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12 dates to the date you type and anchors the task in the schedule. Must Start On (MSO) This inflexible constraint (inflexible constraint: A constraint that is inflexible because it ties a task to a date. The inflexible constraints are Must Finish On, Must Start On, Finish No Earlier Than, Finish No Later Than, Start No Earlier Than, and Start No Later Than.) schedules the task to start on a specified date. Sets the early, scheduled, and late start dates to the date you type and anchors the task in the schedule. Start No Earlier Than (SNET) Schedules the task to start on or after a specified date. Use this constraint to ensure that a task does not start before a specified date. Start No Later Than (SNLT) Schedules the task to start on or before a specified date. Use this constraint to ensure that a task does not start after a specified date. Critical path method The critical path method (CPM) or critical path analysis, is a mathematically based algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities. It is an important tool for effective project management. History It was developed in the 1950s by the DuPont Corporation at about the same time that General Dynamics and the US Navy

13 were developing the Program Evaluation and Review Technique [1] Today, it is commonly used with all forms of projects, including construction, software development, research projects, product development, engineering, and plant maintenance, among others. Any project with interdependent activities can apply this method of scheduling. END OF Chapter 4 General additional information - Basic technique The essential technique for using CPM is to construct a model of the project that includes the following: A list of all activities required to complete the project (also known as work breakdown structure), The time (duration) that each activity will take to completion, and The dependencies between the activities. Using these values, CPM calculates the longest path of planned activities to the end of the project, and the earliest and latest that each activity can start and finish without making the project longer. This process determines which activities are "critical" (i.e., on the longest path) and which have "total float" (i.e., can be delayed without making the project longer). In project management, a critical path is the sequence of project network activities which add up to the longest overall duration. This determines the shortest time possible to complete the project. Any delay of an activity on the critical path directly impacts the planned project completion date (i.e. there is no float on the critical path). A project can have several, parallel, near critical paths. An

14 additional parallel path through the network with the total durations shorter than the critical path is called a sub-critical or non-critical path. These results allow managers to prioritize activities for the effective management of project completion, and to shorten the planned critical path of a project by pruning critical path activities, by "fast tracking" (i.e., performing more activities in parallel), and/or by "crashing the critical path" (i.e., shortening the durations of critical path activities by adding resources). Expansion Originally, the critical path method considered only logical dependencies between terminal elements. Since then, it has been expanded to allow for the inclusion of resources related to each activity, through processes called activity-based resource assignments and resource leveling. A resourceleveled schedule may include delays due to resource bottlenecks (i.e., unavailability of a resource at the required time), and may cause a previously shorter path to become the longest or most "resource critical" path. A related concept is called the critical chain, which attempts to protect activity and project durations from unforeseen delays due to resource constraints. Since project schedules change on a regular basis, CPM allows continuous monitoring of the schedule, allows the project manager to track the critical activities, and alerts the project manager to the possibility that non-critical activities may be delayed beyond their total float, thus creating a new critical path and delaying project completion. In addition, the method can easily incorporate the concepts of stochastic predictions, using the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and event chain methodology.

15 Currently, there are several software solutions available in industry that use the CPM method of scheduling, see list of project management software. However, the method was developed and used without the aid of computers. Flexibility A schedule generated using critical path techniques often is not realised precisely, as estimations are used to calculate times: if one mistake is made, the results of the analysis may change. This could cause an upset in the implementation of a project if the estimates are blindly believed, and if changes are not addressed promptly. However, the structure of critical path analysis is such that the variance from the original schedule caused by any change can be measured, and its impact either ameliorated or adjusted for. Indeed, an important element of project postmortem analysis is the As Built Critical Path (ABCP), which analyzes the specific causes and impacts of changes between the planned schedule and eventual schedule as actually implemented. Running time Given a graph G=G(N,E) of N nodes and E edges, if we use the Big O notation, the CPM algorithm takes O(E) to complete, since topological ordering of a graph takes O(E) and every edge is considered only twice, which means linear time in number of edges. Program Evaluation and Review Technique The Program (or Project) Evaluation and Review Technique, commonly abbreviated PERT, is a model for project

