FINAL REPORT. February

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1 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollutio on Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction FINAL REPORT February 2011

2 THE WORLD BANK JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY STUDY OF JAPANESE EXPERIENCES ON SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT INCLUDING POLLUTION CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT, RESOURCE / ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND GHG REDUCTION FINAL REPORT The First East Asia Eco2 Program, including this study, was funded by the Cities Alliance through a non-core contribution of the Japanese Government, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), and the World Bank February 2011 ALMEC CORPORATION

3 TABLE OF CONTENTS MAIN TEXT 1 SUMMARY 1.1 Context of the Study Study Objectives Analytical Framework of the Eco 2 Initiative Urban Development Process, Urban Management, and Environmental Initiatives in Japan Responses of Stakeholders Lessons from Japanese Experiences Report Structure URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROCESS AND INITIATIVES IN JAPAN 2.1 Socio-economic Development and Urbanization Trends in Japan Historical Overview of Urban Environmental Problems in Japanese Cities Historical Overview of Urban Issues and Urban Management Policies Historical Overview of Environmental Initiatives OVERVIEW OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND INITIATIVES OF EACH STAKEHOLDER 3.1 Response of the National Government Initiatives of Local Governments Participation of Community / Civil Society DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES AND INITIATIVES BY THE PRIVATE SECTOR 4.1 Historical Trend of Environmental Actions by the Private Sector Overall Description of Environmental Technologies Environmental Business Market Notable Private Sector Projects / Technologies Initiatives of Industry Organizations ANNEXES Annex A: Case Study 1: Kitakyushu City Annex B: Case Study 2: Kawasaki City Annex C: Case Study 3: Nagoya City Annex D: Case Study 4: Yokohama City Annex E: Case Study 5: Toyama City Annex F: Case Study 6: Koshigaya City iii

4 LIST OF TABLES Table Major Indicators of Urban Development in Japan ( ) Table Historical Changes in Japan s Environmental Policies Table Mapping of National Government Policies and Strategies on Urban Environment Table Roles and Responsibilities by Actor in the Act on Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures Table Overall Framework of Policies on Energy-related CO 2 in Kyoto Protocol Target Achievement Plan Table Summary of Eco-model Cities Table Subsidy to Promote Residences in Designated Areas in Toyama City Table Target of Urban Development for Disaster Prevention Plan Table History of Countermeasures on Air Pollution in Kawasaki City Table Situation of Solid Waste Management Before and After G30 Program Table Performance of ESCO in Yokohama Southern Hospital (2008) Table Income and Expenditure Account Statement Table Estimated Costs and Social Benefits by Scenario Table Overview of Yokohama City s Greenery Tax Table Forest Environment Tax or Water Resources Tax by Prefecture Table Revenue and Expenditure of Water Resources Preservation Tax in FY Table Environmental Awareness by Household Income Table Support of Local Government on Community-based Sorted Collection Table List of Environmental Technologies Table Typology of Smart Grids Table Major Smart Grid Business Players in Japan Table Major Smart Grid Business Players in the World Table Pilot Project on Next-generation Energy and Social System Table Infrastructure Package for Smart Cities Table Volume of Primary Energy Consumption LIST OF FIGURES Figure ALMEC s Understandings on the Analytical Framework on the Eco 2 Initiatives and Japanese Experiences Related to Eco 2 Approach Figure Trend of Major Socio-economic Indicators in Japan ( ) Figure Trend of Urbanization and Employment Structure ( ) Figure Trend of Modal Shares in Medium-sized Cities Figure Trend of SO2 Densities ( ) Figure Trend of NO2 Densities ( ) Figure Trend of Photochemical Oxidant Density ( ) Figure Changes in Waste Volumes ( ) Figure Growth in Plastic Waste ( ) Figure Historical Trend of Government Expenses on Environmental Protection Figure Overall Framework of Low-carbon city Guidance Figure Population of Yokohama City ( ) Figure Future Urban Structure of Yokohama City Figure Trend in Modal Share in Yokohama City Figure Demographical Changes in Modal Shares in Toyama City Figure Compact City Strategy Framework of Toyama City iv

5 Figure LRT Line and Its Connection with Bus in Toyama City Figure Land Subsidence in Koshigaya City ( ) Figure Average BOD Values in the Ayase River ( ) Figure Image of Koshigaya Lake Town Figure Risk Assessment Framework on Natural Disaster Damage in a Stock-oriented Society Figure Risk Management Structure of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Figure Tokyo s Urban Development in the Disaster Prevention Plan Figure Water Quality of Dokai Bay Figure Water Quality of the Purple River and Sewerage Network Coverage Figure Annual Average Concentration of Pollutants in Kawasaki City Figure Population and Waste Volume of Yokohama City ( ) Figure Image of Kawasaki Eco-town Figure Transition of GHG Emission in Sewerage Services in Tokyo Metropolitan Area Figure Local Government Spending on Pollution Control (prefectures and municipalities) Figure Historical Changes in Greenery Ratio and Population Figure Environmental Actions in the Private Sector Figure Estimates of Market Size and Employment in Environmental Industry Figure Smart and Compact Community Technologies Figure Decentralized Water Supply System Figure Historical Trend of Paper Recycling in Japan ( ) LIST OF BOXES Box Box Top Runner Approach Compulsory Requirement of Check for Quake-resistant Buildings along Emergency Transportation Route ABBREVIATIONS 3Rs BEMS BOD CKK System CNG CO CO 2 COD COP DID Eco 2 Cities ERCA ESCO FAR FY GDP GHG JICA JPY reuse, reduce, recycle building energy management system biological oxygen demand Conch Kawasaki Kiln System compressed natural gas carbon monoxide carbon dioxide chemical oxygen demand Conference of the Parties densely inhabited district Ecological Cities as Economic Cities Environmental Restoration and Conservation Agency Energy Saving Company floor-area ratio fiscal year gross domestic product greenhouse gas Japan International Cooperation Agency Japanese yen v

6 JR JSCA LRT METI MLIT MOE NEDO NO 2 NPO NGO O&M OECD PET R&D SO 2 SPM UCA UPA USD WB YSCP Japan Railway Japan Smart Community Alliance light rail transit Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Ministry of Environment New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization nitrogen dioxide nonprofit organization nongovernment organization operation and maintenance Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development polyethylene terephthalate research and development sulfur dioxide suspended particulate matter urbanization control area urbanization promotion area US dollar World Bank Yokohama Smart City Project vi

