib ng kanlurang [naŋ dib.'dib naŋ kan.'lu.raŋ] Of heart of west May daluyong ng hinagpis. [maɪ da.'lu.yoŋ naŋ hi.nag.'pis] There-is surge of lament Sandaling [san.da.'liŋ Quickly malungkót ma.luŋ.'kot] sad Sa pusong sumisintá, [sa 'pu.soŋ su.mi.sin.'ta] To heart that-loves Lalo t ['la.lot Becomes nalilining na.li.'li.niŋ] gloomy Na ang sukli y pangamba; [na ʔaŋ suk.'li pa.ŋam.'ba] That the result-is suspicion At kung takip silim, [ʔat kuŋ ta.'kip 'si.lim] And when covering dusk Ay anong ligaya [ʔaɪ a.'noŋ li.'ga.ja] Oh what joy Ng mamatáy dáhil [naŋ ma.ma.'taɪ 'da.hil] Of to-die because Sa [sa Of pagkaulila. pag.ka.ʔu.'li.laʔ] being-orphaned. Sa oras ng paglubog [sa 'ʔo.ras naŋ pag.lu.'bog] At hour of setting 132

144 Ng araw na may hapis [naŋ 'a.raʊ na maɪ ha.'pis] Of sun that has anguish Lumuluha ang buong daigdig [lu.mu.'lu.haʔ ʔaŋ bu.'ʔong da.ʔig.'dig] Crying the whole world Naulila sa pag-íbig [na.u.'li.laʔ sa pag.'ʔi.big] Orphaned of love Ang buntong hininga [ʔaŋ bun.'toŋ hi.ni.'ŋa] The sighing breath Sa tubig naririnig, [sa 'tu.big na.ri.ri.'nig] From water heard Ng dibdib ng kanlurang [naŋ dib.'dib naŋ kan.'lu.raŋ] Of heart of west Juan de Sahagun Concepcion Hernandez was born on June 12, 1881 in Sampaloc, Manila. In 1901 he graduated with a law degree from the Escuela de Derechos which was later integrated into the University of Santo Tomas. However, Hernandez decided not to take the bar exam. Instead, he pursued a career in music. At the age of eighteen he wrote his first waltz. He later composed a total of fifteen waltzes and was referred to as the Johann Strauss of the Philippines. He earned his bachelor s degree in music from the Conservatory of Music at the University of the Philippines. In addition to his fifteen waltzes, Hernandez wrote eight orchestral arrangements, fourteen songs, six religious manuscripts, three marches, a number of operettas, a concerto, several piano arrangements, three chamber music, three sarswelas and composed 133

145 fifteen Kundiman art songs. In 1945, Hernandez died during a bomb blast when the Japanese had occupied the Philippines in World War II. 80 Ulila Sa Pag-ibig (Orphan of Love) was composed in The time signature of this song is 2/4, not the typical 3/4 of a Kundiman art song. There is a sense of irony in the music that contrasts with the gloomy, self-pitying words, which are summed up in the song s title. Hernandez sets up this irony by setting the piano introduction in C major. There is an abrupt shift to the parallel minor into the A section, which accurately sets the melancholic mood of unrequited love. Then, without warning, the B section modulates back to C major ( Sandaling malungkot, sa pusong sumisinta, Easily saddened is the heart that loves), revealing a bit of irony. The lyrics are gloomy and self-pitying, and contrast strongly with the hopefulness reflected in the melody and harmony (see Music Example 43). Music Example 43: Ulila Sa Pag-ibig Nicanor Tiongson, CCP Encyclopedia of Philippine Art, Vol. 6: Philippine Music. (Manila: Cultural Center of the Philippines),

MUSIC. MU 100 Fundamentals of Music Theory (4) MU 101 Listen to the Music (4) MU 102 Music Appreciation (4) MU 109 Class Voice (2)

MUSIC. MU 100 Fundamentals of Music Theory (4) MU 101 Listen to the Music (4) MU 102 Music Appreciation (4) MU 109 Class Voice (2) MUSIC MU 100 Fundamentals of Music Theory (4) An introduction to notation, including a study of intervals, scales, modes, meters, basic triads and seventh chords. Intended for non-majors or students with

More information

Curriculum Framework for Performing Arts

Curriculum Framework for Performing Arts Curriculum Framework for Performing Arts School: First State Military Academy Curricular Tool: Teacher Developed Course: Music Theory Standards Alignment Unit Concept/Big Ideas Student Learning Targets

More information

Two Children s Songs from the Philippines A Smithsonian Folkways Lesson Summary: Suggested Grade Levels: Country Genre Instruments

Two Children s Songs from the Philippines A Smithsonian Folkways Lesson Summary: Suggested Grade Levels: Country Genre Instruments Two Children s Songs from the Philippines A Smithsonian Folkways Lesson Designed by: David Ferguson Seattle Pacific University Summary: This lesson consists of two children s songs from the Philippines.

