Broadband Infrastructure, Adoption, and Technology Usage in Michigan. First in a Series of Working Reports on the State of Broadband in Michigan

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1 Broadband Infrastructure, Adoption, and Technology Usage in Michigan First in a Series of Working Reports on the State of Broadband in Michigan June 2011

2 Table of Contents Executive Summary... 3 Overview of the Broadband Market in Michigan... 3 Policy Considerations... 6 Initial Strategies to Close the Availability Gap... 7 Initial Strategies to Close the Adoption Gap... 7 Introduction... 8 Michigan Broadband Inventory and Availability Gap Broadband Availability in Michigan: Statewide Examination Fixed Broadband Availability Broadband Availability by Technology Platform The Rural-Urban Broadband Availability Gap Across Michigan Broadband Availability in Michigan: County-level Examination Broadband Availability by County in Michigan Michigan s Underserved Households by County Broadband Availability by County and Platform in Michigan Universal Service Funding Program in Michigan Federally Owned Land in Michigan Tribal Land in Michigan Connectivity Across Community Anchor Institutions in Michigan Broadband Stimulus Investments in Michigan through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act The Broadband Adoption Gap in Michigan Key Findings Broadband Adopters and Non-Adopters Barriers to Adoption Broadband Applications and Uses Policy Considerations Initial Strategies to Close the Availability Gap Initial Strategies to Close the Adoption Gap Appendix A: Connect Michigan, October A1 Appendix B: Broadband Providers Participating and Not Participating in Connect Michigan s Broadband Inventory Effort... B1 2 Connect Michigan

3 Executive Summary As part of the Michigan State Broadband Data and Development (SBDD) grant program and in partnership and at the direction of the Michigan Public Service Commission (MPSC), Connect Michigan conducted an assessment of the broadband landscape in the state of Michigan. 1 This report, which will be updated as the SBDD project progresses, advances the understanding of broadband availability and use in Michigan. Importantly, it demonstrates how local officials can utilize Connect Michigan resources to increase broadband availability in the future. The SBDD was created by the Broadband Data Improvement Act (BDIA), unanimously passed by Congress in 2008 and funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) in As part of the SBDD grant program, in April 2010, Connect Michigan produced a map of the inventory of broadband availability to identify served and unserved areas across the state that was updated in October 2010 and April This report analyzes the broadband inventory and adoption data in order to address various policy concerns. Connect Michigan conducted survey research in the spring of 2010 to understand broadband demand trends across the state. The purpose of this research is to better understand the drivers and barriers to technology and broadband adoption and estimate the broadband adoption gap across the state of Michigan. Appendix A of this report presents extensive results of this research. The demand-side survey data complements the mapping inventory information describing the state of broadband supply in Michigan. This report analyzes this complementary demand- and supply-side research and explores external factors, such as the impact of the federal Universal Service Fund (USF) and the policy implications of the Federal Communication Commission s (FCC) National Broadband Plan (NBP). 3 Following the spirit of the NBP and based on the broadband availability and adoption data collected by Connect Michigan, the report proposes a series of policy recommendations aimed to spur discussion and feedback among key stakeholders across Michigan. Overview of the Broadband Market in Michigan Michigan s broadband marketplace is defined by its urban-rural divide and lack of higher speed-tier broadband availability. The eighth-most populous state in the U.S., Michigan faces a lack of broadband at or above 25 Mbps download, and its unserved households are almost wholly confined to rural areas of the state. Therefore, this report, in order to assist readers in understanding data collected by Connect Michigan, presents these data on a statewide and county-level basis. In October 2010, fixed broadband at download speeds of 768 Kbps or above was available to approximately 3.7 million households, or 96.79% of all Michigan households. 4 This implies that 121,701 households, or 3.21%, remain unserved by terrestrial, fixed broadband. 5,6 It is further estimated that 3.5 million, or 93.65% of, households across Michigan have broadband available at download speeds of 3 Mbps or above a service level now often considered necessary for effectively operating many Internet applications. This implies that 118,836, or 3.14% of, households across Michigan have fixed broadband service available 1 State Broadband and Development Grant Program Notice of Funding Availability, NTIA, U.S. Department of Commerce, July 9, Broadband Data Improvement Act, P.L Connecting America: The National Broadband Plan, Federal Communications Commission, April Broadband is defined according to current National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) and FCC definition, or 768 Kbps download and 200 Kbps upload speeds. 5 Unserved area means a proposed funded service area, composed of one or more contiguous Census Blocks, where at least 90 percent of households in the proposed funded service area lack access to facilities-based, terrestrial broadband service, either fixed or mobile, at the minimum broadband transmission speed (set forth in the definition of broadband above). A household has access to broadband service if the household can readily subscribe to that service upon request. SBDD NOFA. 6 While the NTIA definition of unserved and underserved areas encompasses all broadband platforms, including mobile wireless networks, Tables 1 and 3 focus only on fixed, terrestrial broadband infrastructure. Tables 6 and 8 include data across all terrestrial platforms. Broadband Infrastructure, Adoption, and Technology Usage in Michigan 3