7 MAIN TEXT

8 1 SUMMARY 1.1 Context of the Study Sustainable urban development has been a shared concern all across the globe both in developed and developing countries. While sustainable urban development is conceptually defined as the achievement of economic, social, and environmental sustainability in synergy, its multifaceted concept has turned actual implementation into an often complex compromise. Policies that have not been carefully thought out have engendered various perverse and adverse effects on the ecology as much as on the economy. Many ideas that have promoted sustainable development have led to the opposite. In Japan, the sustainable development of cities and provinces has been vigorously pursued since the late 1990s under various programs through the initiative of the central government and local authorities. Although they have not been fully evaluated with clearly defined context of sustainable urban development, the many efforts and achievements of both the central government and local authorities provide useful and practical lessons. In 2009, the World Bank launched an urban development initiative called Eco 2 Cities: Ecological Cities as Economic Cities (also called Eco 2 Cities Initiative) to help cities in developing countries achieve greater synergistic ecological and economic sustainability. This initiative adopted a three-phase approach. Phase 1 is the development of the analytical and operational framework which is presented in the Eco 2 book. Phase 2 is the dissemination of the Eco 2 framework to developing countries and its application to selected pilot cities with possible investment funding. In this phase, a global partnership is expected to be established among forward-looking cities in developing countries, global good-practice cities in both developing and developed countries, and the academe, as well as international development communities. Under Phase 3, mainstreaming the framework and scaling up the Eco 2 operations will be pursued through larger national Eco 2 programs in developing countries, although some may undertake phases 2 and 3 simultaneously. At present, the Eco 2 initiative is at the beginning of Phase 2. As part of this phase, the Eco 2 East Asia Program was established with a grant from the Cities Alliance funded by the Japanese government s PHRD grant. It has four components, namely: (i) Stock taking of Japanese experiences on sustainable urban development including pollution control and management, resource/energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction (Component A); (ii) Preparation of a user-friendly Eco 2 Operations Guide to prepare and implement the Eco 2 operations (Component B); (iii) Conduct of the Yokohama Eco 2 Conference on October 2010 (Component C); and, (iv) Conduct of national knowledge-sharing and capacity-development activities in Indonesia, Vietnam, and the Philippines to help them and their cities understand the Eco 2 concept and apply it to their local needs and conditions through on-the-job training in the identification and preparation of their respective Eco 2 pilot operations (Component D). 1-1

9 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction This study, entitled Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction, was conducted to cover components A and C of the Eco 2 East Asia Program with the following objectives: (i) To undertake a study of Japanese experiences on sustainable urban development including pollution control and management, resource/energy efficiency and GHG reduction (Task 1), and (ii) To coordinate and prepare the Eco 2 international conference in Yokohama, Japan, on October 2010 (Task 2). 1.2 Study Objectives This report mainly focuses on Task 1, while the summary of the Eco 2 international conference (Task 2) is presented in a separate report entitled Summary of Eco Yokohama. The objectives of the Task 1 study are set below. To compile and analyze Japanese experiences on sustainable urban development, including pollution control and management and resource/energy efficiency and GHG reduction, which are relevant to the Eco 2 initiative and its implementation in cities in developing countries, as well as to draw lessons from these experiences for the implementation of the Eco 2 initiative. 1-2

10 1.3 Analytical Framework of the Eco 2 Initiative Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction This section describes the analytical framework 1 on the Eco 2 initiative, based on which this study was conducted. The most fundamental Eco 2 principle, namely sustainable development for ecological cities as economic cities, and its four principles, namely (i) a city-based approach, (ii) an expanded platform for collaborative design and decision making, (iii) one system approach, and (iv) an investment framework that values sustainability and resiliency, are illustrated in Figure With an overall goal to achieve both environment improvement and economic growth, a city is required to ensure balance between the urban environment and socio-economic activities. City environment covers not only the natural environment, but also the social and cultural environment. Pollution management covers the seven major pollution types, namely air pollution, water contamination, soil contamination, noise, vibration, odor, and land subsidence. Waste management and recycling cover not only the collection and treatment of waste, but also various 3R (reduce, reuse and recycling) activities and resource-efficient industries. Renewable energy sources and energy efficiency, which have been promoted in Japan to protect against climate change, fall under energy management. While the preservation and restoration of the natural environment are still important, the symbiosis with nature has gained primacy as a proactive approach. Being a disaster-prone country, disaster prevention is also paramount in Japan, and this covers not only natural disasters, such as earthquakes and typhoons, but also city-related and human-induced disasters, such as inundations in densely populated areas. At the same time, it is important for a city to ensure smooth and high-quality socioeconomic activities. These cover domestic, business (i.e., offices), commercial and public facilities, industries, and transportation. Agriculture is also an important city activity. Both city environment and socio-economic activities should be supported by urban infrastructure, such as roads and railways, and various utilities. Eco 2 strategies aim to improve a city s environment, support its socio-economic activities, promote social equity, and construct urban structures, infrastructure, and utilities. Various management instruments are incorporated into the Eco 2 strategies, and these include policies and institutions, such as laws, regulations, economic incentives, and administrative platforms, as well as investments either by public or private sector knowhow, technologies, and financing. People s awareness, lifestyle, and education are also important components of Eco 2 strategies. Eco 2 management instruments should consider not only city or district, but also regional-national and global aspects such as regionalnational laws and global environmental sustainability and economic linkages. Also essential is coordination among stakeholders which include citizens, communities, local authorities, and national governments, depending on the necessary management tools. Japanese experiences relevant to Eco 2 approach strategies can be grouped into three stages. Stage 1 is pollution management during the period of rapid economic growth, when most of the urban development projects took place and environmental measures were put in place. As its urban environment dramatically improved, Japan moved to Stage 2, which focused on direct saving through individual energy- and resource-efficient technologies. Recently, Japan has entered Stage 3, the period for smart-city development. 1 The analytical framework was developed by ALMEC Corporation for this study and is not the official representation of the Eco 2 analytical framework. 1-3

