1 Oil & Gas Science and Technology Rev. IFP, Vol. 60 (2005), No. 4, pp Copyright 2005, Institut français du pétrole Risk Factors in Oil and Gas Well Electronics Compared to Other Electronic Industries S. Tiku 3, A.F. Veneruso 1, R.K. Etchells 2 and M. Pecht 3 1 Schlumberger SRC, Airline Road, Rosharon - Texas USA 2 Schlumberger, 200 Gillingham Lane, MD.4, Houston - Texas USA 3 CALCE Electronic Products and Systems Center, Engineering Laboratory Building, University of Maryland, College Park, MD USA Résumé Facteurs de risques dans le secteur des équipements électroniques pour puits de pétrole et de gaz, comparés à d autres industries électroniques Le secteur des équipements électroniques pour puits de pétrole et de gaz est une industrie à faible volume, dans laquelle les temps de développement et d exploitation des produits sont considérablement plus longs que ceux des composants commerciaux utilisés pour leur fabrication. Les systèmes électroniques utilisés, en particulier pour le contrôle permanent des puits de pétrole, doivent fonctionner de façon fiable durant toute la vie du puits. Cela impose des contraintes particulières pour l électronique utilisée. La garantie de fiabilité dans un environnement sévère et pendant une vie plus longue nécessite des dessins, techniques de qualification et d essai, et contrôles de qualité adaptés. Tous ces facteurs génèrent des risques considérables pour les fournisseurs et les producteurs d équipements électroniques destinés aux puits de pétrole et de gaz. Cet article présente une étude de ces facteurs de risques à prendre en compte dans la réalisation de produits destinés à la complétion et au contrôle continu de puits. Une comparaison avec d autres industries électroniques à faible volume est présentée. Abstract Risk Factors in Oil and Gas Well Electronics Compared to Other Electronic Industries The oil and gas well electronics industry is a low volume industry in which the development and the operating life cycles of the electronic products used is considerably longer than those of the commonly available commercial parts used to build them. Oil and gas well electronic systems, especially the ones that are used for permanent monitoring of oil wells are required to function reliably at all times throughout the entire life of an oilwell. This gives rise to special requirements for the electronics used in this industry. Guaranteed reliability under high stress operating requirements over longer life cycle profiles necessitates the use of special design, qualification and testing techniques and quality controls. All these factors create considerable risks for the suppliers and manufacturers of oil and gas well electronics. This paper presents a study of the factors that lead to risks, which manufacturers and suppliers of oil and gas well electronics must address while developing products for use in the well completion and continuous monitoring operations. A comparison with other low-volume electronic industries is provided.
2 722 Oil & Gas Science and Technology Rev. IFP, Vol. 60 (2005), No. 4 Months to years Days to a month Days to weeks Oil and gas supply Non-invasive exploration Drilling an exploration well While drilling data acquisition Open-hole wireline logging Well test Well completion Oil and gas exploration Data acquisition technologies Sensor technologies Permanent monitoring systems Figure 1 A time line of an oil and gas well showing the different stages from oil exploration to the final extraction from a well including the approximate time frames involved. 1 OIL AND GAS EQUIPMENT ELECTRONICS Electronic products are essential in all aspects of oil and gas exploration, development and production, from the petroleum reservoir, to transport, and to the refinery, where it is transformed into fuels and other chemical products . A hydrocarbon reservoir life-cycle chronologically consists of exploration, discovery, extended well test, appraisal, field development, production plateau, and production decline . Figure 1 shows a time line for an oil and gas well depicting the use of electronic technologies. The measurement of one or more physical quantities in or around the well is called well logging, with the word log used in the sense of a record. Well testing provides access to and measurement of dynamic reservoir data including pressure, temperature, and fluid properties while the well is either flowing or shut in. Well completion is the work conducted on a wellbore to establish safe production of the resource (i.e., oil and gas) after the production casing string 1 has been set. Based on the operations along the time line, the four major applications of electronic products in the oil and gas industry are: Oil and gas exploration: Electronic technologies are used extensively in turning untapped resources into recoverable reserves by acquiring an understanding of the architecture and fluid flow behavior of the reservoir. Initial geologic information from seismic surveys, well-logs, productivity tests, and other remote sensing techniques such as gravimetric, radiometric and electromagnetic sensing, are used 1 A long section of connected pipe that is lowered into a wellbore and cemented to provide strength for installation of wellhead equipment, to seal off leaky, low strength or fractured formations, and to seal off high-pressure zones so that lower pressure formations may be drilled with lower drilling fluid densities . to evaluate reservoir boundaries, estimate reserves, plan drilling programs, and design surface facilities. Data acquisition technologies: Data acquisition technologies compile and integrate the reservoir data including geologic, seismic, well log, well test, pressure, rock, fluid and interpretative data. Data interpretation, geological modeling, reservoir simulation and production analysis help to create field depletion scenarios and reservoir development strategies . These are used to find how much oil or gas is there, how much is recoverable, how fast it can be recovered, how much capital expenditure is required, and what will be the return on investment . Sensor technologies: Sensors are used to identify the reservoir rock and any fluids contained therein by measuring their physical properties. The physical properties used are resistivity (oil has high resistivity, salt water has low resistivity), radioactivity (gamma ray detector), acoustic impedance, pressure, density, temperature and temperature gradient. Measurement of these properties enables the improvement of oilwell effectiveness. Permanent monitoring and control systems: Permanent monitoring systems measure and record well performance and reservoir behavior in real time, 24 h a day, throughout the lifetime of the reservoir. This information can be used by engineers to dynamically manage hydrocarbon assets, to update reservoir models, to optimize production techniques, and diagnose problems so that remedial treatments and field development strategies can be refined or adjusted . Permanent downhole gauge (PDG) systems are widely used for horizontal and multi-lateral wells, as an alternative to wireline conveyed downhole surveys used traditionally for vertical wells . Gauges collect data useful for both shortterm troubleshooting and long-term development planning. Downhole measurements include temperature, pressure,