4 at download speeds below 3 Mbps, or speeds that the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) classifies as underserved. 7 Table 1 Estimate of Broadband Service Availability in the State of Michigan By Speed Tier Among Fixed Platforms SBDD Download Speed Tiers Unserved Households Served Households Percent Households By Speed Tier At Least 768 Kbps 121,701 3,663, % At Least 1.5 Mbps 175,483 3,610, % At Least 3 Mbps 240,536 3,545, % At Least 6 Mbps 307,135 3,478, % At Least 10 Mbps 387,624 3,398, % At Least 25 Mbps 3,354, , % At Least 50 Mbps 3,621, , % At Least 100 Mbps 3,782,570 3, % At Least 1 Gbps 3,785, % Source: Connect Michigan, October Furthermore, the percentage of Michigan households with fixed broadband access available of at least 6 Mbps download speeds is estimated at 91.89% -- an important data point considering that the FCC s National Broadband Plan considers broadband at actual speeds of 4 Mbps downstream/1 Mbps upstream to be a threshold level of service for most broadband activity. The data necessary to compile these broadband inventory estimates were collected on a voluntary basis from broadband providers serving Michigan. Appendix B of this report details which providers have and have not participated so far in the creation of Michigan s broadband inventory map. Needless to say, statewide estimates do not necessarily reflect the reality faced by each Michigan community. Connect Michigan county-level availability estimates reveal variances in measured broadband inventory, highlighting the importance of granular data to identify gaps in infrastructure and adoption. County-level as well as more granular, street-level broadband inventory data is available through Connect Michigan s interactive, online broadband inventory map at At a county level, significant variance in broadband availability across counties is measured at different speed tiers 7 Underserved area means a proposed funded service area, composed of one or more contiguous Census Blocks meeting certain criteria that measure the availability of broadband service and the level of advertised broadband speeds. [ ] Specifically, a proposed funded service area may qualify as underserved for last mile projects if at least one of the following factors is met, though the presumption will be that more than one factor is present: 1. No more than 50 percent of the households in the proposed funded service area have access to facilities-based, terrestrial broadband service at greater than the minimum broadband transmission speed (set forth in the definition of broadband above); 2. No fixed or mobile broadband service provider advertises broadband transmission speeds of at least three megabits per second ( mbps ) downstream in the proposed funded service area; or 3. The rate of broadband subscribership for the proposed funded service area is 40 percent of households or less. SBDD NOFA. 4 Connect Michigan

5 or from platform to platform. For example, Bay County is estimated to have 99.70% of all households served (out of Michigan s 83 counties, 22 have broadband available to 98% or greater households), contrasted with Gladwin County where broadband is available to only 46.72% of households (23 counties in Michigan have broadband available to 85% or less of their households). What is important to understand when considering broadband availability in Michigan is that geography, household density, and other local factors affect ongoing investment in broadband networks and the disparity of the Michigan broadband market across regions or counties. Connect Michigan survey research shows that 67% of Michigan households have a broadband connection in the home (see Figure 1). By comparison, national surveys conducted by the FCC show that 67% of American households subscribe to home broadband service, which implies an adoption gap in Michigan of 30% of households (when accounting for the 121,000 Michigan households that do not have broadband access), roughly equal to the adoption gap measured by the FCC. 8 In other words, approximately one-third of Michigan households have basic broadband available but, for various reasons, are choosing not to subscribe to the service in their home. Of the estimated 33% of Michigan households without a home broadband connection, 43% report a lack of interest in broadband, 29% report a lack of computer as the primary barrier to broadband, 24% say broadband is too expensive, and 16% report lack of broadband availability to their home. Figure 1: Michigan Technology Adoption Summary Use dial-up from home 8% Use the Internet someplace other than home 10% Use broadband from home 67% Do not use the Internet 13% Don t know if home Internet service is dial-up or broadband 2% Connect Michigan survey data also show that 18% of Michigan residents do not own a home computer. This translates into over 1.3 million adults in Michigan without a home computer, with 23% of those same adults stating that cost was the major limiting factor. FCC national data indicates that non-adopters are generally senior citizens, members of ethnic minorities, rural dwellers, people with disabilities, people of low income, and/or people with less education, and these data are largely in line with estimated adoption rates by these same demographic groups in Michigan, with broadband 8 Adoption and Use in America: OBI Working Paper Series No. 1, J. Horrigan, Federal Communications Commission, February Broadband Infrastructure, Adoption, and Technology Usage in Michigan 5