11 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction It is a comprehensive and area-wide approach covering various sectors. It can create added value and increase a city s attractiveness and competitiveness, which is exactly what the Eco 2 initiative aims for. Figure ALMEC s Understandings on the Analytical Framework on the Eco 2 Initiatives and Japanese Experiences Related to Eco 2 Approach Eco 2 Goal Environment and Economic Sustainability and Social Equity City Socioeconomic Environment activities -Pollution management -Waste management and recycling -Renewable energy/ energy efficiency and CO 2 reduction -Land management -Preservation / Symbiosis with nature -Disaster prevention -Cultural preservation -Household -Business (office and commercial) -Industry -Public facilities -Transportation -Forestry and agriculture Urban Structure/ Infrastructure / Utilities Eco 2 Tool GIS Overlap Mapping Spatial Levels -World -Global-region -Nation -Nation-region -City -District -Neighborhood -Household Japanese Experiences related to Eco 2 Approach Step 1: Pollution Management Step 2: Direct Saving (individual energy/resource efficiency) Step 3: Smart City (comprehensive and one-system approach, value-added/ attractive/ competitive) Stakeholders -Citizen -Community -NGO / NPO -Private sector -Local authority -Regional gov t -Central gov t -Academe -Donor Eco 2 Tool Design Charrette Foresight workshop Eco 2 Tool Meta Diagram Eco 2 Tool Lifetime costbenefit analysis Source: Study Team Management Instruments -Policies -Institution (laws, regulations, incentives, administration) -Instruments -Know-how -Technologies -Financing -Awareness, education, and lifestyle 1-4

12 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction 1.4 Urban Development Process, Urban Management, and Environmental Initiatives in Japan Urban issues vary widely by area and development stage even within a country, and these are largely affected by urbanization and socio-economic conditions. Accordingly, priority policies and actions to solve the most critical urban problems not only differ by area but also change over time. The following summarizes the urban issues that Japan faced and the urban and environmental initiatives that it implemented by development stage. 1) 1950s Early1970s: Beginning of Rapid Economic Growth and Urbanization After World War II, Japan experienced rapid economic growth, with industrialization as the main driver. It brought about rapid urbanization, which concentrated in three metropolitan areas. Such industrial-led economic growth and urbanization caused serious pollution of air and water, which was mostly attributed to the proliferation and lack of management of factories. This period experienced the so-called Four Major Pollution Issues. 2 The lack of urban infrastructure was also a big concern. Urban management policies focused on the provision of huge amounts of infrastructure, particularly focusing on road development. A variety of institutional framework was established in each sector to develop infrastructure, the major purpose of which was to support industrial development. Improving the living environment was given scant attention, while some area-wide urban development mechanisms, such as land readjustment, were institutionalized. Suburbanization or sprawl of urbanized areas already started during this period. Environmental policies at this time focused on controlling end-of-pipe pollution. Regulations and measures on pollution control were implemented with the initiative of local governments instead of the central government, such as the ordinances on factory pollution control of the Tokyo metropolitan government in Later, in line with mounting public calls for pollution controls, the national government started to take action in the late 1950s. Various laws and regulations on pollution control were established in the 1960s, peaking with the so-called Pollution Diet in Legal systems related to pollution control were exhaustively reviewed and a total of 14 draft laws were approved in the Pollution Diet. In 1971, the Environment Agency was established. As environmental issues were shared among government, industrial sector, and civil society, investment by the private sector in environmental technologies and measures also increased. 2) 1970s Mid-1980s: Motorization and Expansion of Urban Areas Notwithstanding the country s decline in industrial production due to two oil shocks, i.e., in 1973 and 1979, Japan experienced continuous, albeit slower, economic growth during this period. Urban population also continuously increased, while motorization accelerated as people and the society became economically stronger. The increase in urban population and passenger cars caused suburbanization and expansion of urban areas, or urban sprawl. With these came the decline in population density in densely inhabited districts (DIDs) starting in the 1970s, particularly in mediumsized cities. The deterioration of public transportation services also became apparent at this stage. 2 These refer to widespread cadmium poisoning in the 1950s and 1960s in Toyama prefecture; mercury poisoning in the 1960s in Minamata City, Kumamoto prefecture; air pollution in the 1960s in Mie prefecture; and arsenic poisoning in the early 1970s in Shimane and Miyazaki prefectures. 1-5

13 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction During this period, the main objective of urban management was growth management or control of urban sprawl. Some growth management schemes were introduced, such as the designation of urban divisions and the imposition of development permit systems, when the City Planning Act was formulated in Focusing on vertical and high-rise redevelopment of existing urban areas and development of new suburban areas, various tools to promote urban development were institutionalized. The beneficiary pays principle was also introduced in order to absorb more development benefits. The quality of air and water, among others, had by this time gradually improved as a result of a series of countermeasures on industrial pollution. However, along with urbanization emerged an urban-oriented pollution in the late 1970s in the form of air pollution due to vehicle emissions, water contamination due to non-treatment of domestic wastewater, and increase and diversification of solid waste. The impact of urban-oriented pollution was wider and longer than that caused by industries, since the pollution sources were usually dispersed throughout the whole city. In this context, a new institutional arrangement was prepared, such as vehicle emission control. In 1970, the Waste Management Act was passed and in 1978 it was the Japan Muskie Act. Although such urban-oriented pollution required a more comprehensive approach, the environmental initiatives at this time were still limited to the strengthening of individual regulations. 3) Mid-1980s 1990s: Bubble Economy and Its Burst In the 1980s, Japan entered a bubble economy, experiencing high economic growth rates of over 6% in the latter part of the decade. The major urban policy issue in this period was how to manage the soaring prices of urban land. The concentration of service industries in the Tokyo metropolitan area increased the demand for office spaces, resulting in an increase in land prices initially in the urban center then spreading throughout the Tokyo metropolitan area. It led to the penetration of offices into residential areas. Suburbanization of residential areas accelerated together with the continuous migration into the Tokyo metropolitan area. The bubble economy collapsed in the early 1990s, which curbed economic growth and quickly deflated land prices. While overconcentration of people in the Tokyo metropolitan area also diminished, suburbanization continued. The living environment in urban areas was emphasized and the initiatives of city authorities and communities in urban planning were strengthened, as seen in the amendment of the City Planning Act in On the other hand, the worldwide momentum in deregulation and promotion of private investment also affected urban governance in the 1990s. It led to the boom of large suburban shopping centers, which resulted in the hollowing out of urban centers particularly in medium-sized cities. In the late 1980s, international concern on the global environment started to grow. The term sustainable development appeared in the WECD report in Environmental issues in Japan had also shifted to diverse and complex ones, such as greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction, which required a comprehensive approach rather than individual pollution control measures. The promotion of a recycling society also became a major rallying cry, as increasing waste volumes exposed the shortage in final disposal sites. Within this context, the Basic Environmental Act was executed in 1993, which aimed to develop a sustainable society and promote global environmental protection through international collaboration. 1-6