3 S Tiku et al. / Risk Factors in Oil and Gas Well Electronics Compared to Other Electronic Industries 723 resistivity, acoustics, density, flow, sand detection, scale or paraffin deposition rates and corrosion rates . The benefits of permanent downhole monitoring systems include the reduction of operational hazards, remote acquisition and analysis of data, transient analysis of problems with minimum or no wireline intervention, optimization of injection rates, elimination of sand production, verification and adjustment of reservoir models, improved estimation of reserves, and maximization of individual well production . In most oil and gas applications, specialized electronic products have to provide precision measurements worthy of a physics laboratory, while operating in environments typically beyond those associated with the most rugged military equipment. The operating environments range from desert to arctic temperatures, and from atmospheric pressure land surveying to deep sea-bed pressures for surveying offshore prospects. In addition, the equipment has to be operated inside hightemperature, and high-pressure oil and gas reservoirs. Electronics is recognized as one of the main causes of failure of permanent downhole measurement and control systems . The need to transport and operate these electronics in a variety of hostile environmental conditions means packaging these systems to withstand challenging levels of temperature, mechanical shock and vibration, humidity, sand, salt water spray, and water immersion. Manufacturing such equipment requires meeting stringent operational and life cycle requirements, and demonstrating regulatory compliance. A delineation of these factors leading to risks for the manufacturers can pave the way to understand the means to tackle them. 2 RISK FACTORS Engineering is a balancing act of tradeoffs and compromises among conflicting and sometimes mutually exclusive goals. An engineer s job is to drive developing methods and technologies into new areas, combining past experience with present science to create future products and innovations . During the development of any product, risks associated with its use should be identified and quantified at the engineering design stage itself. This can help designers to create a design that is risk-informed. Risk, in this context, is the probability of occurrence of an unwanted event due to the use of the product . The oil and gas industry is riddled with risk and uncertainty at almost every stage of business from exploration through production to downstream marketing. This industry needs to minimize costs, produce oil and gas efficiently with minimum damage to oil well formations and acquire information to improve the drilling operation and to enhance reservoir drainage during production. As the current economic climate is forcing oil companies to focus sharply on their core business, they are relying more on their suppliers and sub-contractors to share the risks. The conventional risk and uncertainty models used in the oil industry deal with wellbores and reservoirs, but similar models can be used to explore the impact of unconventional risks due to political, legal, environmental, health or other issues for the equipment used during exploration and extraction . To frame a model for these unconventional risks, the intangibles for each of these risks need to be understood and defined. Properly assessing risk for any operation provides a competitive advantage for a company. For the oil and gas industry, a miscalculation on this account can lead to unwanted upstream decisions like abandonment of facilities, and cost implications associated with any environmental or safety related measures. The specific applications of electronic products in the oil and gas industry set special conditions and constraints on products as well as on the customers who use them. The decision on whether to supply such products depends on how the risks associated with these factors can be handled to ensure the profitability of the enterprise as well as to maintain confidence in the end product. Table 1 provides a comparison of the needs of various low volume electronics industries, which include the oil and gas well electronics industry. The factors leading to risks that can affect the continued supply of electronic parts for the oil and gas industry are detailed below. 2.1 Production Volume and Cost Yearly production is defined as the total number of a product built for an industry in a year. High volume production enables a company to optimize manufacturing processes and costs. Generally the availability of parts and spares is ensured due to the volumes. On the other hand, low volume production can lead to challenges in terms of part availability, and effective manufacturing processes. The total market for electronic products used in oil well applications is limited. There are only about 3000 drilling rigs in operation worldwide. A comparison of yearly production for the oil electronic industry with some other low volume industries is given in Table 1. Oil and gas electronic products do not have the benefits of scale economies. 2 They demand a large capital investment because of intensive technical and logistical efforts for specialized design, materials and parts selection, manufacturing processes, quality assurance and reliability. In addition, there are costs to cover regulatory requirements, insurance, and services and equipment required to manage liabilities and manufacturer risks. All of these costs must then be distributed only over a small number of products, leading to high costs for an individual product. 2 Most personal computers (PCs) are produced in such large quantities that the final price to the user actually drops below the off-the-shelf price of the individual chips, connectors and other hardware.
4 724 Oil & Gas Science and Technology Rev. IFP, Vol. 60 (2005), No. 4 TABLE 1 Comparison of key characteristics of different industries Oil and Gas Communication Automotive Avionics Defense Space Medical completions Satellites electronics electronics electronics electronics Units Hundreds Diagnostics: produced of gauges, Tens 45 M Hundreds 8 space shuttles thousands in a year tens of valves in 2 decades Implants: hundreds Environment psi, Vacuum, radiation 40 to 85 C, Vacuum, Dust, salt water, Vacuum, radiation, Body fluids, of operation 40 to 150 C, 156 to 121 C vibration, dust, radiation, radiation, 156 to 121 C disinfecting corrosive wellbore water, road salt 65 to 90 C, 55 to 125 C chemicals fluids vibration Average 24/7/365 systems: 24/7/365 systems: Up to 780 (trucks) ~ 4500 h/y/plane AWACS 1 systems: 2 flights Only implants operating 8766 h/y/system 8766 h/y/system 550 (cars) h/y/ 24/7/365 systems of 4-17 d/y are 24/7/365 h/y automobile Assault systems: systems usage may vary from peace to war conditions Cost ~ US$ US$10 M US$ US$15-50 M ~ US$500 M ~ US$2-4 G US$ per system (gauge system, (tanks) well pressure ~ US$ M monitoring) (fighter aircraft) ~ US$250,000 ~ US$2-4 B (valve system) (submarines) ~ US$1-2 M (smart completion) Usage 5-10 y 3-6 y 10 y, y 8-16 y y 5-10 y lifetime or miles (tanks) (for cars) y miles (fighter aircraft) (for trucks) y (submarines) Level of Medium High Low High High Very high Very high operator for surgical training required intervention; high for diagnostics; medium for monitoring Consequences Gauges fail: Data and/or Miltiple human Multiple human Huge number Multiple human Individual human of failure well data lost communications lives at risk for lives at risks for of lives at risk lives at risk on life at risk or pain lost braking or steering flight, for failure manned missions and suffering Valves fail: failure navigation, of national security oil or gas High on flight or environment critical systems Property loss Higher medical production lost critical systems Lost time and system failure and/or loss costs money for power of scientific train and other Lost time and data otherwise failures money for unscheduled repairs In-service Medium: time Very high High (indicators) Very high Very high Maintenance Diagnostics: health consuming and (built-in test) maintenance maintenance difficult during possible monitoring, costly (lots of (lots of operation Implants: diagnostics No maintenance indicators and indicators and (lots of built-in possible and possible on built-in tests) built-in tests) sensors) maintenance permanent equipment Whether Impractical: Impractical Yes Yes, but with Yes, but affected Yes, but very Useful only repairable time consuming time consuming obsolescence by obsolescence costly for diagnostic and costly and costly problems of some equipment components Development 2-4 y 2-4 y 2-3 y 2-4 y 4-8 y 2-3 y 1-3 y cycle time (commercial) 8-10 y (fighter) 3-5 y transport (1) Airborne warning and control system.