6 adoption rates for seniors, low-income households, low-income households with children, minorities, those with disabilities, and rural households all falling below the statewide broadband adoption average of 67%. 9 This report also details the current impact of key components of the federal USF program. The FCC USF reforms under debate at the FCC and in the U.S. Congress are likely to have important implications for Michigan, and further examination of the impact of comprehensive USF disbursements across Michigan communities is recommended in order to assess the historical and ongoing impact of the federal programs upon the broadband market in Michigan and evaluate the implications of proposed reforms. The Michigan Public Service Commission has filed extensive comments with the FCC regarding the ongoing federal USF reform proceeding, providing insight into how proposed federal USF changes may impact Michigan. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) provided over $245 million for broadband-related projects in Michigan, with an additional $124 million provided to projects serving multiple U.S. states, including Michigan. The impact of these projects has not yet been assessed, but Connect Michigan will work to measure broadband deployment and the reach of adoption and computer access programs in the state. In many cases, broadband availability on government-owned property is lower than on land where households exist, and in far too many cases, broadband availability and adoption on tribal land is lower than average. Maps are provided in this report that will allow readers to cross-reference broadband availability to federally owned and tribal lands. Connect Michigan has, in coordination with the MPSC, identified and begun contacting close to 9,000 Community Anchor Institutions (CAIs). Widespread and robust broadband connectivity at CAIs, such as schools, libraries, healthcare facilities, and public safety or first responder facilities, is of particular interest to the FCC and federal government. Connect Michigan is in the process of benchmarking CAI broadband connectivity in Michigan, and the status of this ongoing project is detailed in this document. Connect Michigan estimates that 93.65% of Michigan households have broadband available at download speeds of 3 Mbps or more. The FCC estimates that nationwide, approximately 95% of households have broadband available at download speeds of 4 Mbps or more. It is important to continue gathering and validating broadband inventory and adoption data in Michigan particularly in rural areas where the overwhelming majority of unserved households exist in order to accurately measure the broadband gaps across the state and inform the ongoing Universal Service Fund reform debate currently underway at the FCC. Policy Considerations The FCC s NBP recommends a series of strategies to ensure that broadband is more affordable and accessible to all Americans. The NBP recommends a holistic approach to address the availability and adoption gaps by tackling key barriers to adoption including relevance, affordability, digital literacy, and availability. The holistic approach includes programs aimed to encourage adoption in the home, as well as the strengthening of public computing and Internet access capacity at Community Anchor Institutions (schools, libraries, hospitals, etc.). This approach is consistent with the programs that Congress unanimously mandated in the BDIA. The NBP and BDIA call for a series of principles and programs to be implemented at the federal, state, and local levels for achieving pragmatic solutions to the broadband availability and adoption gaps. Key among these are the following recommendations and activities that Connect Michigan believes to be particularly relevant to Michigan and its communities. 9 Adoption and Use in America: OBI Working Paper Series No. 1, J. Horrigan, Federal Communications Commission, February Connect Michigan

7 Initial Strategies to Close the Availability Gap Conduct further analysis of the impact of the possible Universal Service Fund & Intercarrier Compensation Rules reform upon communities across Michigan. Encourage coordination at the state and local level aimed to achieve economies of scale and encourage efficiency of public investments, including comprehensive planning for broadband infrastructure projects; joint deployment of broadband conduit alongside state finance or enabled infrastructure projects; establishment of Gigabit Communities or Broadband Corridors in regions in the state; assessing the possibility of developing a set of state master contracts to expedite the placement of wireless towers on state government property and buildings. Facilitate further expansion of mobile 3G and 4G networks by evaluating whether there are opportunities for streamlining local and state rules and regulations affecting the cost and build-out speed of towers supporting these networks and encourage further development of statewide smart grids that leverage the state s broadband infrastructure, making Michigan more competitive. Evaluating whether there are opportunities for promoting lower costs of access to key network inputs such as utility-owned poles, ducts, conduits, and rights-of-way. Leverage the opportunities potentially available under the extended SBDD grant program to promote public-private partnerships to address existing gaps in the network at the local level. Continue efforts to measure and map broadband inventory data through the Connect Michigan project. Initial Strategies to Close the Adoption Gap Promote and facilitate local community engagement aimed to address local barriers to adoption and develop pragmatic solutions tailored to each community, including public-private partnerships with broadband providers and consumer technology companies designed to facilitate increased computer ownership. Promote public-private partnerships at the state and local levels to build awareness campaigns about the benefits of broadband technology among at-risk populations. Expand, improve, or create pragmatic digital literacy programs at the state and local level and leverage digital literacy resources available via the NBP-proposed National Digital Literacy Program. Encourage public-private collaboration to educate consumers and families about the reality of online risks and promote online safety practices among children and citizens. Leverage the proposed federal National Broadband Clearinghouse portal aimed to promote best practices and information sharing, as well as the federal Online Digital Literacy Portal program. Promote expansion of publicly available computing and online resources leveraging federal, state, local, and private funds. Monitor and assess how the proposed reform of the Low Income Support programs under the Universal Service Fund will affect Michigan residents. Coordinate with Michigan tribal nations on broadband issues. The NBP recognizes the importance of working with tribal nations to develop programs tailored to address the particular technology adoption challenges faced by these communities. Broadband Infrastructure, Adoption, and Technology Usage in Michigan 7

