1 Domestic Animals: Biting and Being Bitten Nancy Frank, DVM, MPH Michigan Department of Agriculture Animal Industry Division Michigan Rabies Conference April 24, 2006
2 Michigan Department of Agriculture s (MDA) role Prevent and control rabies in Michigan through vaccination. Investigate positive rabies cases. Provide guidance regarding animal-animal bites and animal-human bites. Provide guidance regarding vaccinating against rabies. Provide public and professional education on rabies.
3 Legal Authorities Animal Industry Act Act No. 466, PA 1988, as amended Dog Law Act No. 339, PA 1939, as amended Ferret Law Act No. 358, PA 1994
4 Rabies Prevention in Domestic Animals: Vaccination MDA requires ferrets 12 weeks of age and older and dogs 4 months of age or older to be vaccinated against rabies. MDA requires dogs and ferrets being imported into Michigan to be vaccinated against rabies. MDA strongly advises vaccinating other animals for which there is an approved rabies vaccine. Currently, there is an approved rabies vaccine for cats, horses, cattle, sheep, as well as dogs and ferrets.
5 Rabies is a reportable disease.
6 Investigate positive rabies cases MDA must be contacted when there is a confirmed positive case of rabies. Rabies testing is typically conducted by Michigan Department of Community Health. Rabies is typically reported to MDA by veterinarians or Michigan Department of Community Health.
7 Investigate positive rabies cases Exposure is defined as exposure to saliva, blood, or other bodily fluids through wounds, broken skin, or mucous membranes. MDA assesses animal exposure.
8 Investigate positive rabies cases MDA determines appropriate action to be taken with regards to exposed animals. MDA utilizes the NASPHV Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control, as a guide in determining appropriate action.
10 Investigate positive rabies cases Quarantine goals: Prevent further exposure to animals and people Vaccinate all at risk animals Restrict the movement of exposed animals Minimize human and animal contact to exposed animals Monitor for signs of disease in exposed animals
11 Keweenaw Houghton Ontonagon Baraga Gogebic Iron Dickinson Marquette Delta Alger Schoolcraft Luce Chippewa Mackinac Legend Skunk = 7 Bat = 28 Fox = 1 Dog = 0 Cat = 4 Sheep = 1 Total = 41 Menominee Mason Oceana Berrien Leelanau Benzie Grand Traverse Manistee Wexford Muskegon Ottawa Lake Newaygo Allegan Van Buren Cass Kent Osceola Mecosta Kalamazoo St. Joseph Montcalm Barry (4) Emmet Kalkaska Missaukee Ionia Clare Isabella Calhoun Branch Cheboygan Charlevoix Antrim Otsego Crawford Gratiot Clinton Hillsdale Gladwin Midland Ingham Presque Isle Montmorency Oscoda Ogemaw Roscommon Eaton Jackson Bay Arenac Saginaw Shiawassee Lenawee Alpena Livingston (4) Alcona Iosco Genesee In 2004, 36 bats, 2 skunks, 1 dog, and 1 fox tested positive for rabies. (2) Tuscola Washtenaw (2) Lapeer Huron Wayne Sanilac St. Clair Oakland Macomb (2) (2) (2) Monroe
12 MDA receives calls from animal control, veterinarians/veterina ry staff, and the public regarding the proper protocol for animal- animal bites. Provide guidance regarding animal- animal bites
14 Animals not likely to carry rabies Chipmunk Gerbil Gopher Guinea Pig Hamster Mole Mouse Muskrat Prairie Dog Rabbit Rat Shrew Squirrel Vole
15 MDA receives calls from animal control, veterinarians, veterinary staff, and the public regarding the proper protocol for handling animals that bite humans. Provide guidance regarding animal- human bites
17 Bites inflicted to people by farm animals are evaluated on a case by case basis.
18 Provide guidance regarding vaccination against rabies We answer questions from veterinarians, animal control officers, and the public regarding vaccination against rabies.
19 Who can legally vaccinate against rabies? For dogs, rabies must be given by a licensed, accredited veterinarian. For other animals, rabies vaccine must be administered by or under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian. Exception livestock owners may vaccinate their own livestock.
20 Case Studies
21 Case One
22 History On January 16, 2006, an Australian Shepherd breeder observed a skunk in an outside dog kennel. There were also four dogs in the kennel at the same time as the skunk. The dogs were attempting to play with the skunk. The dog breeder noted that the skunk was acting strangely.
23 History Two of the four dogs were current for rabies vaccination. One of the four dogs had never been vaccinated against rabies. One of the four dogs was overdue for rabies vaccination. The breeder observed that the dog overdue for rabies vaccination had a wound on its head after contact with the skunk.
24 History The dog breeder submitted the skunk to Michigan Department of Community Health for rabies testing. The dog breeder took the two dogs that were not current on rabies vaccination to the veterinarian where they were vaccinated against rabies.