14 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Discussions on global warming also accelerated to strengthen measures on energy efficiency, the cause of which could be traced to the oil shock the world experienced in the 1970s. Top-runner approach was introduced in amending the Energy Saving Act in 1998, which contributed in laying the foundation of private sector participation in higher energy efficiency performance. The Kyoto Protocol, which was adopted at the third conference of the Council of Parties (COP3) in 1997, compelled the government to actively promote actions against global warming. The Act on Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures, which was registered in 1997, specified the roles and responsibilities of the central government, the local government, and the private sector. 4) 2000s: Economic Recession and Depopulation Since the late 1990s, Japan has suffered from economic stagnation and by 2005 has experienced marked depopulation. The shift to an aging society and fewer children has accelerated. The hollowing out of urban centers has become a serious issue particularly in medium-sized cities, leading to calls for an urban renaissance. At this time too and in line with decentralization trends, city authorities had been given more authority in urban planning and their role in sustainable urban development had become more important. In the 2000s, with the increasing concern about global warming and international commitment to reduce GHG emissions, sustainable urban development became the norm. Comprehensive approaches became inevitable, involving a wide range of stakeholders and to covering different sectors in cities to promote 3R activities and achieve a recycling society. City authorities, rather than government ministries, became more pivotal in taking initiatives in sustainable development. In this context, sustainable and comprehensive urban development approaches were emphasized wherein urban planning and environmental policies were coordinated well, as seen in the concept of compact cities moving toward low-carbon societies. 1-7

15 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction 1.5 Responses of Stakeholders 1) Responses of the National Government At the beginning of the period of rapid urbanization accompanying economic growth from the late 1950s, the biggest concern of the national government was the great demand for infrastructure. Government ministries commenced infrastructure development, the responsibility for which was vertically divided in the central administrative system. This led to the sectionalism of infrastructure development in cities, which later became obstacles in formulating a comprehensive urban plan. Central-government-led urban planning also failed to consider local conditions and to incorporate public opinion. As for pollution management, the national government followed the actions of some advanced local governments and succeeded in formulating a nationwide framework for pollution management. It likewise provided various support measures, such as tax reduction, subsidy, and R&D, for the private sector and local authorities to promote environmental measures, while strictly enforcing environmental regulations. As urban and environment issues become diversified, urban governance is required to be more flexible in its response to local conditions. The national government should thus facilitate city-based initiatives. In Japan s experience, urban governance made a gradual transition from being country-led, and for urban planning from being project-based, to citybased and environment-oriented. In this context, central government and ministries have conducted various city-based environmental programs to promote city-based innovative approaches to sustainable urban development, including the Eco-model Program, Ecotown Project, and Environmental Action Model Project, of which the objective is not only to extract good practices but also to replicate them in other cities nationwide. In order to meet the international commitment to reduce GHG emissions, the central government or the Cabinet Office has taken the initiative on the Kyoto Protocol Target Achievement Plan, especially since global warming issues compared to other environmental issues cut across sectors and require coordination among ministries. It includes environmental campaign, such as Cool Biz, which has strongly contributed to increasing people s awareness of the environment. 2) Initiatives of Local Governments Local government initiatives on the environment started with the formulation of ordinances against pollution way ahead of central government actions. These contributed in ushering pollution control policies from the central government. Local authorities, particularly those facing serious pollution in industrial areas, responded to their local conditions and initiated their own actions to supplement the measures of the central government. These include strengthening of regulations on pollution control, such as Kawasaki s ordinance on pollution prevention, and additional financial support on environmental measures taken by the private sector. Urban planning and management had been traditionally led by the central government and had focused on implementing infrastructure development projects rather than improving the urban environment. As a result, no comprehensive urban plans were made and local authorities lacked the initiative to manage urban development. However, as urban issues and environmental problems worsened and became complicated, local governments started to take it upon themselves to play a bigger role in integrating urban 1-8

16 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction development and environmental sustainability. Some cities, particularly those that experienced serious socio-economic and environmental problems, launched innovative policies on sustainable urban development. Some of these good practices include the compact city development strategy of Toyama City, the integrated urban design and water environment development in Koshigaya Lake Town, and the zero-emission industrial zone in Kawasaki City. Meanwhile, the G30 program of Yokohama City effectively involved the community in urban development. Having achieved some environmental balance, these cities are expected to take the lead in promoting environmental policies all over Japan. The details of these cities innovative initiatives are described in Chapter 3 and in the annexes. 3) Participation of the Community/ Civil Society The public s sense of environmentalism is rooted in the people s movement against pollution in the 1950s, when thousands of ordinary citizens and pollution victims lobbied with the government to control pollution. Such large-scale public outcry against urban and pollution problems was the power that drove local governments and the central government to control or prevent pollution. Citizens movements or public participation in decision making was institutionalized in urban planning, as shown in the amendment of the City Planning Act in 1968 and it was further strengthened in the District Plan in Citizens movements started with the opposition to pollution problems which contributed in making people more aware of urban problems and enhancing their willingness to participate in urban development processes, such as community-based urban revitalization and recycling activities, particularly in areas that experienced serious pollution. Socio-economic conditions have likewise significantly boosted people s awareness of the environment. The two oil shocks in 1973 and 1979 pushed the momentum to promote energy efficiency. Recently, global warming has become an increasing concern of the international community and it has made the people consider the impact of their activities on the environment more carefully. Various environmental campaigns initiated by the central government, such as Challenge 25 and Cool Biz, have also significantly contributed in making the people more sensitive to the environment. As environmental issues, such as CO 2 emission and waste reduction, are closely linked to people s daily activities, their participation is inevitable in order to tackle urban environmental issues effectively, thereby achieving sustainable urban development. 4) Private Sector Activities In the beginning of Japan s rapid economic growth, the private sector was not active in combating environmental issues and managing pollution. However, lawsuits and lost cases, as well as regulations passed by both national and local governments together which came with financial support for environmental measures, rapidly changed the attitude of enterprises toward pollution issues and management. As a result, the total amount of investment by the private sector on pollution control facilities significantly increased. They also realized that pollution management was their social responsibility and effectively doing it could even enhance their businesses. Eventually, pollution control and environmental management became two of the priorities of private investors. 1-9