More information

Points of Interference in Learning English as a Second Language

Points of Interference in Learning English as a Second Language Points of Interference in Learning English as a Second Language Tone Spanish: In both English and Spanish there are four tone levels, but Spanish speaker use only the three lower pitch tones, except when

More information

Florida Performing Fine Arts Assessment Item Specifications _Jazz_Ensemble_1_Responding

Florida Performing Fine Arts Assessment Item Specifications _Jazz_Ensemble_1_Responding Florida Performing Fine Arts Assessment Item Specifications 1302500_Jazz_Ensemble_1_Responding FRONT MATTER - SECONDARY Stimulus Attributes Response Attributes Written questions should be at grade level

More information

National Standards for Music Education

National Standards for Music Education National Standards for Music Education 1. Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music. 2. Performing on instruments, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music. 3. Improvising

More information

MUSIC AND COMPOSITION GLOSSARY CATEGORIES

MUSIC AND COMPOSITION GLOSSARY CATEGORIES MUSIC AND COMPOSITION GLOSSARY CATEGORIES Composition: note, pitch, scale, melody, harmony, chord, score, orchestration, instrumentation, overture, aria, recitative, finale, beat, pulse, octave Writing:

More information

2012 Music Standards GRADES K-1-2

2012 Music Standards GRADES K-1-2 Students will: Personal Choice and Vision: Students construct and solve problems of personal relevance and interest when expressing themselves through A. Demonstrate how musical elements communicate meaning

More information

Music Journal Prompts

Music Journal Prompts Music Journal Prompts 2014 2015 Directions: Respond to the music journal prompts using your own paper. A minimum of three paragraphs is required to receive full credit. Journal responses are due at the

More information

Fry Instant Word List

Fry Instant Word List First 100 Instant Words the had out than of by many first and words then water a but them been to not these called in what so who is all some oil you were her sit that we would now it when make find he

More information

Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words

Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words Fry Instant Words High Frequency Words The Fry list of 600 words are the most frequently used words for reading and writing. The words are listed in rank order. First Hundred Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group

More information

Music Prekindergarten

Music Prekindergarten Prekindergarten 1.0 ARTISTIC PERCEPTION Processing, Analyzing, and Responding to Sensory Information Through the Language and Skills Unique to Music Students read, notate, listen to, analyze, and describe

More information

Arts Grades 5-8 Music Grade 6 Choir

Arts Grades 5-8 Music Grade 6 Choir Standard 1: Students create, perform/exhibit, and respond in the Arts. 1. Create a work from their own ideas and images based on themes, symbols, events and personal experiences. Introduce basic music

More information

Our attached synopsis includes a description of our programs with references to the specific standards students will meet by their participation.

Our attached synopsis includes a description of our programs with references to the specific standards students will meet by their participation. The programs provided by Russian Folk Music and Dance with Dan & Galla meet most of the standards indicated by the Pennsylvania Standards for Arts and Humanities. Whether through dance or drama, literature

More information

Music Standards of Learning

Music Standards of Learning Music Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools Board of Education Commonwealth of Virginia April 2006 Music Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools Adopted in April 2006 by the Board

More information

Music. Programme of study for key stage 3 and attainment target (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007)

Music. Programme of study for key stage 3 and attainment target (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007) Music Programme of study for key stage 3 and attainment target (This is an extract from The National Curriculum 2007) www.qca.org.uk/curriculum Crown copyright 2007 Qualifications and Curriculum Authority

More information

HOWARD COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS MUSIC TECHNOLOGY

HOWARD COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS MUSIC TECHNOLOGY HOWARD COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS MUSIC TECHNOLOGY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES GOAL I: PERCEIVING, PERFORMING, AND RESPONDING: AESTHETICS The student will demonstrate the ability to perceive, perform, and respond

More information

RESEARCH IN MUSIC EDUCATION AND SOUND ARTS (Completed in, and/or about New Zealand)

RESEARCH IN MUSIC EDUCATION AND SOUND ARTS (Completed in, and/or about New Zealand) Te Puna Puoru National Centre for Research in Music Education and Sound Arts (MERC) invites you to contribute to the national database of research in music education and sound arts. Fill in the template

More information

Students will know Vocabulary: harmony chord progression improvisation

Students will know Vocabulary: harmony chord progression improvisation HS Choir Proficient Creating Essential Questions: 1. How do artists generate and select creative ideas? 2. How do artists make creative decisions? 3. How do artists improve the quality of their creative

More information

The student will recognize the development of music from an historical and cultural perspective.