8 1. Introduction The original SBDD grant program for the state of Michigan included two key components: the Broadband Mapping and Planning Programs. 10 As part of the Michigan SBDD program, in April 2010, Connect Michigan produced an inaugural map of the inventory of broadband availability in Michigan, and released an update to this map and its data in October 2010 and April Connect Michigan collected comprehensive data from broadband providers across the state to create an inventory of the broadband infrastructure in Michigan. A key goal was to identify communities and households that remain unserved or underserved by broadband service; this information is essential to estimate the broadband availability gap in the state and understand the scope and scale of challenges in providing universal broadband service to all citizens across the state. The 2010 Connect Michigan broadband map is the first comprehensive inventory of broadband infrastructure in the state. This data can be found in the interactive, online map available at The inventory will be updated twice yearly with the next upcoming update scheduled for the fall of In addition, the broadband inventory data collected from broadband providers by Connect Michigan is provided to the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) for use in the National Broadband Map, a collaborative effort between NTIA and the FCC. 11 The map in Figure 2 has been included for illustration purposes only. A high-quality version of this map is available at: ftp://ftp.connectmi.org/cmipublic/connect_michigan_mapping/statewide_maps/mi_statewide_broadband_official.pdf 10 State Broadband and Development Grant Program Notice of Funding Availability, NTIA, US Department of Commerce, July 9, ( SBDD NOFA ) Available at 11 The National Broadband Map can be found online at 8 Connect Michigan

9 Figure 2: Broadband Infrastructure, Adoption, and Technology Usage in Michigan 9

10 To complement the broadband inventory and mapping data, Connect Michigan conducted the first in a series of research surveys in the spring of 2010 to understand broadband demand trends across the state. The purpose of this research is to better understand the drivers and barriers to technology and broadband adoption and estimate the broadband adoption gap across the state of Michigan. Key questions the data address are: who, where, and how are households in Michigan using broadband technology? How is this technology impacting Michigan households and residents? And, who is not adopting broadband service and why? What are the barriers that prevent citizens from embracing this empowering technology? Appendix A of this report presents extensive results of this research. This report analyzes the complementary demand- and supply-side data. Following the spirit of the NBP 12 and based on the broadband availability and adoption data collected by Connect Michigan, the report proposes a series of introductory policy recommendations aimed to spur discussion and feedback among key stakeholders across Michigan. Section 2 of the report provides a detailed analysis of Michigan s broadband availability and availability gap, including an analysis of SBDD broadband inventory data and evaluates data on existing broadband usage by Michigan Community Anchor Institutions. Section 2 also provides an overview of Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) and Broadband Initiatives Program (BIP) projects that will impact broadband in Michigan, and a comparison of federal and tribal land versus broadband availability in the state. Section 3 provides an overview of the broadband adoption data collected in Appendix A. Section 4 evaluates policy options that Connect Michigan believes merit discussion and consideration in Michigan that may help the state address broadband availability and adoption gaps. Appendix A includes the November 2011 Connect Michigan Technology Assessment, which provides detailed results from Connect Michigan s spring 2010 residential survey research. Appendix B lists participating providers in the Connect Michigan broadband inventory project. Future work from the Connect Michigan planning grant will provide information on expanded, updated research and mapping data, including revised broadband availability figures, as well as more in-depth assessments of residential technology adoption. In addition, the Connect Michigan program will engage in activities designed to increase Michigan s broadband capacity, including support for the activities of the Michigan Collaborative Broadband Committee, and the creation of regional technology teams built around Michigan s 14 State Planning and Development Regions (SPDRs). 12 Connecting America: The National Broadband Plan, Federal Communications Commission, April ( National Broadband Plan or NBP ). Available at 10 Connect Michigan

11 2. Michigan Broadband Inventory and Availability Gap As noted, in April 2010, Connect Michigan produced an inaugural map of the inventory of broadband availability across the state, with updated maps released in October 2010 and April The FCC s NBP sets six goals for the U.S. broadband market: 1. At least 100 million U.S. homes having affordable access to download speeds of at least 100 Mbps and upload speeds of at least 50 Mbps. 2. The U.S. should lead the world in mobile innovation, with the fastest and most extensive wireless networks of any nation. 3. Every American should have affordable access to robust broadband service of at minimum 4 Mbps download speeds, and the means and skills to subscribe if they so choose. 4. Every American community should have affordable access to at least 1 gigabit per second broadband service to anchor institutions such as schools, hospitals, and government buildings. 5. To ensure the safety of the American people, every first responder should have access to a nationwide, wireless, interoperable broadband public safety network. 6. To ensure that America leads in the clean energy economy, every American should be able to use broadband to track and manage their real-time energy consumption. 13 The NBP recommends measures that the FCC believes will help achieve these goals, and has moved rapidly to implement some elements of this plan since its introduction in early This report examines how the broadband market in Michigan compares against the NBP s national goals. The Michigan map can be found online at The Connect Michigan broadband inventory maps are the first of their kind in Michigan. Data were collected from the majority of broadband providers in the state; however, there are a few broadband providers that have not participated. The measured broadband inventory provides an estimate of the true extent of broadband coverage across the state. There is a degree of error inherent in this exercise, which needs to be taken into consideration when analyzing the data. Measurement error will decrease with ongoing data validation and as the maps become more active tools for local, state, and federal stakeholders, who will be able to identify areas where the displayed coverage is under- or over-estimated. Connect Michigan welcomes such feedback, which will be analyzed in collaboration with updated information from providers to correct errors identified in the maps FCC National Broadband Plan. 14 Questions regarding the maps and data collection can be directed to Broadband Infrastructure, Adoption, and Technology Usage in Michigan 11