5 S Tiku et al. / Risk Factors in Oil and Gas Well Electronics Compared to Other Electronic Industries Life Cycle Issues and Parts Procurement The design, development, production and application life cycle of oil electronic products is generally much longer than those of volume-driven products and significantly longer than the life cycles of parts that comprise these products. Oil electronic products typically require 2-4 y for design and certification and have service lives of 5-10 y. As a result, several parts may have to be customized for special types of wellheads, and for such custom-built equipment, the lead times and costs may be high . It may not be possible to find suppliers who are willing to manufacture and supply specialized parts for oil electronic equipment. The small volume of parts used and liability issues related to the oil industry are factors that make many parts suppliers reluctant to support the oil industry. As a result, many part manufacturers have withdrawn from the oil electronics market and many of the older parts have been discontinued. Consequently, oil and gas well electronics manufacturers have been forced to use commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) 3 parts or parts from supply chains dedicated to other products. Even if some willing suppliers are found, continued part availability becomes a critical factor for sustainment. 3 Commercial-off-the shelf (COTS) parts refer to components that are available from manufacturers` catalogs or through distribution channels - regardless of specifications . Figure 2 illustrates the typical supply chain for oil and gas well electronics. For the oil electronic industry, managing this supply-chain is important to maintain production and reduce downtime. Reliance of oil sector industries on parts from supply chains dedicated to other products is called cross-vertical product integration, which leads to risks. Technological risks from a cross-vertical supply-chain typically arise from the inability of the product to meet design functions over its lifecycle or from difficulties in manufacturing consistently to high quality standards, leading to problems of quality, reliability, and safety. Business risks from a crossvertical supply-chain arise from shifts in the supply and demand balances in the marketplace, affecting the cost, marketability and availability of the product, and the profit margins . 2.3 Manufacturing Yield, Quality Control and Traceability Manufacturing success is often measured by yield, which is the ratio of the number of usable products that pass quality control tests, to the number of potentially usable products before the tests . Achieving a high manufacturing yield of electronic products used in the oil industry is difficult, since products have tight tolerances. Lowering the severity of quality testing may improve yield in the short term, but it may give rise to undesirable reliability implications during product use. Oil exploration, extraction and distribution companies (major oil companies) Oil and gas well electronics providers (oil well service companies such as Schlumberger) Regulatory agency DoE and EPA in United States; EEA in Europe Electronics system (well completion products and permanent downhole sensors) 2-4 y development time; 5-10 y of warranted use Subsystem (electronic modules and tools) 2-4 y development time; 5-10 y of warranted use Environment advocates Printed wiring board assembly 0-1 y development time; 3-10 y of required use Multilayer printed wiring boards 2-6 months development time; 2-10 y of required use Components 6-12 months development time; 2-10 y of required use Figure 2 Oil and gas well electronics supply chain.
6 726 Oil & Gas Science and Technology Rev. IFP, Vol. 60 (2005), No. 4 Quality is defined as conformance to specified requirements agreed with the client . Quality can be achieved by a robust and repeatable manufacturing process and reduction of performance variabilities in the final product. The benefits of quality control include cost avoidance and increased customer satisfaction . Effective quality control can lead to profitability over the long term, can help in maintaining a lead over competition, and most importantly, can help manufacturers stay in business. Quality is important for oil electronics manufacturers since there are costs associated with it. Costs associated with quality include failure costs, quality appraisal costs and failure prevention costs. The cost of quality reduces as quality control and quality assurance are progressively introduced in a manufacturing system. This requires control over variances such as rework and cost overruns. Moreover, the quality team, along with associated engineers, must carry out functions such as design review and qualification, pre-production planning, pre-service planning, and process qualification and validation to reduce costs. Traceability is a process to track parts and products. Traceability is a means to enable the end users as well as the manufacturers to track a product to its more basic materials, manufacturing or assembly steps, and to identify and isolate problems. Traceability is also useful for reordering parts and materials if obsolescence becomes an issue. In general, all products should be traceable to all receiving, production, delivery and installation stages . 2.4 Environment of Operation Volume-driven electronic products, such as desktop computers and consumer electronics generally operate in benign conditions. However, the typical downhole environment for oil and gas well completions is composed of briny, corrosive borehole fluids with temperatures ranging over 150ºC, and bottomhole pressures ranging up to psi. Furthermore, the operational stresses of power dissipation, shock, vibration, current and voltage are often substantially greater for electronics used in the oil and gas industry. These environmental conditions affect the selection of components, materials, and testing conditions. To assess the level of risk, a product life cycle environment profile including details about the assembly, storage, handling, maintenance and scenario for the use of the product must be developed along with the expected severity and duration of these environments. This profile provides the necessary inputs for failure assessment. Since, life cycle loads can cause strength degradation in materials (e.g., combined loads can accelerate damage and reduce the fatigue limit), the life cycle environment should be used for the development of design guidelines, assembly guidelines, qualification and specification processes, parts selection and management, quality assurance, product safety, warranty and support commitments, and regulatory conformance. High temperature is a significant factor affecting the performance and reliability of oil and gas well electronics . Both during oil and gas exploration and production, temperatures as high as 200 o C can be expected. To continue to have the advantage of state-of-art computation, memory and power systems, there is a need to develop electronic technologies that can withstand high temperatures over extended periods of time. Oil electronics manufacturers may not be able to find parts that satisfy their temperature range requirements. In this case, some parts may have to be used beyond their rated temperature values, utilizing uprating. Uprating is a process to assess the ability of a part to meet the functionality and performance requirements of the applications in which the part is used beyond the manufacturers specifications . Many of the commercially available parts may not be appropriate for use in the oil and gas well environments, or their reliability may be significantly decreased with extended use in such environments. The packaging used for parts, the printed circuit board material, and the plating materials on traces may also affected by high temperatures, pressure and corrosive fluids, or shock and vibration. 