The student will recognize the development of music from an historical and cultural perspective. PRE-K e. Form (same or different and solo/chorus) h. Dynamics (loud or soft) a. Dynamics - loud and soft KINDERGARTEN e. Form (same or different and solo/chorus) h. Dynamics (loud or soft) a. Dynamics

More information

Review pulse, rhythm of melody accent, metric grouping and meter Recognize and utilize syncopation

Review pulse, rhythm of melody accent, metric grouping and meter Recognize and utilize syncopation MP 1 Sing more difficult tunes as the past years work continues on going Extend the techniques of singing to a higher art form Continue to increase permanent repertoire, recordings, 1.2 Responding to Expand

More information

HOWARD COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS GUITAR I, II, and III / IV

HOWARD COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS GUITAR I, II, and III / IV HOWARD COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS GUITAR I, II, and III / IV GOALS AND OBJECTIVES GOAL I: PERCEIVING, PERFORMING, AND RESPONDING: AESTHETICS The student will demonstrate the ability to perceive, perform, and

More information

1.0 Artistic Perception. 1.0 Artistic Perception & 2.0 Creative Expression. 4.0 Creative Expression

1.0 Artistic Perception. 1.0 Artistic Perception & 2.0 Creative Expression. 4.0 Creative Expression Beginning Strings Transitional Kindergarten Grade 3 The students learn strings to the Suzuki method with some variation. Notational accuracy is expected and correct bow hold is paramount in this endeavor.

More information

Music. Adams Chair of Music and Worship, Professor M. Shasberger Professors G. Brothers, S. Butler (chair), S. Hodson Assistant Professor HS.

Music. Adams Chair of Music and Worship, Professor M. Shasberger Professors G. Brothers, S. Butler (chair), S. Hodson Assistant Professor HS. Music Adams Chair of Music and Worship, Professor M. Shasberger Professors G. Brothers, S. Butler (chair), S. Hodson Assistant Professor HS. Kim Mission Statement. The Music Department equips students

More information

Life Without You. I am invoking my right to remain silent in the face of life, All of my words have escaped from dictionaries,

Life Without You. I am invoking my right to remain silent in the face of life, All of my words have escaped from dictionaries, Life Without You I am invoking my right to remain silent in the face of life, All of my words have escaped from dictionaries, There is only one Word that I must say before Angel of Death is You. I am a

More information

ART. SCORE No Idea Statement attached (-2) Final Score. Rating. Originality Consider: Exhibits creativity

ART. SCORE No Idea Statement attached (-2) Final Score. Rating. Originality Consider: Exhibits creativity ART Entry Name Originality Consider: Exhibits creativity Craftsmanship Consider: Artist s skill in the use of material Elements of Art Consider: Line, color, space, form, media, texture Composition Consider:

More information

Musical Literacy. Clarifying Objectives. Musical Response

Musical Literacy. Clarifying Objectives. Musical Response North Carolina s Kindergarten Music Note on Numbering/Strands: ML Musical Literacy, MR Musical Response, CR Contextual Relevancy Musical Literacy K.ML.1 Apply the elements of music and musical techniques

More information

PUSD High Frequency Word List

PUSD High Frequency Word List PUSD High Frequency Word List For Reading and Spelling Grades K-5 High Frequency or instant words are important because: 1. You can t read a sentence or a paragraph without knowing at least the most common.

More information

Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing

Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing Online Tutoring System For Essay Writing 2 Online Tutoring System for Essay Writing Unit 4 Infinitive Phrases Review Units 1 and 2 introduced some of the building blocks of sentences, including noun phrases

More information

Pattern Play. Inspiring Creativity at the Piano

Pattern Play. Inspiring Creativity at the Piano Play Inspiring Creativity at the Piano Forrest Kinney I believe that for the first time my students and I are not merely reciting notes, but really creating music. Gena Horiatis, music educator We improvise

More information

Unit 6: The Jazz Age

Unit 6: The Jazz Age Unit 6: The Jazz Age The 1920 s Culture & Influential African Americans SS5H4: The student will describe U.S. involvement in World War I and post- World War I America. b. Describe the cultural developments

More information

TEST SUMMARY AND FRAMEWORK TEST SUMMARY

TEST SUMMARY AND FRAMEWORK TEST SUMMARY Washington Educator Skills Tests Endorsements (WEST E) TEST SUMMARY AND FRAMEWORK TEST SUMMARY MUSIC: INSTRUMENTAL Copyright 2014 by the Washington Professional Educator Standards Board 1 Washington Educator

More information

Diction for Singing. David Jones, D.M.A SFA Regents Professor of Music, Voice. Charts: Nita Hudson, M.M. SFA Instructor of Voice