12 2.1 Broadband Availability in Michigan: Statewide Examination Fixed Broadband Availability In 2000, Michigan had approximately 3.79 million households, with a total population of 9.9 million people. 15 Table 2 shows estimates of the number and percentages of households across Michigan having broadband available at nine download speed tiers. 16 Table 2 is based on broadband inventory data from all terrestrial, non-mobile platforms, including cable, DSL, fiber-to-the-home, and fixed wireless. Mobile broadband platforms are excluded from the fixed broadband inventory in order to present an accurate percentage of the Michigan households with fixed broadband service available. In October 2010, fixed broadband at download speeds of 768 Kbps or above was available to approximately 3.7 million households, or 96.79% of all Michigan households. 17 This implies that approximately 121,701, or 3.21%, remain unserved by broadband. 18,19 An estimated 3.5 million, or 93.65% of, households across Michigan have broadband available at download speeds of 3 Mbps or above. This implies that approximately 118,000, or 3.14% of, households across Michigan have fixed broadband service available at download speeds of at least 768 Kbps but below 3 Mbps, or speeds that the NTIA classifies as underserved. 20 The percentage of Michigan households with fixed broadband access available of at least 6 Mbps download speeds is estimated at 91.89%, and 89.76% of households have service available of at least 10 Mbps. There is significantly less availability at speeds of at least 25 Mbps or higher in Michigan, with only 11.4% of households with access to broadband at 25 Mbps, and only 4.32% of households in Michigan are able to subscribe to broadband speeds of at least 50 Mbps or higher. Less than 1% of Michigan households have access to broadband speeds of 100 Mbps, and there are no households with broadband service speeds of 1 Gbps or greater. The broadband availability gap across Michigan affects 240,000 households, or 6.4%, for capacity at or above 3 Mbps. Again, there are also 121,701 households, or 3.21%, that do not have broadband service available at the 768 Kbps speed. The data also reveal an alternative broadband availability gap. While most Michigan households have broadband available at lower speeds, broadband coverage at speeds above 25 Mbps is available to only approximately onetenth of the population and, as of October 2010, only 0.08% of households were able to access publicly available service with capacity of at least 100 Mbps download speeds. Therefore, taking into consideration the FCC s NBP goals listed earlier in this report, there appears to be a significant gap across Michigan for availability of highercapacity broadband capable of at least 100 Mbps download speed. 15 National Census, 2000, U.S. Census Bureau. Population source: 2009 Population Estimate, U.S. Census Bureau. 16 Speed tiers are based on the tiers defined by the NTIA in the SBDD NOFA. 17 Broadband is defined according to current NTIA and FCC definition, or 768 Kbps download and 200 Kbps upload speeds. 18 Unserved area means a proposed funded service area, composed of one or more contiguous Census Blocks, where at least 90 percent of households, in the proposed funded service area lack access to facilities-based, terrestrial broadband service, either fixed or mobile, at the minimum broadband transmission speed (set forth in the definition of broadband above). A household has access to broadband service if the household can readily subscribe to that service upon request. SBDD NOFA. 19 While the NTIA definition of unserved and underserved areas encompasses all broadband platforms, including mobile wireless networks, Table 2 focuses only on fixed, terrestrial broadband infrastructure. Table 4 in Section includes data across all terrestrial platforms. 20 Underserved area means a proposed funded service area, composed of one or more contiguous Census Blocks meeting certain criteria that measure the availability of broadband service and the level of advertised broadband speeds. [ } Specifically, a proposed funded service area may quality as underserved for last mile projects if at least one of the following factors is met, though the presumption will be that one or more factor is present: 1. Not more than 50 percent of the households in the proposed funded service area have access to facilities-based, terrestrial broadband service at greater than the minimum broadband transmission speed (set forth in the broadband definition above); 2. No fixed or mobile broadband service provider advertises broadband transmission speeds of at least three megabits per second ( mbps ) downstream in the proposed funded service area; or 3. The rate of broadband subscribership for the proposed funded service area is 40 percent of households or less. SBDD NOFA. 12 Connect Michigan

13 Table 2 Estimate of Broadband Service Availability in the State of Michigan By Speed Tier Among Fixed Platforms SBDD Download Speed Tiers Unserved Households Served Households Percent Households By Speed Tier At Least 768 Kbps 121,701 3,663, % At Least 1.5 Mbps 175,483 3,610, % At Least 3 Mbps 240,536 3,545, % At Least 6 Mbps 307,135 3,478, % At Least 10 Mbps 387,624 3,398, % At Least 25 Mbps 3,354, , % At Least 50 Mbps 3,621, , % At least 100 Mbps 3,782,570 3, % At Least 1 Gbps 3,785, % Source: Connect Michigan, October While there was no national benchmark for broadband available during the time that this report was initially drafted (the SBDD program generated the National Broadband Map that can provide such a reference in late February 2011), measures obtained by Connected Nation (Connect Michigan s parent company across 11 other states plus Puerto Rico) suggest that broadband investment in Michigan is on par with that of other states, at least at lower speed tiers. Table 3 reports data collected by Connected Nation in the fall of 2010 in the following states and territories: Alaska, Florida, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, Ohio, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas. 21 Following the NTIA definition of broadband, this measure of broadband availability includes any connection providing service of at least 768 Kbps downstream and 200 Kbps upstream speeds. The data reported include broadband service by all types of platforms except for satellite and mobile wireless broadband service. 21 Research funded by the ARRA and compliant with SBDD data requirements and definitions. Broadband Infrastructure, Adoption, and Technology Usage in Michigan 13