17 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction With such investment in pollution control, enterprises eventually developed various technologies and know-how on anti-pollution and energy saving to meet strict regulations. Such industry-led and voluntary initiatives have significantly contributed in improving the environmental conditions in Japan and in fostering one of the world s top environmental technologies. Since the 1990s, the private sector has been required to provide countermeasures on emerging environmental problems, namely mitigation of global warming and promotion of a recycling society. These require a more comprehensive approach and integrated technologies, while pollution control only requires individual technologies. Overall energy management was promoted to advance energy efficiency as a whole, while inter-factory cooperation was encouraged to support recycling. It has been widely recognized that environmental actions are inevitable for enterprises and businesses; hence, since 1990, more enterprises have incorporated environment into their management strategies and have formulated detailed action plans with environmental targets. Nippon Keidanren, one of the biggest industry organizations, has also come out with voluntary and proactive efforts on environmental improvement, including the Keidanren Chamber on Global Environment in 1991 and the Keidanren Voluntary Action Plan on the Environment in

18 1.6 Lessons from Japanese Experiences Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction A comprehensive review of the Japanese experiences in urban development and the responses of each stakeholder to the impact of urban development can provide lessons for developing countries, as shown below. 1) Comprehensive Approach for Recovery from Pollution A comprehensive approach is the key for Japan to successfully recover from serious pollution. It includes the partnership of various stakeholders, such as government, business, and civil society, as well as a combination of various measures such as regulation, economic incentives, and public investment. The central government has set emission standards and formulated regulations on pollution sources, which were supplemented by local government ordinances. Monitoring systems were also developed by the public sector to ensure the enforcement of regulations. At the same time, economic incentives were provided to the private sector to encourage them to invest in environmental measures. Private sector, or businesses, have voluntarily and aggressively invested in and developed antipollution measures, technologies, and know-how. Civil society likewise had a significant role in raising environmental awareness by mobilizing citizens and supporting pollution victims in filing lawsuits against polluters. Such approaches are also found in the promotion of energy efficiency. The government issued strict regulations on energy use of enterprises and the energy performance of their products. At the same time, it provided financial support to install energy-efficient equipment. The Top Runner approach, which has required enterprises to develop the most energy-efficient products, has successfully encouraged the private sector in promoting energy efficiency and achieving technological innovation in a variety of areas. 2) Long-term Vision for Urban Structure Most cities in Japan, during their rapid economic growth and urbanization, provided infrastructure to meet increasing demand. Urban sprawl expanded and suburbanization occurred without proper urban growth management. Such dispersed urban areas resulted in an increased dependence on passenger cars, which in turn led to the deterioration of public transportation services, particularly in medium-sized cities. In the 21st century, Japan entered a period of depopulation, including urban population, and economic slowdown, the size of urban areas has been maintained, although some have even expanded due to the high dependence on passenger cars, which hardly changed. As a result, urban population density continued to decrease, which in turn hollowed out urban centers. In order to achieve sustainable development in this period, some Japanese cities, Toyama included, have adopted comprehensive strategies toward a compact city development. The concept of a compact city also fits the increasing momentum against global warming, since it can engender the development of low-carbon cities with higher shares of public transportation and shorter travel distances. However, most medium-sized cities realized that once a city has expanded, it takes a long time and huge amounts of money to scale them down and reshape them into compact forms. More importantly, it is more difficult to implement projects continuously. Hence, while a city is still growing, it should already have a long-term vision and strategies to achieve its future urban structure. As seen in the case of Yokohama, it developed a long- 1-11

19 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction term urban strategy during its period of rapid growth and it has been shaping its overall urban structure for 40 years already. Strong leadership and partnership with citizens who support the urban strategy are key to sustainable and consistent urban development. 3) Initiatives of City Authorities and Mechanisms of Facilitation In order to promote sustainable urban development, a city authority is expected to play a central role. It can reflect local issues and needs into urban development strategies. It can also take a comprehensive approach to integrate various sectors to tackle diversified urban issues, while central government ministries focus on each sector. In Japan, some of the cities that faced serious environmental issues have grown to be environmentally advanced cities by overcoming their pollution problems. To extract the good practices of these cities and replicate their efforts nationwide, the national government formulated mechanisms to give them awards or provide them with financial support. The Eco-model Project initiated by the Cabinet office and the Eco-town Program initiated by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) and the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) are two approaches that can encourage developing countries to adopt the good practices started by their respective cities or by other countries. For this study, an in-depth analysis was made of six cities that faced serious urban environmental problems during their respective periods of rapid economic growth and successfully developed their own innovative and advanced environmental initiatives. Brief profiles of these cities are shown on this and the next page. (a) Kitakyushu City: The city of Kitakyushu was borne out of industry. Having experienced significant pollution and waste problems in the process of development, it has continuously overcome environmental problems through collaboration among industry, academe, government, and citizens. As a result, the city was mentioned in the implementation plan of the Johannesburg Summit in 2002 as a model environmental city in Asia. It has also promoted international cooperation on the environment, mainly with Asian countries. (b) Kawasaki City: The city of Kawasaki, where representative companies in many industries are located, is one of the typical cities which led the period of high economic growth in Japan. During the process of industrialization, it experienced significant air and water pollution. Under the city administration s initiative, businesses proactively invested in pollution prevention which enriched their engineering and technological know-how, resulting in various advanced and smart technologies. Given that the city hosts many R&D institutions, it has an abundant accumulation of experiences and know-how gained in the process of solving its own pollution problems and fosters cutting-edge environmental technologies for climate change control. (c) Nagoya City: The city of Nagoya is the largest and chief city in central Japan in political, economic, and cultural aspects. It has remarkable experiences in reducing wastes, effectively doing so by more than 20% in only two years. In conserving biodiversity, it successfully called off the planned reclamation of the Fujimae tidal area. Recently, the city has formulated long-term strategies up to 2050 on climate change, biodiversity, and hydrological circulation, which shows its progressive thinking and long-term vision. 1-12