Diction for Singing. David Jones, D.M.A SFA Regents Professor of Music, Voice. Charts: Nita Hudson, M.M. SFA Instructor of Voice Diction for Singing By David Jones, D.M.A SFA Regents Professor of Music, Voice Charts: Nita Hudson, M.M. SFA Instructor of Voice My first job was that of a Jr. High Choral Director. I inherited an unauditioned

More information

Charter School Solo and Ensemble Competition

Charter School Solo and Ensemble Competition Charter School Solo and Ensemble Competition Guidelines Charter School Solo and Ensemble Competition, desires to have the highest quality music competition possible for all 5th -12th grade Michigan Charter

More information

Silver Burdett Making Music

Silver Burdett Making Music A Correlation of Silver Burdett Making Music Model Content Standards for Music INTRODUCTION This document shows how meets the Model Content Standards for Music. Page references are Teacher s Edition. Lessons

More information

Admission Requirements to the Music Program

Admission Requirements to the Music Program Department of Humanities and Fine Arts / 111 THE BACHELOR OF ARTS DEGREE IN MUSIC (MUSI, MUAP, MUEN) The Music Program plays a vital role in the life of the University and the community. The training environment

More information

Life Dates: 1840-1893 Country of Origin: Russia Musical Era: Romantic

Life Dates: 1840-1893 Country of Origin: Russia Musical Era: Romantic Life Dates: 1840-1893 Country of Origin: Russia Musical Era: Romantic I grew up in a quiet spot and was saturated from earliest childhood with the wonderful beauty of Russian popular song. I am therefore

More information

PROGRESS MONITORING CHECKLIST FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS (ELL)

PROGRESS MONITORING CHECKLIST FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS (ELL) LISTENING Standard : Students demonstrate competence in listening as a tool for learning and comprehension. Proficiency Level I: Students at this level are beginning to understand short utterances. They

More information

MUSIC CREDIT PROGRAMS / COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

MUSIC CREDIT PROGRAMS / COURSE DESCRIPTIONS CREDIT PROGRAMS / COURSE DESCRIPTIONS SPAN 102A SPANISH FOR HERITAGE SPEAKERS II : 4.00 UC:CSU 72.00 hours lecture Prerequisite: SPAN-101A Focuses on reading and writing with special attention to formal

More information

Higher Music Concepts Performing: Grade 4 and above What you need to be able to recognise and describe when hearing a piece of music:

Higher Music Concepts Performing: Grade 4 and above What you need to be able to recognise and describe when hearing a piece of music: Higher Music Concepts Performing: Grade 4 and above What you need to be able to recognise and describe when hearing a piece of music: Melody/Harmony Rhythm/Tempo Texture/Structure/Form Timbre/Dynamics

More information

Music Literacy for All

Music Literacy for All Music Literacy for All Developing Musically Literate Individuals in Performance-Based Ensembles J. Steven Moore, DMA Research Data How Many Public Performances Does the Average H.S. Band Present Annually?

More information

Superstars Building Fry List Fluency

Superstars Building Fry List Fluency Sight Word Superstars Building Fry List Fluency By Jennifer Bates http://finallyinfirst.blogspot.com/ How I use this program I developed this program because I noticed many of my students were still trying

More information

Briefly review music theory units

Briefly review music theory units Framework for Lesson Plans It is important that students are always being presented with new concepts or elements while simultaneously practicing known concepts in each lesson. In your introductory lecture,

More information

PROVIDENCE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE

PROVIDENCE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE 4.6.16 Music Academic Staff Bill Derksen, Ph.D., University of Minnesota, Emeritus Karen Sunabacka, Ph.D., University of California at Davis, Program Coordinator Darryl Friesen, D.M.A., University of Illinois

More information

Chronology and Sequences

Chronology and Sequences UNIT1 Chronology and Sequences Learning Targets Present tenses simple progressive Past tenses simple progressive Time signposts Process signposts Contractions Endings with ed Importance on the ibt ibt

More information

Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening June 1, 2009 FINAL Elementary Standards Grades 3-8

Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening June 1, 2009 FINAL Elementary Standards Grades 3-8 Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening June 1, 2009 FINAL Elementary Standards Grades 3-8 Pennsylvania Department of Education These standards are offered as a voluntary resource

More information

bibliography - an organized list of resources used to write an article or a report C

bibliography - an organized list of resources used to write an article or a report C 4 th Grade ELA Vocabulary Terms A adage - a statement that contains some kind of truth about human nature adjective - a word that describes a person, place, or thing adverb - a word that describes a verb,

More information

Chapter 5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF FUSION MUSIC

Chapter 5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF FUSION MUSIC Chapter 5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF FUSION MUSIC 226 Scope Experimenting by fusing different music styles is the way to create fusion music. Fusion, being an experimental form of music, there are tremendous