14 Table 3 - Estimate of Available Terrestrial Fixed Broadband Service of At Least 768 Kbps Downstream Kbps Upstream Selected States Density of Households Across State Households with Available Broadband Service Alaska % Florida % Illinois % Iowa % Kansas % Michigan % Minnesota % Nevada % Ohio % Puerto Rico % South Carolina % Tennessee % Texas % Data includes all terrestrial technology platforms except for mobile broadband services. Source: Availability data from Connect Michigan, Household density data from U.S. Census, 2000, U.S. Census Bureau. Data from Alaska, Florida, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, Ohio, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas from October, The unweighted average of broadband availability measured across these 13 states and territories is 95.25% Broadband Availability by Technology Platform The fall 2010 Michigan broadband inventory map is based on data from 103 fixed, terrestrial broadband providers and 6 mobile wireless providers. Broadband providers offer fixed, terrestrial service at 768 Kbps or above to an estimated 96.79% of Michigan households and service at 3 Mbps or above to 93.65% of all households. Consistent with FCC data, research shows that the most represented technology across the state is Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), the technology most used by traditional telecommunications service providers. Table 4 below reports that there are a total of 33 DSL providers accounted for in the state of Michigan s broadband map serving an estimated 3.3 million, or 87.10% of, households. However, cable platforms are also widespread across Michigan. There are a total of 21 cable providers reflected on the map, serving 84.35% of the state s households. Fixed wireless broadband service is available to a sizable percentage of households, with 30.28% of households able to subscribe. By contrast, fiber penetration is extremely low, with 10 providers offering fiber-to-the-home to only 0.62% of house- 14 Connect Michigan

15 holds. Finally, there are 6 facilities-based mobile broadband providers in Michigan who collectively provide mobile broadband service in areas where 99.09% of households are located. When mobile broadband service is included with fixed broadband service, Connect Michigan estimates that 99.70% of the state of Michigan, or an estimated 3.78 million households, has access to service at 768 Kbps or above. Table 4 - Availability Estimate by Broadband Platform in the State of Michigan Platform Type Served Households (000s) Percent of Households Served Number of Providers - By Platform Cable 3,193, % 21 DSL 3,297, % 33 Fiber 23, % 10 Fixed Wireless 1,146, % 39 Mobile 3,751, % 6 Total All Platform Except Mobile 3,663, % 103 Total All Platforms* 3,774, % 109 Source: Connect Michigan, October *Total households able to subscribe to at least one provider of broadband via fixed or mobile platform. The breakdown of broadband penetration by technology reflects that there is a significant amount of overlap across platforms. Over 84% of households have broadband available by cable or DSL, and it is likely that a significant number of those households are also able to access fixed wireless broadband, suggesting that there is a respectable degree of facilities-based competition across significant parts of the state. Finally, according to Connect Michigan s broadband inventory data, when mobile wireless broadband and fixed, terrestrial broadband are factored together, broadband at speeds of at least 3 Mbps or greater is estimated to be available to 3.75 million, or 99.21% of, households in Michigan The Rural-Urban Broadband Availability Gap Across Michigan To better understand the rural-urban broadband inventory gap across Michigan, this section analyzes two statistics: average population density across served, unserved, and underserved areas, and broadband inventory across rural and non-rural areas. Household density (or number of households per square mile of land) is a key driver of broadband infrastructure build-out costs and is a relevant factor in explaining the rural-urban broadband inventory gap across Michigan. The average household density in Michigan is 65.20, varying greatly by county (see county-level analysis in Section 2.2). 22 Table 5 below presents average household density by Census Blocks that are unserved, underserved, and served, based on NTIA definitions. 23 These measures provide an objective means to assess the challenge 22 U.S. Census, 2000, U.S. Census Bureau. Household density is defined as number of households per square mile of land area. 23 NTIA defines broadband services at download speeds of between 768 and 3000 Kbps as underserved. Broadband Infrastructure, Adoption, and Technology Usage in Michigan 15