2.5 Continuous Operation, Reliability and Stability Intelligent completions of oil wells involve the electronic monitoring and controlling of downhole sensors, gauges, and valves. Precious data is lost, is any of these malfunction. If the control system for valves fails, it can mean production loss. Since a typical offshore platform-drilling rig costs more than US$ to operate per day, the economic consequences of a failure can be enormous in terms of lost rig time. Moreover, if the valves fail at a high flow rate, sand particles can damage the well and erode the pipe. Today oil and gas exploration is venturing into remote areas and water depths approaching ft. with expectation of limited or no intervention. Continuous monitoring using electronic equipment is essential to maintain a regular flow of oil from these wells. Many electronic products used in oilwell monitoring systems operate 24 hours, 7 days a week for 365 days a year. Once installed, it is cumbersome to maintain them as long as they remain downhole. Recovering and repairing a part is time consuming and costly and also results in downtime. Also, the productive life of an oil and gas well may be 10 years or more, so permanent downhole equipment must last that long to satisfy requirements . Permanent downhole equipment must be reliable and stable at the same time. Reliability is the ability of a part or product to perform as intended (i.e., without failure and within specified performance limits) for a specified time, in its life cycle application environment . Stability refers to the drift in the actual values obtained from the measuring devices, and is crucial since variation in the measurement with time should be attributable to an actual change rather
7 S Tiku et al. / Risk Factors in Oil and Gas Well Electronics Compared to Other Electronic Industries 727 than an uncharacterized drift . Both reliability and stability can be difficult to achieve in downhole electronic products because of long life cycles under harsh application environments . For example, field track records reported for the period showed that five-year reliability of permanent gauge installations was 90% for temperatures lower than 100 o C, but only about 50% in wells where temperature went up to 150 o C . Reliability enhancement through design and use of extensive assurance methods is essential to reduce the risk of equipment failure and unsafe operation. Designers must rely on proven quantitative designs, validation tools and virtual qualification techniques for this purpose. One of the design approaches to meet the reliability specifications is to include redundant components. However, redundant components occupy valuable space, and consume precious power, and there is a possibility of common mode failures 4 affecting reliability. Reliability for electronic products used in permanent monitoring systems can be assured through reliability analysis, by using virtual qualification techniques, and through testing. Virtual qualification techniques can be used to evaluate the possible damage to the product through its life cycle from manufacture to operation, including storage and transportation. These techniques can provide an estimate of the life expectancy of the product under the stresses encountered. The types of tests that can be conducted for reliability assurance include screening, pre-production testing or reliability qualification testing (RQT). Screens can be used to weed out early life failures occurring due to manufacturing, material, and other variabilities. Pre-production testing can be used to ensure the reliability of production hardware that may be affected due to changes in tooling, workflow, design, or other factors. RQT refers to a set of environmental and functional tests performed on electronics equipment to demonstrate its reliability before it is installed in a well. 2.6 Human Safety and Environmental Considerations Hydrocarbon production and petrochemical processing plants have inherent economic, human safety and environmental risks. In the worst disaster of its kind, on July 6, 1988, 167 people perished on the Piper Alpha platform in the icy North Sea. US$1 B platform was lost, along with up to 10% of the United Kingdom s oil production capability. The insurance payment from Lloyd s of London, which covered the value of the platform, lost production, and the US$ paid to every victim, among other items, totaled a record US$2.8 B, almost twice the second highest payment for a single event, besides a natural disaster such as a strong hurricane. 4 Failure that can affect a set of functionally identical components or systems as a direct result of common or shared root cause. The human safety impact was also demonstrated in a June 19, 1991, article in the New York Times, detailing that 14 US petrochemical disasters in resulted in 7 dead, 138 injured and a cost of $246 M. Both these pieces of data illustrate the huge financial, human and business fallout potential of a petrochemical operation turning into a disaster. Safety has always been a consideration in oilfield operations. However, over the past decade or so, enhanced safety is seen not only as desirable, but also beneficial to business . To achieve this, each component installed in petrochemical operations need to be thoroughly vetted for safety considerations. The new safety era also requires collaboration between customer and supplier at the outset to identify responsibilities and duties of both parties. This requires that the electronics suppliers state and demonstrate safety policies for their products, and establish procedures for periodic review of safety management systems for their products. One of the tools to demonstrate safety in operation is quantitative risk assessment (QRA). QRA uses numerical techniques to calculate the risk of specific hazards during operation of a piece of electronic equipment in terms of probable frequency of occurrence, and consequences for integrity of the installation and human safety. Quantification of the risk is followed by remedial action based on the classification of the risk in three groups. In the first group, the risk is acceptably high, and should be avoided. In the second group, risk is so low that no mitigation is required. In the third group in between these two, there is a trade-off between the level of risk and the cost of remediation . Another method which can be used during product development to reduce the probability of failures and its adverse consequences is Failure Modes Mechanisms and Effects Analysis (FMMEA). FMMEA is a systematic approach to identify potential failure mechanisms and associated failure models from all potential failures modes and then to prioritize them to identify critical failure mechanisms and associated failure models. In contrast to the traditional FMEA practices, FMMEA can help the design team to evaluate the time-to-failure due to specific failure mechanisms, which is a key metric for reliability assessment of any product. 2.7 Regulations and Liability Conforming to government regulations, standards and directives is a necessity for the manufacturers and the customers of oil electronics. Some of these standards are healthbased, some are aesthetic, but they all raise scientific questions about the types and rates of emissions, contributions of different sources of emissions, synthetic versus biogenic sources, atmospheric chemistry, and the influence on terrain and meteorology. Some unique issues include air quality impact, treatment and disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material, and the wastewater stream generated from oil and gas exploration and production .