More information

Francisco Santiago (Jan. 29, 1889, Sta Maria, Bulacan Sept. 28, 1947, Manila)

Francisco Santiago (Jan. 29, 1889, Sta Maria, Bulacan Sept. 28, 1947, Manila) Nothing captures the Filipino sentimentality ever more closely than those we call our very own, the kundiman. It is the Philippines signature love song and is a condensation of Kung Hindi Man. It a self

More information

Hit Makers of America

Hit Makers of America George Gershwin 1898-1937 American 20th Century True music must repeat the thought and inspirations of the people and the time. My people are Americans and my time is today." Specialist Genres: Popular

More information

Chapter 16 Sonata and Suite

Chapter 16 Sonata and Suite Chapter 16 Sonata and Suite TRUE/FALSE 1. The harpsichord is not as touch-sensitive an instrument as the piano. ANS: T REF: Chapter 16, "The Harpsichord", pg. 116 2. Arcangelo Corelli could have been considered

More information

1. interpret notational symbols for rhythm (26.A.1d) 2. recognize and respond to steady beat with movements, games and by chanting (25.A.

1. interpret notational symbols for rhythm (26.A.1d) 2. recognize and respond to steady beat with movements, games and by chanting (25.A. FIRST GRADE CURRICULUM OBJECTIVES MUSIC I. Rhythm 1. interpret notational symbols for rhythm (26.A.1d) 2. recognize and respond to steady beat with movements, games and by chanting (25.A.1c) 3. respond

More information

Unit: Fever, Fire and Fashion Term: Spring 1 Year: 5

Unit: Fever, Fire and Fashion Term: Spring 1 Year: 5 Unit: Fever, Fire and Fashion Term: Spring 1 Year: 5 English Fever, Fire and Fashion Unit Summary In this historical Unit pupils learn about everyday life in London during the 17 th Century. Frost fairs,

More information

MUSIC GLOSSARY. Accompaniment: A vocal or instrumental part that supports or is background for a principal part or parts.

MUSIC GLOSSARY. Accompaniment: A vocal or instrumental part that supports or is background for a principal part or parts. MUSIC GLOSSARY A cappella: Unaccompanied vocal music. Accompaniment: A vocal or instrumental part that supports or is background for a principal part or parts. Alla breve: A tempo marking indicating a

More information

General Music K-2 Primary Elementary Grades

General Music K-2 Primary Elementary Grades The following General K-8 alignment with Iowa Core was developed to provide guidance with the 21 st Century Universal Constructs: Critical Thinking, Effective Communication, Creativity, Collaboration,

More information

One or more vocalists performing without an accompaniment. A symbol used in musical notation indicating to gradually quicken tempo

One or more vocalists performing without an accompaniment. A symbol used in musical notation indicating to gradually quicken tempo MUSIC VOCABULARY Term A cappella Accelerando Accidental Adagio Allegro Articulation Bass Clef Beat Chant Chorale Chord Circle of Fifths Clef Coda Definition One or more vocalists performing without an

More information

Analysis on Interpretation of Humanistic Implication by Schubert s Piano. Music. Based on Piano Impromptus Playing

Analysis on Interpretation of Humanistic Implication by Schubert s Piano. Music. Based on Piano Impromptus Playing International Conference on Education Technology and Economic Management (ICETEM 2015) Analysis on Interpretation of Humanistic Implication by Schubert s Piano Music Based on Piano Impromptus Playing Lu

More information

Aymara and Machu Picchu A Smithsonian Folkways Lesson Designed by: Im Kyung Lee University of Washington

Aymara and Machu Picchu A Smithsonian Folkways Lesson Designed by: Im Kyung Lee University of Washington Aymara and Machu Picchu A Smithsonian Folkways Lesson Designed by: Im Kyung Lee University of Washington Summary: Peruvian Aymara Ensemble (Session 1)/Kena (traditional Andean flute) Concerto performed

More information

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Language Arts Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form Rewards Intermediate Grades 4-6

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Language Arts Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form Rewards Intermediate Grades 4-6 Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Language Arts Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form Rewards Intermediate Grades 4-6 4 I. READING AND LITERATURE A. Word Recognition, Analysis, and Fluency The student

More information

Depth-of-Knowledge in the Fine Arts

Depth-of-Knowledge in the Fine Arts MUSIC DOK 1 Students at DOK 1 are able to recall facts, terms, musical symbols, and basic musical concepts, and to identify specific information contained in music (e.g., pitch names, rhythmic duration,

More information

Rhode Island College

Rhode Island College Rhode Island College M.Ed. In TESL Program Language Group Specific Informational Reports Produced by Graduate Students in the M.Ed. In TESL Program In the Feinstein School of Education and Human Development