20 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction (d) Yokohama City: In the 1960s, as Japan entered an era of rapid economic growth, Yokohama City started to experience fast-paced urbanization as one of the commuter towns in the Tokyo metropolitan area. A fast-growing population and increasing travel demand forced Yokohama to provide mass transportation to connect with Tokyo, an act which had the potential of subverting its own long-term and strategic urban development. While serving Tokyo as a commuter town, Yokohama City pursued its own urban development system and formulated advanced policies such as environmental strategies through solid partnerships with the citizens. Now the biggest municipality in Japan, Yokohama City has the distinction of being an Eco-model City. Recently, it has launched a smart and low-carbon city strategy. (e) Toyama City: The city of Toyama is a typical medium-sized city in Japan with wide flat areas. As its population increased due to economic growth, the city experienced suburbanization and evolved into a widely dispersed urban area. As a result, it had the highest level of car ownership in Japan which meant it was highly dependent on passenger cars. However, as it entered into a period of depopulation and aging with fewer children, the city restructured its urban form to become a sustainable and livable city. It launched a vision of a public-transportation-oriented compact city. Since it is very unique for a medium-sized city to put public transportation as the core of urban development and succeed in it, Toyama was likewise designated as an Eco-model City. (f) Koshigaya Lake Town: The city of Koshigaya is a typical suburban city of Tokyo, which experienced rapid urbanization and received increasing migrants from the Tokyo metropolitan area. Koshigaya Lake Town, which promotes a smart and sustainable urban life in harmony with the lake, aims for an independent city far beyond being a bed town of Tokyo with various urban functions including commercial, business, and information. It took advantage of its geographical conditions, being on a lowland swamp on the river plain, as its identity. Since Koshigaya City has been developed as a bed town for Tokyo, its urban environmental issues relate mainly to the residential and business sectors, rather than the industrial. Hence, various projects in Koshigaya Lake Town to reduce CO 2 emissions, such as a district-level CO 2 reduction project and promotion of energy efficiency in commercial facilities, are directed toward these sectors. 1-13

21 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction 1.7 Report Structure This on the Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction has four chapters and several annexes. Chapter 1 introduces the study and summarizes its outputs which are elaborated in subsequent chapters. Chapter 2 describes the urban development process and the environmental issues Japan and its cities encountered in the process. The overall trend in socio-economic development and urbanization is explained by development phase, while major indicators related to urban development are summarized. Urban environmental problems, such as urban sprawl, air/water pollution, and solid waste, are described. It is followed by a historical overview of urban management policies and environmental initiatives by development phase, which are summarized in Table Chapter 3 covers current urban environmental policies and initiatives of each stakeholder, namely the national government, local government, and community. The national, or central, government covers the MOE, METI, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). Recent city-based environmental programs initiated by the central government are also summarized, including the Eco-model Project and Eco-town Program. Initiatives of the respective local governments of the selected six case study cities, the most important section of this report, are categorized into (i) urban planning and land management schemes for sustainable cities, (ii) comprehensive approaches on recovery from pollution, (iii) comprehensive approaches on energy and resource efficiency, and (iv) financing schemes for sustainable development. Chapter 3 also describes various citizens movements and public participation in environmental issues. Details are shown in the annexes. The last chapter, Chapter 4, focuses on environmental technologies and initiatives of the private sector. Following the overall description of the environmental technologies by sector, current conditions and estimates of the future environmental business market are summarized. Some notable technologies and projects are introduced, which is followed by the environmental initiatives of industry organizations. 1-14

22 2 URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROCESS AND INITIATIVES IN JAPAN 2.1 Socio-economic Development and Urbanization Trends in Japan 1) Beginning of Rapid Economic Growth and Urbanization (1950s to Early 1970s) Since the late 1950s, Japan experienced rapid economic growth due to its expanding domestic demand and its overseas market. Real GNP increased by 1.53 times in 1960 and by 3.95 times in 1970 from their 1955 figures. Economic growth brought about urbanization. In 1950, the urban population was only 29.0 million (35% of the country s total), and this increased to 40.8 million (43%) in 1960, then to 55.5 million (53%) in 1970, or an annual growth rate of 3.0%. Urbanization concentrated in three metropolitan areas, namely Tokyo, Osaka, and Nagoya. In 1962, migration to these three metropolitan areas peaked. In 10 years, from 1970 to 1980, more than 3.3 million people migrated to the Tokyo metropolitan area alone. For its industrial structure, the share of secondary industry constantly increased from the 1950s to It shows that economic growth in this period was mainly driven by industrialization. Urban agglomerations formed in the three metropolitan areas mentioned above together with industrial clusters, boosting economic growth. 2) Motorization and Expansion of Urban Areas (Mid-1970s to Mid-1980s) Notwithstanding the negative economic performance due to two oil shocks in 1973 and 1979, this period experienced continuous economic growth at an annual growth rate of 4%. Japan s industrial structure changed with a shift from heavy industries to processing/assembly and the increase in the share of the third sector, services. The urban population also continuously increased at an annual growth rate of 2.3% from 1970 to Motorization ratcheted up as the economy and the Japanese people became stronger. While the national number of vehicles stood at only 358,000 in 1950, this dramatically increased to 2.3 million by 1960, then 18.2 million in 1970, and 37.9 million in Vehicle ownership per 1,000 population jumped from 4.3 vehicles to 24.6 in 1960, 175 in 1970, and 324 in The increase in urban population and motorization accelerated sprawl in the urban areas. Since the area of densely inhabited districts (DIDs) increased at a pace exceeding that of DID populations, DID population density decreased continuously since the middle of the 1970s. At the same time, concentration in big metropolitan areas diminished from the late 1970s to the early 1980s partly due to economic slowdown after the oil shocks. The subsequent economic recovery resumed the flow of population into metropolitan areas; the overconcentration in the Tokyo metropolitan area accelerated further. 3) Bubble Economy and Its Burst (Mid-1980s to 1990s) In the 1980s, Japan entered a bubble economy and experienced annual economic growth rates of over 6% especially in the latter part of the decade. As the service sector developed, its share in the economic structure expanded. The high dependence of the economy on the service sector, together with the informatization and internationalization trends, encouraged the location of corporate headquarters in central Tokyo. The 2-1