8 728 Oil & Gas Science and Technology Rev. IFP, Vol. 60 (2005), No. 4 In the past, environmental decisions were based on the technologies available at the time and the costs involved. This approach failed to take into account the unique nature of risks for each production facility, and resulted in wastage of time, money and effort. It has been realized that a reassessment of the risks associated with a regulation helps to redefine the regulation in conformance with the technology and its usage. For example, regulations originally designed for tanks that stored light oil required that oil storage tanks be fitted with costly scrubbers to prevent the emission of volatiles. However, this regulation was found to be inappropriate for the large number of tanks that store heavy oil with less volatile material. This consideration led to the development of new test methods for properly estimating the amount and type of reactive gases emitted from oil tanks, and consequently to a review of regulatory requirements based on scientific data thus obtained . In the electronics industry, there are many examples that depict the influence of risks arising from development of new legislations. For example, there is a massive effort towards developing lead-free parts and products, primarily driven by European regulations rooted in the environmental and health risks of lead usage. Some of the risks associated with this transition include the cost and availability of lead-free technologies, unresolved technical issues associated with the lead-free solder processing, long-term reliability of lead-free assemblies, and managing traceability of lead-free parts in the supply chain . Liability is associated with reliability, safety, lifecycle and the environment of operation. Failure of the parts used in an oilwell product can lead to liability problems for the manufacturer. Environmental and human harm could lead to expensive lawsuits. Manufacturers must always consider liability costs when designing and maintaining oil and gas well electronic products. 2.8 Intellectual Property and Information Security Services Intellectual property (IP) very broadly means the legal rights relating to intellectual activity in the industrial, scientific, literary and artistic fields . Generally speaking, intellectual property law aims at safeguarding creators and other producers of intellectual goods and services by granting them certain time-limited rights to control the use made of these productions. A manufacturer producing custom-made proprietary electronic systems for an oil industry user may exert IP rights over the technology and the use of the product. In many cases the individual service companies patent inventions to keep their competitors from using their developments. They may also choose not to patent but to keep the technology as trade secret, so that they do not have to divulge or share that technology outside of the company. Risk scenario 1 Oil company Competitor to oil company Risk scenario 2 Oil company Competitor to oil company Risk scenario 3 Oil company Oil company left with no design or supplier Proprietary IP design of a product provided for manufacture Product manufactured and supplied Manufacture supplies the design and the product to the competitor Requirement for an electronic product given by an oil company to a manufacturer Product designed, manufactured and supplied Oil company supplies the design to the competitor for manufacturer Requirement for an electronic product given by an oil company to a manufacturer Product designed, manufactured and supplied without the proprietary design Figure 3 Intellectual property risk scenarios associated with manufacturing and supplying oil electronics. Oil electronics manufacturer Competitor to oil electronics manufacturer Oil electronics designer and manufacturer Competitor to oil electronics designer and manufacturer Oil electronics designer and manufacturer Manufacturer goes out of business
9 S Tiku et al. / Risk Factors in Oil and Gas Well Electronics Compared to Other Electronic Industries 729 Intellectual property becomes a risk factor when a customer purchases from a supplier who is not willing to share the IP rights. Moreover, the secrecy of the individual service companies prevents any collaboration that could lead to improved technologies or speed up technology development. Various scenarios in which IP becomes a risk factor are depicted in Figure 3. Security of sensitive information pertaining to processes and electronic systems is also a concern for oil and gas well electronics. It is necessary to develop an active approach to security protection in order to guard vital information infrastructures . CONCLUSIONS Manufacturing and supplying electronics to be used in oil and gas well exploration, data acquisition, calculating well effectiveness, and permanent monitoring systems involves taking risks. Understanding the factors leading to these risks paves the way for handling the risks in design, manufacture, supply and use. Many aspects of oil and gas industry electronics are remarkably similar to those for communication satellites. Commercial communication satellites, like oil and gas well equipment, are difficult to fabricate, difficult to deploy and generally inaccessible for repair, replacement or recovery. In both cases, once the systems are installed it is not practical to retrieve them for maintenance or postmortem analysis. The costs of the products are high due to the low volume in which they are produced and failure often implies a significant loss. It is also not practical to test and qualify new equipment over the entire expected period of operation before installing it, because the intended longevity of the product is typically 5 years or more. Therefore analytical and accelerated testing techniques are essential in the development of these systems to ensure their reliable operation over a long lifetime. Risk management activities should be used throughout the product lifecycle for oil and gas well electronics. A FMMEA can be conducted during the design phase to identify potential failure mechanisms, and associated times-to-failure. Design changes can be initiated to avoid potential failures. Design marginality tests like HALT can be conducted to further explore design deficiencies. A structured part selection and management methodology, which incorporates an eyes-on, hands-off approach, is a useful risk management tool during product development [22-24]. Part availability, part cost, part manufacturer quality, distributor quality, part performance, part reliability, assembly and life cycle obsolescence comprise the factors to be assessed. Reliability capability evaluation of prospective suppliers  can also be used during procurement to measure the electronics manufacturers ability to identify and understand their reliability related objectives and the effectiveness of the reliability processes and practices. Once product design is complete, accelerated testing can be used to get actual reliability data on oil electronics products. Health monitoring and remaining life estimation techniques can be used during operation to further reduce the possibility of failures. In summary, in the current electronics market, availability of parts suitable for use in specialized low-volume applications, like oil electronics, is continually reducing. For continued availability of electronics parts and modules, suppliers need to remain aware of production volume, parts procurement issues, manufacturing yield, traceability, environment and duration of operation, reliability and stability, human safety issues, environmental issues, regulations, liability issues, intellectual property issues, and lifecycle costs. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The encouragement and support of this project by BP s Upstream Technology Group, Houston, Texas, under the leadership of Mr. Brock Williams, is gratefully acknowledged. The project was part of the Reliable Electronic Permanent Monitoring assignment conducted by the Schlumberger Reservoir Completion Center, Rosharon, Texas. REFERENCES 1 Baker, A. et al. (1995) Permanent Monitoring - Looking at Lifetime Reservoir Dynamics. Oilfield Review, 7, 4, Beamer, A. et al. (1998) From Pore to Pipeline, Field-Scale Solutions. Oilfield Review, 10, 2, Schmumberger, Oilfield Glossary, Retrieved on September 1, 2004 from 4 Eck, J. et al. (1999) Downhole Monitoring: The Story So Far. Oilfield Review, Den Boer, J.J. (1999) The Use of High Temperature Electronics in Downhole Applications. HITEN Conference in Berlin, Colwell, B. (Jan 2002) Phrenology, Astrology, Risk, and Product Quality. Computer, 35, 1, Bailey, W., Couet, B., Lamb, F., Simpson, G., and Rose, P. (2000) Taking a Calculated Risk. Oilfield Review, 12, 3, Rhea, J. (1999) Custom components: Surviving in a COTS World. Military & Aerospace Electronics, 10, 7. 9 Magrab, E. et al. (1997) Perspectives to Understand Risks in the Electronic Industry. IEEE Transaction on Components Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, Part A, 20, 4, Ferris-Prabhu, A.V. (1992) Introduction to Semiconductor Device Yield Modeling, Boston, MA, Artech House. 11 Burnett, N. et al. (1993) Quality. Oilfield Review, 5, 3, Jackson, M., Mathur, A., Pecht, M. and Kendall, R. (1999) Part Manufacturer Assessment Process. Quality and Reliability Engineering International, 15, Pecht, M., Lall, P., and, Hakim, E. (1997) Influence of Temperature on Microelectronics and System Reliability: A Physics of Failure, CRC Press, New York. 14 Das, D., Pendse, N., Wilkinson and C. Pecht, M., (2001) Parameter Recharacterization: A Method of Thermal
10 730 Oil & Gas Science and Technology Rev. IFP, Vol. 60 (2005), No. 4 Uprating. IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies, 24, 4, Pecht, M.G., Das, D., and Ramakrishnan, A. (2002) The IEEE Standards on Reliability Program and Reliability Prediction Methods for Electronic Equipment. Microelectronic Reliability, 42, Veneruso, A.F., Kosmala, A.G., Bhavsar, R., Bernard, L.J., and Pecht, M. (2001) Engineered Reliability for Intelligent Well Systems. Offshore Technology Conference, OTC Hansen, H., Myers, S., Redd, E., and Shannon, R. (1993) Pursuing the Case for Safety. Oilfield Review, 5, 3, Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Technology, Oil & Gas Environmental Research & Analysis Program, Retrieved on Septemberber 1, 2004 from programplans/1999/6envi.pdf 19 Ciocci, R. and Pecht, M. (2004) Questions Concerning the Migration to Lead-free Solder. Circuit World, 30, 2, International Bureau of WIPO, WIPO s Development Cooperation Activities, WIPO/CNR/ABU/93/9. 21 Heejin., J., and Sangwood, K.(2000) A Self-Extension Monitoring for Security Management. Computer Security Applications, ACSAC 16th Annual Conference, Jackson, M., Sandborn, P., Pecht, M., Davis, C.M. and Audette, P. (1999) A Risk-Informed Methodology for Parts Selection and Management. Quality and Reliability Engineering International, 15, Syrus, T, Pecht, M., and Humphrey, D. (2001) Part Assessment Guidelines and Criteria for Parts Selection and Management. IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, 24, 4, Syrus, T, Pecht, M., and Uppalapati, R. (2001) Manufacturer Assessment Procedure and Criteria for Parts Selection and Management. IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, 24, 4, Tiku, S. and Pecht M. (2003) Auditing the Reliability Capability of Electronics Manufacturers. Proceedings of ASME International Electronic Packaging Technical Conference and Exhibition, Maui, Hawaii, USA. Final manuscript received in November 2004 Copyright 2005 Institut français du pétrole Permission to make digital or hard copies of part or all of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. Copyrights for components of this work owned by others than IFP must be honored. Abstracting with credit is permitted. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers, or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee: Request permission from Documentation, Institut français du pétrole, fax , or
Design of High Temperature Electronics for Well Logging Applications Bernard Parmentier Schlumberger, France BParmentier@clamart.oilfield.slb.com Ovidiu Vermesan SINTEF, Norway Ovidiu.Vermesan@sintef.no
IHRDC Online Certificate Programs in OIL AND GAS MANAGEMENT Program Requirements IHRDC 535 Boylston Street Boston, MA 02116 Tel: 1-617-536-0202 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright International Human
PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT FIBER-OPTIC SENSING TECHNOLOGIES FOR WELL MONITORING TO RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT Solving challenges. A H A L L I B U R T O N S E R V I C E Fiber-Optic Sensing Technologies CUTTING-EDGE
GAS WELL/WATER WELL SUBSURFACE CONTAMINATION Rick Railsback Professional Geoscientist CURA Environmental & Emergency Services email@example.com And ye shall know the truth and the truth shall make you free.
Intelligent Solutions Distributed Temperature Sensing - DTS Enabling fast, reliable and cost-effective sensing through highly integrated optical measurement systems Fire detection Power cable monitoring
Point of View Generating manufacturing Impact The future of industrial asset management: New opportunities for oil and gas, power generation and aviation industries Defining the right operating model for
Meeting the challenges of today s oil and gas exploration and production industry. Leveraging innovative technology to improve production and lower costs Executive Brief Executive overview The deep waters
Translation from Finnish. Legally binding only in Finnish and Swedish. Ministry of Employment and the Economy, Finland Government Degree on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants 717/2013 Chapter 1 Scope and
DEEP WATER CHEMICAL SOLUTIONS DEEPSEALSM SERVICE SOLUTIONS (DEEP SEA ENGINEERING ASSURANCE LEADERSHIP) Solving challenges. Deepwater Solutions from Multi-Chem ABOUT HALLIBURTON Founded in 1919, Halliburton
OFFSHORE FIELD DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS & STRATEGY By: Nguyen Ngoc Hoan M.Sc of Petroleum Engineering Hoannn@pidc.com.vn PRESENTATION CONTENT Field Development Consideration Field Development Options & Strategy
Eldad Weiss Founder and Chairman Collecting and Analyzing Big Data for O&G Exploration and Production Applications October 15, 2013 G&G Technology Seminar About Paradigm 700+ 26 700+ 29 7 15,000+ 15+ 200M+
Integrated Custom Systems Compact panels Standard Manifolds & Assemblies Electronic pressure control Custom manifolds & Assemblies Automated test benches S t r e a m l i n e y o u r p r o c e s s Complete
Infosys Oil and Gas Practice Legacy systems and technologies hamper production at unconventional oil and gas basins and inhibit productivity at conventional energy reserves. The steep cost of exploration,
SAP Thought Leadership Paper Predictive Maintenance Using Predictive Maintenance to Approach Zero Downtime How Predictive Analytics Makes This Possible Table of Contents 4 Optimizing Machine Maintenance
Total Subsea Solutions Total Subsea Solutions Developing new energy reserves, managing, and improving producing fields means an unprecedented number of technical challenges. In partnership with our customers,
IBM Sales and Distribution White paper Create Operational Flexibility with Cost-Effective Cloud Computing Chemicals and petroleum 2 Create Operational Flexibility with Cost-Effective Cloud Computing Executive
WELL LOGGING TECHNIQUES WELL LOGGING DEPARTMENT OIL INDIA LIMITED The Hydrocarbon E & P Process In the exploration process, a most probable hydrocarbon bearing rock structure is defined based on seismic
CAPACITY AND AVAILABILITY MANAGEMENT A Project Management Process Area at Maturity Level 3 Purpose The purpose of Capacity and Availability Management (CAM) is to plan and monitor the effective provision
FlairFlex Real-time fluid logging and analysis service FlairFlex Real-time fluid logging and analysis service The FlairFlex* service from Geoservices provides early insight into reservoir fluid properties
RESERVOIR GEOSCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLIED GRADUATE STUDIES at IFP School from September to December RGE01 Fundamentals of Geoscience I Introduction to Petroleum Geosciences, Sedimentology RGE02 Fundamentals
Bringing Oilfield Data into the Enterprise Author: Shannon Tassin, Director Abstract: Oilfield of the future data reporting applications are built to enable faster decision-making based on better data.