25 The skunk tested positive for rabies by fluorescent antibody examination. (MDCH Laboratory)
26 Health Department The family was informed that the skunk tested positive for rabies. Family and veterinary staff at hospital advised to undergo post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies.
27 Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) MDA advised breeder and breeder s veterinarian to revaccinate the two dogs current on rabies vaccination exposed to the skunk. These two dogs were isolated and observed for 45 days for any signs of illness.
28 Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) Euthanasia was advised for the two dogs without a current rabies vaccination at the time of exposure to the skunk. The owners refused euthanasia. A 6 month quarantine was placed by MDA on these two dogs.
29 Conditions of Quarantine The two dogs must be isolated from all other animals. The dogs must be isolated from all other people. Only the caregiver is allowed contact with the dogs. The dogs must be housed in a secure room inside the home or a kennel with a perimeter fence.
30 Conditions of Quarantine The dogs can only be allowed outside on a leash controlled by the caregiver. There can be no animals or people in the area. The dogs must be examined by a veterinarian should any signs of illness develop.
31 Conditions of Quarantine At the end of the 6 months, the dogs must have a veterinary exam to release them from the quarantine.
32 Quarantine Protocol Quarantine placed by a state veterinarian. The dogs were visited by the state veterinarian with decreasing frequency (weekly for four weeks, then every other week for two months, then monthly thereafter.)
33 Outcome The breeder followed all instructions. To date, all dogs and people in the household are healthy.
34 Case Two
35 History On February 7, 2006, an owner noted that one of her horses, a 20 year old Thoroughbred mare, was acting unusually aggressive. The horse was housed in a pasture with six other horses, none of which had ever been vaccinated against rabies. The horse was violently charging trees as well as the owner s son.
36 History During this charging, the horse got caught in a fence, and bit the owner who was attempting to free the horse. In addition, the horse bit one of the horses housed in the pasture. The horse broke through one of the fence walls of the pasture, where it collapsed, thrashed, and soon died.
37 History The owner went to the hospital to have her bite treated. She was also given post- exposure prophylaxis for rabies. The owner contacted her veterinarian who advised sending the horse to the Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health for a necropsy.
38 The horse was diagnosed positive for rabies by fluorescent antibody examination. (MDHC Laboratory)
39 Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) It is rare to have more than one rabid animal in a herd or herbivore-to to-herbivore transmission. MDA discussed with the owner euthanasia of the six horses exposed to the rabid horse. The owner agreed to euthanize the horse that had actually been bitten by the rabid horse.
40 Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) A 6 month quarantine was placed on the other five horses exposed to the rabid horse. In addition, all animals on the farm, including the exposed horses, were vaccinated against rabies, provided there was an approved vaccine.
41 Conditions of Quarantine No medical treatments (vaccination, surgeries, or medications) without approval from MDA. The horses are to not have contact with any other horses. The quarantined horses must be quarantined to the paddock. They are not to leave the farm.
42 Conditions of Quarantine Only the owner/caregiver (Limit to 1-21 people) are to have contact with the horses. The horses are to be observed daily for any signs of illness. The horses must be examined by a veterinarian should any signs of illness develop.
43 Conditions of Quarantine An exam by a veterinarian is required at the end of the quarantine to release the horses from the quarantine.
44 Quarantine Protocol Quarantine placed by a state veterinarian. The horses then visited by an animal control officer with decreasing frequency (weekly for four weeks, then every other week for two months, then monthly thereafter.) Animal control officer reported findings from each visit to MDA.
45 Outcome All animals and people on the farm are healthy. All animals on the farm are currently vaccinated for rabies. The horse that was bitten by the rabid horse was euthanized and tested for rabies. This horse tested negative.
46 Case 3
47 History On November 1, 2005, a farmer was walking on his property. He soon discovered that he was being chased by a skunk. He quickly ran to his truck and got in. The skunk then began to attack his truck. The skunk eventually wandered off.
48 History 1-22 days later, the farmer could smell a skunk. He noted that one of his sheep had a wound on its nose. About 18 days later, the sheep began to experience choking/ difficulties swallowing. The sheep was sent to the Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health for a necropsy.
49 Sheep tested positive for rabies by fluorescent antibody examination. (MDCH Laboratory)
50 Community Health Family, five individuals, underwent post- exposure prophylaxis as they had put their hands in sheep s mouth to help it when it was choking. No one else deemed exposed.
51 Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) Farmer had the following animals on farm: 5 Goats 2 Sheep (1 of which was the rabid sheep) 1 llama 1 cat (indoors) None of these animals were exposed to the sheep. None of these animals had been vaccinated against rabies. (There is no approved rabies vaccine for goats or llamas.)
52 Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) MDA instructed farmer to vaccinate indoor cat against rabies. Farmer to observe livestock for 45 days for any signs of illness. Livestock to remain on farm for 45 day observation period. At end of observation period, MDA advised vaccinating other sheep against rabies.
53 Outcome All animals and people on the farm are healthy. Cat was vaccinated. Skunk was never found.
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