More information

DRAFT Proposed Revisions Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) Fine Arts, High School Music

DRAFT Proposed Revisions Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) Fine Arts, High School Music Proposed Revisions Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) Fine Arts, High School Music Prepared by the State Board of Education (SBOE) TEKS Review Committees First Draft, These draft proposed revisions

More information

Minnesota Academic Standards

Minnesota Academic Standards Minnesota Academic Standards K-12 2008 The proposed revised standards in this document were drafted during the 2007-2008 school year. These standards are currently proceeding through the administrative

More information

Languages-Arabic-Foundation to Year 10 Sequence-Scope and Sequence

Languages-Arabic-Foundation to Year 10 Sequence-Scope and Sequence Communicating Strand Sub strand Description Thread Foundation to Year 2 Years 3 and 4 Years 5 and 6 Years 7 and 8 Years 9 and 10 Socialising Interacting orally and in writing to exchange ideas, opinions,

More information

Demonstrate technical proficiency on instrument or voice at a level appropriate for the corequisite

Demonstrate technical proficiency on instrument or voice at a level appropriate for the corequisite MUS 101 MUS 111 MUS 121 MUS 122 MUS 135 MUS 137 MUS 152-1 MUS 152-2 MUS 161 MUS 180-1 MUS 180-2 Music History and Literature Identify and write basic music notation for pitch and Identify and write key

More information

Year 1 reading expectations (New Curriculum) Year 1 writing expectations (New Curriculum)

Year 1 reading expectations (New Curriculum) Year 1 writing expectations (New Curriculum) Year 1 reading expectations Year 1 writing expectations Responds speedily with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups of letters) for all 40+ phonemes, including, where applicable, alternative

More information

The Baroque, Classical and Romantic Periods Information from:

The Baroque, Classical and Romantic Periods Information from: The Baroque, Classical and Romantic Periods Information from: http://www.empire.k12.ca.us/capistrano/mike/capmusic/music_room/themusic.htm 1. Baroque Period a. 1600 1750 AD b. The word Baroque means highly

More information

Time allowed: 1 hour 30 minutes

Time allowed: 1 hour 30 minutes SPECIMEN MATERIAL GCSE MUSIC 8271 Specimen 2018 Time allowed: 1 hour 30 minutes General Certificate of Secondary Education Instructions Use black ink or black ball-point pen. You may use pencil for music

More information

Music Standards FINAL. Approved on May 5, 2000. Copyright 2003 Texas State Board for Educator Certification

Music Standards FINAL. Approved on May 5, 2000. Copyright 2003 Texas State Board for Educator Certification Music Standards FINAL Approved on May 5, 2000 Copyright 2003 Texas State Board for Educator Certification MUSIC STANDARDS Standard I. Standard II. Standard III. Standard IV. Standard V. Standard VI. Standard

More information

Deal Parochial CE Primary School Music Policy

Deal Parochial CE Primary School Music Policy Deal Parochial CE Primary School Music Policy Values Statement At Deal Parochial Primary School the curriculum is firmly rooted in its Christian foundation: enabling every child to grow spiritually and

More information

Minnesota Academic Standards

Minnesota Academic Standards Minnesota Academic Standards Arts K-12 2008 The proposed revised standards in this document were drafted during the 2007-2008 school year. These standards are currently proceeding through the administrative

More information

HOWARD COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS PIANO I, II, and III / IV Honors

HOWARD COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS PIANO I, II, and III / IV Honors HOWARD COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS PIANO I, II, and III / IV Honors COMPETENCIES GOALS AND OBJECTIVES GOAL I: PERCEIVING, PERFORMING, AND RESPONDING: AESTHETICS The student will demonstrate the ability to perceive,

More information

DRAFT Proposed Revisions Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) Fine Arts, High School Music

DRAFT Proposed Revisions Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) Fine Arts, High School Music Proposed Revisions Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) Fine Arts, High School Music Prepared by the State Board of Education (SBOE) TEKS Review Committees Final Recommendations, These draft proposed

More information

Antonín Dvořák Life Dates: 1841-1904 Nationality: Czech Period: Late Romantic

Antonín Dvořák Life Dates: 1841-1904 Nationality: Czech Period: Late Romantic Antonín Dvořák Life Dates: 1841-1904 Nationality: Czech Period: Late Romantic I should be glad if something occurred to me as a main idea that occurs to Dvořák only by the way. Johannes Brahms (1833-97)

More information

orchestra, arias, duets, art songs, and true song cycles (Solomon).

orchestra, arias, duets, art songs, and true song cycles (Solomon). Jonathon Feinstein Musicianship 1 Final Analysis Zärtliche liebe Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven is acknowledged as one of the giants of classical music; occasionally he is referred to as one

More information

THE DIFFERENCE IN THE STRESS PATTERNS BETWEEN THE NOUN AND VERB FORMS

THE DIFFERENCE IN THE STRESS PATTERNS BETWEEN THE NOUN AND VERB FORMS ASSINGMENT - 2 Phonology (5658) THE DIFFERENCE IN THE STRESS PATTERNS BETWEEN THE NOUN AND VERB FORMS Mrs Ishrat Aamer Qureshi Student of Diploma TEFL Roll No : AP504192 Department of English, Alama Iqbal

More information

4:40 100 V. 5 VI. 5 A.

