The purpose of this course is to provide practical assistance for defining and managing project scope.

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1 Scope Definition and Scope Management Purpose - To provide practical assistance for defining and managing project scope. This course will focus on tips for creating a scope statement rather than a step-by-step process for writing a Scope Statement. Audience: - Project Managers, Sponsors, Team members Learning Objectives 1. Understand the contents of a scope statement and why the document is important. 2. Understand relationships between scope definition and other templates & processes. 3. Learn to create a strong scope statement & use it to manage scope creep. Time Estimate: 11 Minutes October 8, of 12 Scope Definition and Scope Management The purpose of this course is to provide practical assistance for defining and managing project scope. The course is targeted to: project managers, sponsors and team members The learning objectives of the course are: 1. Understand the contents of a scope statement and why the document is important. 2. Understand relationships between scope definition, other templates and processes. Learn tips that will help to create a strong scope statement. 3. Understand how to use the scope statement to manage scope creep. 1of 12

2 Scope Statement Overview Describes the project in unambiguous, objective terms Identifies products, services and other deliverables Defines out-of-scope items to eliminate misunderstandings Triple Constraints of Project Management Schedule Time Provides a shared vision Defines criteria to measure success Controls scope creep which reduces impacts on schedule and resources Resources Cost Scope The Work October 8, of 12 Scope Management Overview The scope statement is a clear description of the project, its deliverables and approach. It captures work that will and will not be performed and is used to convey a consistent shared vision of the project. It is a signed agreement between the sponsor and team that states precisely what will be delivered. The criteria outlined in the scope statement will also be used to determine if the project was completed successfully. The principal challenge of project management is to accomplish the project goals and objectives while respecting the triple constraints of: scope, time and cost. One of the most effective ways of balancing these constraints is by developing a clear and comprehensive scope statement. Unambiguous scope helps mitigate future changes to scope which, in turn, reduces impacts on costs, schedules and the overall quality of a project. 2of 12

3 Scope Statement Links Created and utilized during planning stage Utilized in Execution & Control; Closure Linked with: Charter, WBS, Budget, Schedule, Plan, Change Control and PIR October 8, of 12 Scope Statement Links The Scope Statement is tightly coupled with many project management templates and processes. It is developed during the planning stage and used during the remaining stages of the project. Along with the approved Charter, the project manager can use a host of tools to create the Scope Statement. For example: interviews, workshops, questionnaires, observations and prototypes with the: sponsor, other project managers, subject matter experts and vendors. If you are not certain who to speak with, complete the Stakeholder Analysis. The approved scope statement provides the foundation for the work breakdown structure (WBS), schedule and project plan. During the Execution and Control stage, deliverables are worked on and, if necessary, the scope is changed through the formal change control process. The Scope Statement serves as a baseline for the project. Questions or changes that can be compared to what is documented in the Scope Statement and a determination made on how to address. Making change decisions is easier when the original deliverables are well documented. Impacts of any approved changes must be reflected in the revised: scope statement, project plan, WBS, schedule and budget. Ensure that all changes are accurately reflected in the body of the scope statement and in the version history. Once the plan has been revised, create a new baseline project plan. During the Closure stage, the criteria highlighted in the Scope Statement is used to determine if the project was successfully completed. This is accomplished by analyzing what you delivered against agreed upon deliverables. The results of this analysis are posted in the Post Implementation Report (PIR). Hopefully by highlighting these interdependencies, you will recognize the importance of a well developed Scope. 3of 12

4 Project Objectives Measureable, meaningful and attainable Do not confuse with deliverables Facilitates Change Control decisions Used in PIR Report to measure project s success October 8, of 12 Project Objectives Next we will walk-through the characteristics of a good Scope Statement and discuss how and when the information is used. 1. Objectives describe the benefits that an organization expects to achieve by investing in the project. Be careful not to confuse project objectives with products or deliverables. When you define an objective, subject it to the So What Test. For example, if your objective is: implement a new budget system who really cares? If your objective is: implement a new budget system that reduces costs by $200k by eliminating 3 positions; it will matter to the business. 2. Objectives should be quantifiable, achievable and challenging. Quantifiable criteria include: schedule, costs, performance and quality measures. 3. Objectives are used to assess the impact of changes on project objectives. If a change will negatively impact a project objective, it should be rejected. 4. Project objectives are used during the Closure stage to assess whether the team delivered what was agreed upon. 4of 12

5 In Scope Tangible and Measureable Outputs Interim and Finished Deliverables Foundation for Plan and WBS October 8, of 12 In Scope In scope items represent the products, services and components that must be produced to complete the project. These deliverables are measureable and tangible outputs that include interim deliverables like: test plans and scripts, prototypes, system specifications, design documents and finished deliverables like: software packages, courses, and complete facilities. Since deliverables form the foundation for the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and Project Plan, it is essential that you define a comprehensive set of deliverables. Additionally, deliverables must make sense to the customers. Although customers cannot pay attention to all the project activities; they can and do focus on deliverables when well defined. 5of 12