16 management designed to analyze and represent the tasks involved in completing a given project. PERT is a method to analyze the involved tasks in completing a given project, especially the time needed to complete each task, and identifying the minimum time needed to complete the total project. PERT was developed primarily to simplify the planning and scheduling of large and complex projects. It was able to incorporate uncertainty by making it possible to schedule a project while not knowing precisely the details and durations of all the activities. It is more of an event-oriented technique rather than startand completion-oriented, and is used more in projects where time, rather than cost, is the major factor. It is applied to very large-scale, one-time, complex, non-routine infrastructure and Research and Development projects. This project model was the first of its kind, a revival for scientific management, founded by Frederick Taylor "Taylorism" and later refined by Henry Ford "Fordism". DuPont corporation's critical path method was invented at roughly the same time as PERT. The Project Management Triangle is a model of the constraints of project management. It is often used to illustrate that project management success is measured by the project team's ability to manage the project, so that the expected results are produced while managing time and cost. Overview Like any human undertaking, projects need to be performed and delivered under certain constraints. Traditionally, these

17 constraints have been listed as "scope," "time," and "cost". These are also referred to as the "Project Management Triangle," where each side represents a constraint. One side of the triangle cannot be changed without affecting the others. A further refinement of the constraints separates product "quality" or "performance" from scope, and turns quality into a fourth constraint. The time constraint refers to the amount of time available to complete a project. The cost constraint refers to the budgeted amount available for the project. The scope constraint refers to what must be done to produce the project's end result. These three constraints are often competing constraints: increased scope typically means increased time and increased cost, a tight time constraint could mean increased costs and reduced scope, and a tight budget could mean increased time and reduced scope. The discipline of Project Management is about providing the tools and techniques that enable the project team (not just the project manager) to organize their work to meet these constraints. Another approach to Project Management is to consider the three constraints as finance, time and human resources. If you need to finish a job in a shorter time, you can throw more people at the problem, which in turn will raise the cost of the project, unless by doing this task quicker we will reduce costs elsewhere in the project by an equal amount. Project management triangle topics Time For analytical purposes, the time required to produce a deliverable is estimated using several techniques. One

18 method is to identify tasks needed to produce the deliverables documented in a work breakdown structure or WBS. The work effort for each task is estimated and those estimates are rolled up into the final deliverable estimate. The tasks are also prioritized, dependencies between tasks are identified, and this information is documented in a project schedule. The dependencies between the tasks can affect the length of the overall project (dependency constrained), as can the availability of resources (resource constrained). Time is different from all other resources and cost categories. Cost To develop an approximation of a project cost depends on several variables including: resources, work packages such as labor rates and mitigating or controlling influencing factors that create cost variances tools used in cost are, risk management, cost contingency),cost escalation, and indirect costs. But beyond this basic accounting approach to fixed and variable costs, the economic cost that must be considered includes worker skill and productivity which is calculated using various project cost estimate tools. This is important when companies hire temporary or contract employees or outsource work. Cost Process Areas Cost Estimating is an approximation of the cost of all resources needed to complete activities. Cost budgeting aggregating the estimated costs of resources, work packages and activities to establish a cost baseline.

19 Cost Control - factors that create cost fluctuation and variance can be influenced and controlled using various cost management tools. Project Management Cost Estimating Tools[5] Analogous Estimating Using the cost of similar project to determine the cost of the current project Determining Resource Cost rates The cost of goods and labor by unit gathered through estimates or estimation. Bottom Up estimating Using the lowest level of work package detail and summarizing the cost associated with it. Then rolling it up to a higher level aimed and calculating the entire cost of the project. Parametric Estimating Measuring the statistical relationship between historical data and other variable or flow. Vendor Bid Analysis taking the average of several bids given by vendors for the project. Reserve Analysis Aggregate the cost of each activity on the network path then add a contingency or reserve to the end result of the analysis by a factor determined by the project manager. Cost of Quality Analysis Estimating the cost at the highest quality for each activity. Project managers often use project management software to calculate the cost variances for a project.