4:40 100 V. 5 VI. 5 A. University of Northern Colorado 2015 Voice Area Undergraduate Handbook Music B.A. Liberal Arts Emphasis B.M.E. -- Teaching Vocal, Piano and General Emphasis B.M. -- Business Emphasis B.M. -- Vocal Performance

More information

KODÁLY METHOD AND ITS INFLUENCE ON TEACHING WIND INSTRUMENTS IN HUNGARY

KODÁLY METHOD AND ITS INFLUENCE ON TEACHING WIND INSTRUMENTS IN HUNGARY KODÁLY METHOD AND ITS INFLUENCE ON TEACHING WIND INSTRUMENTS IN HUNGARY Jozsef Csikota Midwest Clinic Chicago, Illinois U.S.A. 15th December 2004 KODÁLY METHOD IN HUNGARIAN SCHOOLS In Hungary, every student

More information

Higher. Concepts. Higher Music Listening 2014 Onwards

Higher. Concepts. Higher Music Listening 2014 Onwards Higher Concepts Higher Music Listening 2014 Onwards Music Literacy Concepts Melody/Harmony Rhythm and Tempo Timbre/Dynamics Bass Clef Notes 6/8 time Slurs Note Naming Quavers, Crochets, Dotted Crochets

More information

MUSIC SCHOOL OF ARTS AND COMMUNICATION Dean Vacant, Office 702B, 619-482-6372

MUSIC SCHOOL OF ARTS AND COMMUNICATION Dean Vacant, Office 702B, 619-482-6372 Mexican-American History (MAS 141 142) fulfills the American Institutions requirement at San Diego State University and most other campuses of the California State University and Colleges System. DEGREE/CERTIFICATE

More information

Differences in Performances. As one might expect, there are a number of instrumentation, rhythmic, and melodic

Differences in Performances. As one might expect, there are a number of instrumentation, rhythmic, and melodic MIT Student 9/30/10 21M.220 Differences in Performances As one might expect, there are a number of instrumentation, rhythmic, and melodic differences between different recordings and manuscripts of both

More information

Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening

Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening Pre-K - 3 REVISED May 18, 2010 Pennsylvania Department of Education These standards are offered as a voluntary resource for Pennsylvania

More information

PIANOWEB.com ( 800 ) 327-4266

PIANOWEB.com ( 800 ) 327-4266 Mission Statement: Jazz Piano Lessons To Teach, in their home, on their own piano/keyboard, anywhere in the world, students how to play jazz piano, through a Non Traditional approach which emphasizes Musical

More information

Répétiteur Training Piano Chamber Music Lied interpretation

Répétiteur Training Piano Chamber Music Lied interpretation HOCHSCHULE FÜR MUSIK UND THEATER Répétiteur Training Piano Chamber Music Lied interpretation Programmes of study: Bachelor of Music Fields of orientation: Duration of study programme: Degree earned: Area

More information

application for music major and worship leadership minor

application for music major and worship leadership minor application for music major and worship leadership minor 2 audition procedure for bachelor of arts in music and bachelor of music degrees Students accepted into the Music Major Program at ORU are required

More information

Programme of Study and Success Criteria for Key Stage 3 - MUSIC

Programme of Study and Success Criteria for Key Stage 3 - MUSIC Programme of Study and Success Criteria for Key Stage 3 - MUSIC Programmes of Study Year 7 Unit 1 Understanding the elements of music Learn about each element of and how it works in a piece of music Develop

More information

New Harmonies Scavenger Hunt. Instructions: The questions are divided by kiosk topics, and the kiosk title is at the top of each section.