23 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction concentration of population in the Tokyo metropolitan area also continued. As a result, demand for office spaces in central Tokyo rapidly increased which was followed by the increase in land prices in commercial areas and the urban center since the early 1980s. Such rise in land prices started to spread throughout the Tokyo metropolitan area. A survey conducted in 1986 showed that commercial land prices in the fringe areas of Tokyo, at major terminal areas, and in southwestern Tokyo increased by 20% to 30%. Likewise, residential land prices in areas within 5 km from the city center increased by 22.7%, by 12.3% within 10 km, and 7.7% within 15 km of the city center. After peaking in 1987, land prices in commercial areas stopped increasing and those in the residential areas registered negative growth during that year. Land price increase in the bubble economy contributed to further suburbanization of residential areas. In the early 1990s, the bubble economy collapsed. It curbed economic growth and quickly deflated land prices. The overconcentration in the Tokyo metropolitan area also diminished. On the other hand, the expansion of urban areas was accompanied with economic growth, while motorization continued. It brought about a deterioration of public transportation and a hollowing out of urban centers, particularly in medium-sized cities. 4) Economic Recession and Depopulation (2000s) Population increase started to slow down from the early 2000s and Japan officially entered a depopulation period in Even in medium-sized cities, populations started to fall in 2005 and this trend is expected to start in metropolitan areas by On the other hand, overconcentration in the Tokyo metropolitan area continues. Along with population decrease, Japanese society now faces an accelerating change in its social structure including an aging population, a declining birth rate, and a trend toward a nuclear family. If the percentage of population over 65 years old was 12.1% in 1990, its share increased to 17.4% in 2000 and 22.5% in The rate is estimated to reach 27.8% by Along with the trend toward a nuclear family and the increasing rate of unmarried people, the number of households increased from 38.0 million in 1985 to 46.8 million in 2000 and 48.2 million in The percentage of single-member households was 29% in Japan and 32% in the Tokyo metropolitan area in Figure shows the trend of socio-economic indicators in Japan from 1960 to

24 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Figure Trend of Major Socio-economic Indicators in Japan ( ) Source: (car ownership) Statistical Yearbook on Vehicle Transportation, MLIT-Japan (other indicators) World Bank, World Development Indicator Figure Trend of Urbanization and Employment Structure ( ) Source: Census, Japan 2-3

25 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Table Major Indicators of Urban Development in Japan ( ) Unit Economic Development GDP USD mil 1) , , , , , ,979.5 Per capita GDP USD 1) - 7,118 17,345 23,981 27,012 33,369 35,439 36,789 38,972 Industrial Structure Primary % ) Secondary % ) Tertiary % ) Employment Structure Primary % Secondary % Tertiary % Urban Development Population ,200 93, , , , , , , ,768 DID Population ,037 40,830 55,535 69,936 73,344 78,152 81,255 82,810 84,331 Share of DID DID Area Km 2-3,865 6,399 10,015 10,571 11,732 12,261 12,457 12,561 DID Density Pax/ha Vehicle ,298 18,165 37,915 46,151 57,669 66,950 72,370 75,507 Vehicle Ownership /1000 pax Traffic Fatalities pax 4,202 12,055 16,765 8,760 9,261 11,227 10,679 9,066 6,871 Environment CO2 Emission mil tons /year , , , ,241.4 General Waste 000 tons Volume /year - 9,922 31,311 43,936 42,094 50,257 52,224 54,834 52,720 Source: GDP: WDI 2009 Industrial Structure: White Paper on Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Employment structure, Pop. DID: Census (DID in 1950 is from WDI) Vehicle, Statistic on Road Traffic, Environment: Environmental Statistics 1) Constant 2000 price. 2) Increase rate from the previous year. 3) Data as of

26 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction 2.2 Historical Overview of Urban Environmental Problems in Japanese Cities 1) Urban Sprawl and Subsequent Urban Problems Urbanization and motorization resulted in suburbanization and expansion of urban areas. Population density in the DIDs continued to decline since the late 1960s, which was particularly notable in medium-sized cities. DID population density in metropolitan areas, such as Tokyo, Osaka, Kanagawa, and Aichi, increased or was stable since the late 1980s; that in other medium-sized cities declined. The decline in population density in the central areas and the expansion of urban areas, combined with emerging large-scale suburban shopping centers, caused the deterioration of the central urban areas. Central shopping streets hollowed out, and vacant stores started becoming prominent. The percentage of central shopping streets with more than 10% of vacant stores increased from 28% in 2000 to 30% in 2003 and 38% in A city with dispersed urban areas faces serious problems in public transportation. The modal share of railway, including JR and private rail in medium-sized cities, decreased continuously from 26.3% in 1967, 18.0% in 1975, and 10.0% in It further fell to 8.0% in The situation was more serious in bus transportation whose modal share declined to 8% in 2003 from 45.9% in The decline in the use of public transportation increased the dependence on passenger cars, which had a modal share of 84% in Figure Trend of Modal Shares in Medium-sized Cities Source: White Paper on the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism 2) From End-of-pipe Pollution to Urban-oriented Pollution Economic growth stoked by industrialization from the 1950s to the 1970s caused serious pollution problems. Smoke and dust due to coal-based industrialization just after World War II and SOx emission in the following oil-based industrialization period seriously deteriorated air quality and caused respiratory problems. Wastewater from factories led to serious river and lake water contamination, causing poisoning among the local people. 1 Small and Medium Enterprise Agency, the Study on Current Conditions of Shopping Streets. 2-5

27 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Pollution and its associate health problems became major social concerns. This period also saw the so-called Four Major Pollution Issues, which included the mercury pollution that led to the Minamata disease outbreak, the cadmium pollution which was the cause of the itai-itai (pain-pain) malady, and air pollution which led to asthma attacks in Yokaichi City. Pollution in the early stage of Japan s economic growth was mostly attributed to specific sources, which are mainly factories, or end-of-pipe pollution. Since the contaminant sources were agglomerated in industrial areas, it was rather easy to identify pollutant sources and take action against end-of-pipe pollution. As a result, environmental conditions of air, water, and so on, improved greatly after a series of countermeasures, as described later in this chapter, was carried out. From the 1970s to the 1980s, the annual average of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) density rapidly decreased when desulfuration equipment were introduced in factories. However, in the late 1970s urban-oriented pollution became prevalent and sources were dispersed throughout the whole city. Water contamination due to domestic wastewater worsened, while increased motorization engendered a different type of pollution, i.e., air pollution due to vehicle emissions. While nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) density, which rapidly increased in the late 1970s, somehow improved in the 1980s owing to the introduction of vehicle emission regulations, its ratios have yet to improve since then. Photochemical oxidant density even became worse after improvements in the 1980s due to the gas emitted by diesel cars. In 2010, a total of 22 advisories, or alerts, on oxidase smog were issued in Tokyo. Air contaminants can also fly in from China or Korea, which are also experiencing rapid economic growth. Figure Trend of SO 2 Densities ( ) SO 2 Density (ppm) Monitoring Point for Car Emission Genera Monitoring Point Source: The Environmental Restoration and Conservation Agency (ERCA) 2-6