16 of infrastructure build-out in unserved or underserved areas. It also provides critical information to Michigan for the debate over federal USF reform that is currently underway. These data will further assist in benchmarking the supply-side challenge faced in Michigan against national data. As further data is released across states from the SBDD mapping efforts and from the National Broadband Map, it will be possible to assess this comparative analysis between Michigan and other states. Further, these data provide an objective benchmark for assessing progress of infrastructure build-out moving forward, based on future SBDD data submissions. Consistent with expectations, the mapping data show correlation between density of households and infrastructure build-out in Michigan. The average density of households across unserved Census Blocks where households exist is 8.95 households per square mile. The average household density among underserved Census Blocks with households is By contrast, the average density of households in Census Blocks with dwellings where service of at least 3 Mbps or greater download speeds are offered jumps to households per square mile, more than double the state average of households per square mile. It is important to note, as discussed in later sections, that an analysis of data at the county level reveals that this correlation does not hold across all counties. Table 5 - Average Number of Households Per Square Mile Across Census Blocks with Fixed, Terrestrial Broadband Available By Download Speeds All Census Blocks Census Blocks with Households Below 768 Kbps - "Unserved" Between Kbps - "Underserved" At Least 768 Kbps At Least 3 Mbps Note: Data does not include mobile or satellite broadband. Source: Connect Michigan, October According to NTIA SBDD definitions, approximately million households (or 47%) in Michigan are classified as rural. 24 Of these rural households, approximately million (or 93.46%) are served by at least one terrestrial, non-mobile broadband provider with at least 768 Kbps download and 200 Kbps upload speeds (see Table 6). The number of rural households remaining unserved by basic broadband is estimated to be 117,484, or 6.54% of all rural households. It is important to recall that the total number of households rural and non-rural estimated to be unserved in Michigan is 121,701. Therefore, the overwhelming majority of Michigan s unserved households (96.54%) are in rural areas. 24 Rural area. Any area, as confirmed by the latest decennial census of the Bureau of the Census, which is not located within: (i) a city, town, or incorporated area that has a population of greater than 20,000 inhabitants; or (ii) an urbanized area contiguous and adjacent to a city or town that has a population of greater than 50,000 inhabitants. For purposes of the definition of rural area, an urbanized area means a densely populated territory as defined in the latest decennial census of the U.S. Census Bureau. SBDD NOFA. This analysis only used on Census Blocks that following this definition are completely rural, and not any Census Blocks that are within both rural and non-rural. 16 Connect Michigan

17 Table 6 Rural Availability Estimate of Broadband Service of at Least 768 Kbps Download/200 Kbps Upload Platform Type Total Rural Households Unserved Rural Households Percent of Rural Households Served Fixed Broadband (Excluding Mobile) 1,797, , % All Terrestrial Platforms (Including Mobile) 1,797,196 11, % Source: Connect Michigan, October Broadband Infrastructure, Adoption, and Technology Usage in Michigan 17

18 2.2 Broadband Availability in Michigan: County-level Examination Broadband Availability by County in Michigan This section examines the estimated broadband inventory by county across Michigan. Figures 3 and 4 below present estimated number and percentage of households served by terrestrial, non-mobile broadband at speeds of 768 Kbps download/200 Kbps upload and above, as well as 3 Mbps download speeds or more, and including household density by county. Figures 3 and 4 also denote the counties that are rural or non-rural (urban and suburban). Table 7 (below) also reports these estimates of broadband availability, excluding mobile wireless and satellite broadband service, across Michigan s counties. These estimates also may not include broadband service available exclusively to commercial customers. Connect Michigan bases its rural-urban county classification system on Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), as defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget and used by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. 25 MSAs have at least one urbanized area with a population of 50,000 or more, plus adjacent territory that has a high degree of social and economic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties. Connect Michigan defines counties as urban if they include the core city of an MSA. Suburban counties are MSA counties that do not contain the core city, and rural counties include all remaining counties that are not part of an MSA. While the estimated statewide percentage of households served by at least 768 Kbps download/200 Kbps upload speeds is 96.79%, Table 7 clearly shows significant differences in infrastructure build-out across counties, ranging from Bay County with 99.70% of all households served (out of Michigan s 83 counties, 22 have broadband available to 98% or greater households), to Gladwin County with broadband availability to only 46.72% of households (23 counties in Michigan have broadband available to 85% or less of their households) Connect Michigan

19 Figure 3 Broadband Availability in the State of Michigan Broadband Availability in the State of Michigan Percentage of Households Served by Terrestrial, Non-Mobile Broadband Service Percentage of Households Served by Terrestrial, Non-Mobile Broadband Service At Least 768 Kbps Download/200 Kbps Upload Speeds Rural and Non-Rural Counties At Least 768 Kbps Download/200 Kbps Upload Speeds Rural and Non-Rural Counties Keweenaw 78.15% Houghton 78.39% Ontonagon 91.62% Baraga 71.85% Gogebic 85.3% Iron 79.4% Marquette 91.67% Alger 81.05% Schoolcraft 59.99% Luce 57.7% Chippewa 91.01% Dickinson 93.69% Delta 88.55% Mackinac 64.48% Menominee 75.11% Emmet 93% Cheboygan 88.76% Presque Isle 95.35% Charlevoix 98.07% Antrim 98.59% Otsego 89.64% Montmorency 77.4% Alpena 94.95% Leelanau 98.24% Benzie 95.75% Grand Traverse 99.49% Kalkaska 88.74% Crawford 86.77% Oscoda 62.32% Alcona 53.38% Manistee 92.47% Wexford 85.23% Missaukee 86.51% Roscommon 92.1% Ogemaw 59.36% Iosco 91.67% Mason 72.91% Lake 63.44% Osceola 66.66% Clare 68.49% Gladwin 46.72% Arenac 77.82% Huron 99.65% Rural <85% % 85-90% % % % Bay 99.7% Oceana Mecosta Isabella Midland 69.37% 82.01% 98.34% 98.28% Newaygo 68.41% Tuscola 99.67% Saginaw Muskegon Montcalm Gratiot 99.8% 95.87% 97.68% 99.56% Lapeer 96.91% Kent Genesee 99.15% 99.57% Ottawa Ionia Clinton Shiawassee 99.23% 95.79% 95.06% 98.82% Oakland 99.46% Allegan Barry Eaton Ingham Livingston 96.71% 86.22% 95.66% 99.49% 98.81% Sanilac 97.49% St. Clair 95.91% Macomb 99.69% Van Buren 96.59% Kalamazoo 98.47% Calhoun 93.3% Jackson 96.68% Washtenaw 97.47% Wayne 99.72% Berrien 99.31% Cass 85.5% St. Joseph 82.65% Branch 88.18% Hillsdale 97.17% Lenawee 96.33% Monroe 95.29% Broadband Infrastructure, Adoption, and Technology Usage in Michigan 19