GORE Aerospace Cables and Materials Engineered to Perform Performance and Reliability CIVIL AEROSPACE Increased Fuel Efficiency Process Optimization GORE Aerospace Cables and Materials Lead the Civil Aerospace
OUR CONVERSATION TODAY Our goal is to raise the level of awareness around the natural gas supply chain among key stakeholders in order to facilitate positive working relationships and more informed decision
Capital efficiency and execution London, 7 February 2014 Margareth Øvrum, EVP, Technology, projects and drilling Forward-looking statements This presentation material contains certain forward-looking statements
Selecting Sensors for Safety Instrumented Systems per IEC 61511 (ISA 84.00.01 2004) Dale Perry Worldwide Pressure Marketing Manager Emerson Process Management Rosemount Division Chanhassen, MN 55317 USA
HALT and HASS in IPC 9592A HALT - Highly Accelerated Life HASS - Highly Accelerated Screen IPC 9592A - Requirements for Power Conversion Devices for the Computer and Telecommunications Industries WHITE
Pipeline Cleaning Solutions The Smart Way To Efficiency Cleaning is a vital aspect of the integrity management of pipelines and pipeline networks and is necessary at every stage throughout their lifecycle.
Motion sensors for hostile environmental applications or reliability under Harsh Environment MNT Reliability Workshop May 2008 Colibrys, Jean-Mi Stauffer Colibrys in short Colibrys is a world-leading supplier
Executive Summary Comparing the Oil and Gas Drilling Regulatory Regimes of the, the, the U.K,, and 1 What is the purpose of this document? The National Energy Board (NEB) regulates offshore oil and gas
Applying 50 years of Aerospace Systems Engineering Lessons Learned to the Oil Field Technical Challenges of Today Rick Taylor General Manager, Houston Operations Aerojet Rocketdyne - Extreme Engineering
Power Generation Service Life Cycle Management for Power Plants Power Generation Service is protecting your Investment by Step-wise Evolution and Updating of Instrumentation, Control and Electrical Systems.
IBM Sales and Distribution Chemicals and Petroleum White Paper Tapping the benefits of business analytics and optimization A rich source of intelligence for the chemicals and petroleum industries 2 Tapping
The Role of Predictive Analytics in Asset Optimization for the Oil and Gas Industry WHITE PAPER Sponsored by: Tessella Global Headquarters: 5 Speen Street Framingham, MA 01701 USA P.508.935.4400 F.508.988.7881
The world s leading sustainability consultancy Sustainable Solutions for the Oil and Gas Industry The oil and gas industry currently faces the greatest environmental, health and safety challenges in its
Transform Oil and Gas WHITE PAPER TABLE OF CONTENTS Overview Four Ways to Accelerate the Acquisition of Remote Sensing Data Maximize HPC Utilization Simplify and Optimize Data Distribution Improve Business
Issue 1.0 Jan 2002 A Short Guide to Quality and Reliability Issues In Semiconductors For High Rel. Applications It is impossible to test Quality or Reliability into a product. It is, however, quite practical
Big & Fast Data Analytics Event Analytics for Production Surveillance and Machine Management Michael O Connell, PhD Chief Data Scientist TIBCO Copyright 2000-2014 TIBCO Software Inc. Smart Energy Production
Mini - Refinery Feasibility Overview Introduction This paper is intended to provide information, answer questions, and assist the owner or project developer in making informed buying decisions. A mini-refinery
WIERTNICTWO NAFTA GAZ TOM 24 ZESZYT 1 2007 Argentina Tataru*, Marcel Adrian Piteiu*, Dan-Paul Stefanescu*, Ioana Vlasin* NEW TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF ROMGAZ COMPANY REGARDING DRILLING, COMPLETION AND
THE DELTON GROUP MANPOWER TRAINING CONSULTANCY SHORT COURSE PROGRAMME TOPICS LISTING Delton Short Course Programmes English Language Technical English Language English Language for the Oil Industry Oil
MEETING THE CHALLENGES OF COMPLEXITY AND SCALE FOR MANUFACTURING WORKFLOWS Michael Feldman White paper November 2014 MARKET DYNAMICS Modern manufacturing increasingly relies on advanced computing technologies
Monitoring strategies for CO 2 storage Nick Riley Jonathan Pearce Outline of talk Why do we need to monitor CO 2? How & what do we monitor? Monitoring strategies Summary EU CCS Directive Overriding consideration
Specialty Lubrication and Sealant Solutions for the Oil & Gas Industry Explore. Discover. Meet your challenges. Tough challenges need effective solutions. Nothing comes easy in oil and gas onshore or offshore,
Pakistan Foundation for the Advancement of Engineering & Technology provides superior solutions to Oil & Gas Companies/ industry upstream, production, transportation, refining and related industries. Upstream
SPECIALIST INSURANCE SERVICES energy WWW.PRICEFORBES.COM contents about us...5 our approach...6 five steps to service delivery...8 upstream & Mid-stream operations...13 downstream operations...14 claims...15
ENERGISTICS E&P BUSINESS PROCESS REFERENCE MODEL Access, receipt, or use of the E&P Business Process Reference Model is subject to the Energistics Product License Agreement found on the Energistics website.