New Harmonies Scavenger Hunt. Instructions: The questions are divided by kiosk topics, and the kiosk title is at the top of each section. 1 Instructions: The questions are divided by kiosk topics, and the kiosk title is at the top of each section. INTRODUCTION Section Fill in the blanks: 1. American roots music rises out of America s story

More information

Level 1 Music, Demonstrate knowledge of conventions used in music scores am Friday 30 November 2012 Credits: Four

Level 1 Music, Demonstrate knowledge of conventions used in music scores am Friday 30 November 2012 Credits: Four 91094 910940 1SUPERVISOR S Level 1 Music, 2012 91094 Demonstrate knowledge of conventions used in music scores 9.30 am Friday 30 November 2012 Credits: Four Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement

More information

Unit Overview Template. Learning Targets

Unit Overview Template. Learning Targets ENGAGING STUDENTS FOSTERING ACHIEVEMENT CULTIVATING 21 ST CENTURY GLOBAL SKILLS Content Area: Orchestra Unit Title: Music Literacy / History Comprehension Target Course/Grade Level: 3 & 4 Unit Overview

More information

NMC MUSIC MAJOR STUDENT HANDBOOK

NMC MUSIC MAJOR STUDENT HANDBOOK NMC MUSIC MAJOR STUDENT HANDBOOK MUSIC Table of Contents PROGRAM SUMMARY... 2 GENERAL INFORMATION Accompanists... 3 Applied Music... 3 Convocations... 3 Ensembles... 3 Instrument Lockers... 3 Juries...

More information

THE DYNAMICS OF VOCAL CHAMBER MUSIC

THE DYNAMICS OF VOCAL CHAMBER MUSIC THE DYNAMICS OF VOCAL CHAMBER MUSIC International Congress of Voice Teachers VIII Brisbane, Australia July 10-14, 2013 Emily Romney emilyromney1@verizon.net emilyromney.com Vocal Chamber Music What is

More information

12th Grade English Objectives

12th Grade English Objectives 12th Grade English Objectives Short Story Students will demonstrate speaking, listening, writing, reading, and research skills while studying the short story. Locate, consult, and cite information from

More information

Illuminating Text: A Macro Analysis of Franz SchubertÕs ÒAuf dem Wasser zu singenó

Illuminating Text: A Macro Analysis of Franz SchubertÕs ÒAuf dem Wasser zu singenó Illuminating Text: A Macro Analysis of Franz SchubertÕs ÒAuf dem Wasser zu singenó Maureen Schafer In ÒAuf dem Wasser zu singen,ó Franz Schubert embellishes a sentimental poem by L. Graf zu Stollberg to

More information

Building a Professional Foundation as a New or Aspiring Social Worker

Building a Professional Foundation as a New or Aspiring Social Worker 1 Building a Professional Foundation as a New or Aspiring Social Worker If you are working or planning on working in the social work field there is a high chance that at some point in time during your

More information

Master's Degree Curriculum 2014-2015 Two years of full-time residence are required for master s degree candidates. Students in need of review study

Master's Degree Curriculum 2014-2015 Two years of full-time residence are required for master s degree candidates. Students in need of review study Master's Degree Curriculum 2014-2015 Two years of full-time residence are required for master s degree candidates. Students in need of review study may be required to extend their programs beyond two years.

More information

I Have to Read/Write in Music? Or Stop fighting it and embrace it! Michelle Ewer

I Have to Read/Write in Music? Or Stop fighting it and embrace it! Michelle Ewer I Have to Read/Write in Music? Or Stop fighting it and embrace it! Michelle Ewer mewer@jeffco.k12.co.us S Has this happened to you? Have you been asked to provide a writing sample from your instrumental/vocal

More information

Latin American Protest Songs: New Song of Chile & Cuba A Smithsonian Folkways Lesson Designed by: Kait LaPorte University of Washington

Latin American Protest Songs: New Song of Chile & Cuba A Smithsonian Folkways Lesson Designed by: Kait LaPorte University of Washington Latin American Protest Songs: New Song of Chile & Cuba A Smithsonian Folkways Lesson Designed by: Kait LaPorte University of Washington Summary: Students will learn about the music of the New Song movement

More information

Sample Entrance Test for CR125-129 (BA in Popular Music)

Sample Entrance Test for CR125-129 (BA in Popular Music) Sample Entrance Test for CR125-129 (BA in Popular Music) A very exciting future awaits everybody who is or will be part of the Cork School of Music BA in Popular Music CR125 CR126 CR127 CR128 CR129 Electric

More information

National Curriculum 2014 Literacy Objectives Spoken language Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6

National Curriculum 2014 Literacy Objectives Spoken language Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Spoken language -structured descriptions, explanations and narratives for different purposes, including for expressing feelings ng, hypothesising, imagining and exploring ideas to comments the interest

More information

LANGUAGE! 4 th Edition, Levels A C, correlated to the South Carolina College and Career Readiness Standards, Grades 3 5

LANGUAGE! 4 th Edition, Levels A C, correlated to the South Carolina College and Career Readiness Standards, Grades 3 5 Page 1 of 57 Grade 3 Reading Literary Text Principles of Reading (P) Standard 1: Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. Standard 2: Demonstrate understanding of spoken

More information