20 This same patterns holds for estimates of homes served at download speeds of at least 3 Mbps. While the estimated statewide percentage of households served at speeds of 3 Mbps or more is 93.65%, county availability estimates range from Oakland County, where 99.46% of households can subscribe to broadband at speeds of at least 3 Mbps, to Keweenaw County, where only 24.36% of households have access to broadband at this capacity. 20 Connect Michigan

21 Figure 4 Broadband Availability in the State of Michigan Broadband Availability in the State of Michigan Percentage At Least of Households 3 Mbps Download Served Speeds by Terrestrial, Non-Mobile Rural and Non-Rural Broadband Counties Service Percentage of Households Served by Terrestrial, Non-Mobile Broadband Service Keweenaw 24.36% At Least 3 Mbps Download Speeds Rural and Non-Rural Counties Houghton 72.68% Ontonagon 90.33% Baraga 70.33% Gogebic 79.44% Iron 72.35% Marquette 87.84% Alger 80.45% Schoolcraft 58.87% Luce 57.42% Chippewa 87.35% Dickinson 87.61% Delta 86.9% Mackinac 55.04% Menominee 65.87% Emmet 84.75% Cheboygan 70.26% Presque Isle 26.56% Charlevoix 96.48% Antrim 98.49% Otsego 77.56% Montmorency 41.57% Alpena 80.85% Leelanau 95.92% Benzie 89.07% Grand Traverse 99.34% Kalkaska 87.77% Crawford 62.8% Oscoda 28.51% Alcona 51.77% Manistee 92.45% Wexford 83.11% Missaukee 72.85% Roscommon 88.46% Ogemaw 59.34% Iosco 87.06% Mason 72.91% Lake 55.67% Osceola 61.7% Clare 66.92% Gladwin 44.36% Arenac 65.48% Huron 77.26% Rural <40% % 40-60% % % % Bay Oceana Mecosta Isabella Midland 97.77% 60.33% 69.46% 75.86% 92.9% Newaygo 59.2% Tuscola 79.72% Saginaw Muskegon Montcalm Gratiot 97.77% 95.87% 64.63% 61.41% Lapeer 63.73% Kent Genesee 98.91% 97.99% Ottawa Ionia Clinton Shiawassee 99.17% 84.6% 82.15% 88.15% Oakland 99.46% Allegan Barry Eaton Ingham Livingston 81.95% 80.42% 93.58% 97.92% 94.23% Wayne Calhoun Jackson Washtenaw 99.72% Van Buren Kalamazoo 91.48% 94.43% 97.11% 79.09% 98% Sanilac 62.55% St. Clair 86.54% Macomb 99.59% Berrien 99.05% Cass 79.01% St. Joseph 82.1% Branch 78.66% Hillsdale 88.1% Lenawee 94.25% Monroe 95.29% Broadband Infrastructure, Adoption, and Technology Usage in Michigan 21

22 All of these data support the argument that, as stated by Connect Michigan in the past, the broadband landscape at a county level differs greatly from a statewide and certainly a nationwide view. No two counties in Michigan are the same, and no one policy will solve broadband-related difficulties for every Michigan community. Detailed information on the estimated inventory of broadband in each county can be found on the Connect Michigan website at For more granular information regarding the estimated broadband inventory, see the Michigan online and interactive broadband inventory map at connectmi.org/mapping/interactive_map.php. Table 7 - Estimated Availability of Broadband Service by County Terrestrial Broadband (Excluding Mobile) 768 Kbps Download/200 Kbps Upload Speeds 3 Mbps Download Speeds County Household Density Number of Households Percentage Households Served Alcona , Alger , Allegan , Alpena , Antrim , Arenac , Baraga , Barry , Bay , Benzie , Berrien , Branch , Calhoun , Cass , Charlevoix , Cheboygan , Chippewa , Clare , Connect Michigan

23 768 Kbps Download/200 Kbps Upload Speeds 3 Mbps Download Speeds County Household Density Number of Households Percentage Households Served Clinton , Crawford , Delta , Dickinson , Eaton , Emmet , Genesee , Gladwin , Gogebic , Grand Traverse , Gratiot , Hillsdale , Houghton , Huron , Ingham , Ionia , Iosco , Iron , Isabella , Jackson , Kalamazoo , Kalkaska , Kent , Keweenaw Lake , Lapeer , Leelanau , Broadband Infrastructure, Adoption, and Technology Usage in Michigan 23

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