20 Scope Requirements specified to achieve the end result. The overall definition of what the project is supposed to accomplish, and a specific description of what the end result should be or accomplish. A major component of scope is the quality of the final product. The amount of time put into individual tasks determines the overall quality of the project. Some tasks may require a given amount of time to complete adequately, but given more time could be completed exceptionally. Over the course of a large project, quality can have a significant impact on time and cost (or vice versa). Together, these three constraints have given rise to the phrase "On Time, On Spec, On Budget." In this case, the term "scope" is substituted with "spec(ification)." According to PMBOK the Project Time Management processes include : 1.Activity Definition 2.Activity Sequencing 3.Activity Resource Estimating 4.Activity Duration Estimating 5.Schedule Development 6.Schedule Control Activity Definition (detail) 1a. Activity Definition Inputs Enterprise environmental factors, Organizational process assets, Project Scope statement, Work Breakdown Structure, WBS Dictionary, Project Management Plan 1b. Activity Definition Tools Decomposition, Activity Templates, Rolling Wave Planning, Expert Judgment Collection, Planning Components

21 1c. Activity Definition Outputs Activity list, Activity scope attributes, Milestones list, Change Requests Activity Sequencing 2a. Activity Sequencing Inputs Project Scope Statement, Activity List, Activity Attributes, Milestones List, Approved change requests 2b. Activity Sequencing Tools Procedure Diagram Method (PDM), Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM), Schedule Network templates, Dependency degeneration, Applying leads and lags 2c. Activity Sequencing Outputs Project Schedule Network diagrams, Activity List Updates, Activity Attributes Updates, Request Changes Activity Resource Estimating (detail) : 3a. Activity Resource Estimating Inputs Enterprise Environmental factoring, Organizational process assets, Activity list, Activity attributes, Resources Availability, Project Management Plan 3b. Activity Resource Estimating Tools Expert Judgment Collections, Alternative Analysis, Publishing estimating data, Project management software implementation, Bottom up estimating 3c. Activity Resource Estimating Outputs Activity resource requirements, Activity attributes, Resource breakdown structure, Resource calendars Request change updates. Activity Duration Estimating (detail): 4a. Activity Duration Estimating Inputs

22 Enterprise environmental factors, organization process assets, Project scope statement, activity list, activity attributes, activity resource requirements, resource calendars, project management plan, risk register, activity cost estimates 4b. Activity Duration Estimating Tools Expert judgment collection, analogous estimating, parametric estimating, three point estimating, reserve analysis 4c. Activity Duration Estimating Outputs Activity duration estimates, activity attribute updates and estimates Schedule Development (detail): 5a. Schedule Development Inputs Organizational process assets, Project scope Statement, Activity list, Activity attributes, project Schedule Network diagrams, Activity resource requirements, Resource calendars, Activity duration estimates, project management plan, risk register 5b. Schedule Development Tools Schedule Network Analysis, Critical path method, schedule compression, what if scenario analysis, resources leveling, critical chain method, project management software, applying calendars, adjusting leads and lags, schedule model 5c. Schedule Development Outputs Project schedule, Schedule model data, schedule baseline, resource requirements update, activity attributes, project calendar updates, request changes, project management plan updates, schedule management plan updates Schedule Control (detail):

23 6a. Schedule Control Inputs Schedule management plan, schedule baseline, performance reports, approved change requests 6b. Schedule Control Tools Progressive elaboration reporting, schedule change control system, performance measurement, project management software, variance, analysis, schedule comparison bar charts 6c. Schedule Control Outputs Schedule model data updates, schedule baseline. performance measurement, requested changes, recommended corrective actions, organizational process assets, activity list updates, activity attribute updates, project management plan updates Due to the complex nature of the Process Group called 'Time' the unique project management credential PMI-SP (PMI Scheduling Professional) was created.

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