6 Out of Scope Specify exclusions especially grey areas Ensure sponsor agrees October 8, of 12 Out of Scope The scope statement can be a politically charged document because it bounds a project. Over time, some stakeholders may attempt to expand the boundaries to serve their specific needs. While controlled changes to scope are supported through the standard change control process, the scope statement should remain fairly static for the life of the project. As a rule, there should not be significant changes in scope during the life of the project. Major changes result in projects that: never end, require considerable rework or fail. Carefully defining what is specifically excluded from scope is as important as defining what is in-scope. 6of 12

7 Dependencies Logical relationships between things Internal and external Forms foundation for Critical Path October 8, of 12 Dependencies Dependencies represent logical relationships. Projects can have internal and external dependencies. For example: Hiring a vendor to develop a system is an external dependency. System design documents must be complete before development can begin. This is an internal dependency. During Scope Statement development, focus on identifying key dependencies. During the planning stage, the focus becomes more intense as you look at defining both the types of dependencies and dependencies between activities and reflect this information in the project plan. For example: Finish-to-Start: Work is sequential. The first activity must be complete before other activities can begin. This is the most common relationship and the default method in most project planning tools. Start-to-Start: Work is synchronized. Two or more activities must start and flow concurrently. Finish-to-Finish: Deliverables are synchronized. Typically used when the deliverable may change or weaken if not used promptly. 7of 12

8 Organizational Impacts List agencies, departments impacted Identify known business process changes October 8, of 12 Organizational Impacts The purpose of this section is to identify the organizations, agencies and departments impacted. Wherever possible, business process changes should be noted. This information will be needed, at minimum, for: the communication plan and register, transition plan, documentation, testing and training plans. One reason projects fail is because project managers try to fit them into existing structures and processes. More often than not, processes and supporting structures have to be redesigned, documented and users trained to support the new environment. The sooner these impacts are identified the better. You will have to allocate time in the project plan to accommodate these changes. 8of 12

9 Project Acceptance Criteria Specify specific conditions Measurable and agreed to Accept, reject or conditional accept Used in PIR Report to measure project s success October 8, of 12 Project Acceptance Criteria Acceptance criteria represents a specific list of conditions that must be met before a project is considered complete and the deliverables can be accepted by the sponsor. Acceptance criteria should be defined so it can be measured and tested at the conclusion of the project. The PM, team and sponsor must agree to the acceptance criteria. In the event that some/all of the acceptance criteria are not met, the sponsor can reject the deliverables. Alternatively the sponsor can accept the deliverables with contingencies. For example, accepted provided performance is improved by 30% to meet minimum acceptance criteria. 9of 12

10 Project Constraints Flexibility Tolerance Little/no Flexibility Constrain Somewhat Flexible Optimize Most Flexible Accept Schedule Costs (Resources) Scope Technology October 8, of 12 Project Constraints Project constraints are anything, internal or external, that place limits on the actions of the project team. These are identified while scope is being developed and then used during the planning process to validate and adjust the project plan. Typical project constraints are related to: scope, schedule, cost, technology and management directives. The project manager s primary goal in managing constraints is to minimize or eliminate the constraints during the planning stage. Constraints that are unmanaged will become issues or risks. Project managers have to analyze the types of constraints faced by the project, determine which have the most flexibility, and make trade-offs. These trade-offs must be reflected in the project plan. In the above example, schedule and costs are not flexible. Given this, the project manager may have to adjust scope and/or technology choices to ensure that these constraints are respected. 10 of 12

11 Project Specifications Identify regulatory, industry, technical specifications Specify contractual agreements Integrate project specifications into planning and design documents October 8, of 12 Project Specifications Some projects must comply with specific: regulations, industry or technology specifications and contractual agreements. Identify these specifications and ensure that they are incorporated into the appropriate planning and/or design documents. 11 of 12

12 Scope Synopsis Key Points 1. Clearly define project boundaries & metrics. 2. Incorporate input from key stakeholders and subject matter experts. 3. Secure sign-off. It builds shared accountability. October 8, of 12 Scope Synopsis Key Points You have completed the Scope Management course. Remember the following: 1. The Scope Statement frames the project work. Clearly specify: what is in scope, out of scope and how the team will be measured. 2. Reach out to stakeholders and subject matter experts to ensure that the scope statement accurately reflects what the customer wants and needs. 3. Secure formal sign-off from the sponsor. This builds shared accountability and will help to manage scope creep. Remember there is likely no single factor that contributes to the success of a project more than beginning with a complete definition of the work to be done. Conversely, there is probably no factor that contributes more to the demise of a project than starting a project without an complete understanding of this work to be done. Thank You. 12 of 12

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