White Paper June 24, 2009 Stilling Well Recommendations This document describes general requirements for stilling wells used for radar tank gauging applications. Automation solutions for oil & gas, defense
IHS ENERGY Global Oil & Gas Suite Comprehensive analysis and insight on upstream opportunities, risk, infrastructure dynamics, and downstream markets Global Oil & Gas Suite Make optimal decisions about
Operations in the Arctic areas? New challenges: Exploration Development Production The oil and gas cycle Life cycle of oil and gas (time) 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Activity In-house study and get licenses: Find
Micron Quality Manual The Quality Management System (QMS) is an integral component in allowing Micron to achieve the next level in Quality Control and in delivering Total Quality Excellence to our customers.
Maintenance, Repair, and Operations (MRO) in Asset Intensive Industries February 2013 Nuris Ismail, Reid Paquin Maintenance, Repair, and Operations (MRO) in Asset Intensive Industries The impact Maintenance,
IEC TC 107: your strategic tool in process management for avionics IEC TC 107: Your strategic tool in process management for avionics Your company needs to: Develop, document, and implement processes to
GE Intelligent Platforms The Rise of Industrial Big Data Leveraging large time-series data sets to drive innovation, competitiveness and growth capitalizing on the big data opportunity The Rise of Industrial
Statement of Toby Mack, EEIA President, Before the U.S Senate Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship July 14, 2015 Challenges and Opportunities for Small Businesses Engaged in Energy Development
N4385A / N4386A Distributed Temperature System (DTS) Enabling fast, reliable and cost-effective sensing through highly integrated optical measurement systems s Distributed Temperature Sensing Oil & Gas
International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, Volume 3, Issue 4, April-2014 55 Management of Wireless sensor networks using cloud technology Dipankar Mishra, Department of Electronics,
Linear Heat Series Fiber Optic Linear Heat Detection System Tunnels & Metros Conveyer Belts Parking Lots Manufacturing Warehouse Facilities Refineries and Power Plants Intelligent Solutions Are you looking
The Quest for Energy Efficiency A White Paper from the experts in Business-Critical Continuity Abstract One of the most widely discussed issues throughout the world today is the rapidly increasing price
Industry Solutions Oil and Gas Engineering Document Control and Project Collaboration Solutions for Oil and Gas Industry Solutions Managing the complexity of major capital projects in today s oil and gas
Baker & O'Brien assists companies to maximize the performance of their existing physical assets, their finite financial resources, and their employees, RELATED INDUSTRIES thereby enhancing their competitive
ROTATING ELECTRICAL Quality Electrical Products ULTIMA IMPORT IMPORT RELIABILITY Ultima Import offers a complete range of coverage for nearly every vehicle. In fact, Ultima Import offers 98% coverage for
Proactive Performance Management for Enterprise Databases Abstract DBAs today need to do more than react to performance issues; they must be proactive in their database management activities. Proactive
Movicon in energy efficiency management: the ISO 50001 standard The importance of energy consumption within the company reflects the importance of the world energy crisis due to a growing demand and the
Electronic Concepts & Engineering, Inc. Developers of Embedded Electronics & Software Automotive - Truck - Industrial ECE Programs have Included: Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Systems Automated Manual
EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels, XXX [ ] (2013) XXX draft Proposal for a RECOMMENDATION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION Providing minimum principles for the exploration and production of hydrocarbons (especially
Geothermal Energy With increasing fossil fuel prices, geothermal energy is an attractive alternative energy source for district heating and industrial heating. In recent years the use of geothermal energy
Maintenance Plan Introduction Maintenance is the cornerstone of asset sustainability. An effective preventive maintenance program, combined with good operational practices, will reduce the need for much
A d v a n c i n g R e s e r v o i r P e r f o r m a n c e Reservoir Performance Monitor Formation evaluation and reservoir monitoring Reservoir Performance Monitor (RPM) Comprehensive reservoir evaluation
Obsolescence Management for Industrial Assets Don Ogwude President Creative Systems International Presented by Don Ogwude Mr. Don A. Ogwude is president and CEO of Creative Systems International. He has
Data - the Oil & Gas Asset that isn t managed like one Presented by Daniel T Shaw Copyright 2013 and 2014 Molten Group 1 Daniel T Shaw Principal Molten Consulting Daniel is a performance leader with over
GAO a Testimony /y3n-7 For Release on Delivery Expected at 9:30 am, EST Thursday March 7, 1991 Supercomputing in Industry II Ill Ill1 II 143857 Statement for the record by Jack L Erock, Jr, Director Government
Paper SAS1865-2015 Drilling for Deepwater Data: A Forensic Analysis of the Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon Disaster ABSTRACT Steve Walker and Jim Duarte, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC During the cementing
IBM Software Oil and Gas IBM Maximo Asset solutions for the oil and gas industry Helping oil and gas companies achieve operational excellence 2 IBM Maximo Asset solutions for the oil and gas industry Highlights
An introduction to designing reliable cloud services January 2014 Contents Overview 2 Cloud service reliability versus resiliency 4 Recovery-oriented computing 5 Planning for failure 7 Designing for and
White Paper Product Quality Fujitsu ESPRIMO PCs, Fujitsu CELSIUS workstations, Fujitsu FUTRO thin clients Quality from beginning to end is the principle that guides Fujitsu from the design and planning
ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT AN OVERVIEW November 2011 Overview Overview of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) Risk Assessment Process Identifying Business Risks Consideration of Impact and Likelihood Soliciting
Viewpoint paper Master big data to optimize the oil and gas lifecycle Information management and analytics (IM&A) helps move decisions from reactive to predictive Table of contents 4 Getting a handle on
Monitoring and Diagnostics Monitoring and diagnostics Analyze the past, monitor the present, and predict the future! Asset Services/Monitoring and Diagnostics Switchgear Services Transformer Services Cable