28 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Figure Trend of NO 2 Densities ( ) NO 2 Density (ppm) Monitoring Point for Car Emission Genera Monitoring Point Source: The Environmental Restoration and Conservation Agency (ERCA) Figure Trend of Photochemical Oxidant Density ( ) NO 2 Density (ppm) Monitoring Point for Car Emission Genera Monitoring Point Source: The Environmental Restoration and Conservation Agency (ERCA) 3) Increasing Volume of Domestic and Industrial Solid Waste (1) Increasing Volume and Diversification of Domestic Waste Economic growth and urbanization increased the volume of wastes. In the 1950s and 1960s, Japan turned into a mass production and mass consumption society, resulting in the rapid increase of generated waste. The annual total amount of generated solid waste was about 7,000 tons in 1955, and this jumped to 30,000 tons in 1970, or an increase of 3 times within 15 years. Since most of the generated wastes were directly disposed of in landfills and were not incinerated, they caused serious hygiene issues, such as mass generation of flies at landfill sites. Along with urbanization, it became more difficult to construct incinerators and final waste disposal sites in the urban areas due to difficulties in securing land and other lesser environmental problems. Therefore, the government decided to allow waste to be transported beyond administrative boundaries. Such regional transfers caused environmental problems in the recipient regions due to illegal dumping or inappropriate treatment of waste. It also triggered regional conflicts, as seen in the Tokyo Waste War in Citizens in districts that were recipients of the final waste launched campaigns rejecting waste from other districts which had no final waste disposal sites. 2-7

29 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction In the 1970s, the total volume of generated waste temporarily decreased due to economic stagnation as a result of the oil shock. However, as Japanese society became more sophisticated and diversified, the total volume of general waste continued to increase to about 52,700 tons in The continued increase in general waste posed serious issues relative to the limited capacities of final disposal sites, resulting in the movement toward a recycling society, which started in the 2000s. The diversification of waste also became a big issue in managing solid waste. In the 1970s, as plastics became widely used, the total volume of consumption of plastics rapidly increased, resulting in the increased volume of plastic waste. The percentage of plastics in the total waste increased to 10%, which was the limit in the capacity of incinerators in those days. The treatment of plastic waste became a big issue, including sorted collection of plastics. In the 2000s, the total volume of general waste started to decrease, while that of industrial waste continued to grow. The shortage of final disposal sites became alleviated a bit as the volume of general waste decreased. However, it was estimated in 2010 that final disposal sites will expire within 18 years, which requires the further decrease in final waste for disposal. Figure Changes in Waste Volumes ( ) Source: Environmental Statistics, 2020 Figure Growth in Plastic Waste ( ) Source: Environmental Statistics,

30 (2) Increasing Volume of Industrial Waste Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Industrial waste was stipulated in the institutional framework for the first time in the Wastes Management Act of Since then, its volume has continuously increased. The polluters-pay principle was introduced as well, which states that the waste generator is required to pay for his/her waste for it to be disposed of appropriately. However, it could not limit illegal waste disposal due to increase in waste volume, higher cost of waste disposal, and shortage of final disposal sites. While in principle, general waste should be disposed of by each local authority and within its boundary, industrial waste management is under the responsibility of enterprises that generate them. There were various cases in the transfer of industrial waste beyond administrative boundaries which led to their illegal disposal in mountainous areas. Insufficient and inappropriate monitoring and supervision by the government could not prevent illegal disposal of industrial waste. There have been many cases wherein poisonous illegal waste caused soil contamination, requiring huge amounts of money to restore the affected site to their original state. (3) Dioxin Problem In the late 1970s, dioxin generated in the course of waste incineration became a big social concern requiring countermeasures. Health hazards caused by dioxin were widely played up in the media, which led citizens to rise up against the operation of incinerators and oppose the construction of new ones. 2-9

31 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction 2.3 Historical Overview of Urban Issues and Urban Management Policies 1) Rapid Economic Growth and Massive Infrastructure Development As described earlier, rapid economic growth caused the fast and significant concentration of people in the urban areas. It was incumbent upon a city to supply housing and urban infrastructure for large volumes of migrants. In other words, the first priority was to provide huge amounts of infrastructure in a city. The Comprehensive National Development Plan formulated in 1962 embarked on a growth pole strategy and established new centers for industrial development, in addition to existing industrial areas and the Pacific Belt Zone. It aimed to connect existing and new industrial zones with transportation and communication networks and promote sophisticated industrial structures. During this stage, industrial infrastructure development was prioritized more than basic urban infrastructure. Particular focus was on road development. A variety of institutional framework was established to promote the development of such industrial infrastructure. (1) Development Framework by Sector (a) Housing Development: In order to promote housing supply for the growing urban population, two major institutional frameworks were established, namely the Act on Housing Loan Corporation in 1950 and the Public Housing Act in The former aimed to promote self-housing construction and provided long-term public loan to those who have certain funds for housing construction. It provided the basic concept for the following Japanese housing policy, i.e., housing infrastructure should be provided through the housing market, depending on people s affordability. The latter act, on the other hand, intended to provide low-cost public rental houses, which led to the social welfare housing policy mainly by providing houses for low-income households. (b) Regional Infrastructure Development: Various development frameworks to promote economic growth were institutionalized. This period in the beginning of the economic growth put more focus on industrial infrastructure, such as roads, ports, and power sources, rather than infrastructure for a better living environment. Road development was especially prioritized. The Act on Temporary Measures for Road Funding Sources in 1953 set aside revenues from fuel tax to finance road construction. This fund significantly contributed to road development in Japan including urban roads designated in the urban master plan. With these specific revenue sources, various institutions for road development were established, contributing to nationwide road network development. Urban development was also subsidized by this special account on the grounds that it could contribute to road development. For example, land readjustment projects were implemented in line with road development by public authorities rather than by community-based associations. 2-10

32 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction (c) Land Expropriation: The Act for the Acquisition of Public Land was formulated in order to expropriate land for public investment. It was also applied to urban development projects and land development for industrial zones. It established land development mechanisms, wherein public authorities are allowed to expropriate private land and reassign reclaimed land to individuals or private enterprises. (2) Urban Development Mechanisms In the 1960s, new development mechanisms were institutionalized in order to promote urban development both in a brown field or a green field, in addition to existing individual frameworks for basic infrastructure development. Development mechanisms applied for existing urban areas, or brown field urban development, include the following: (a) Act on Reorganization of Urban Areas (1961): It introduced urban redevelopment mechanisms such as vertical allocation of land and area-wide land expropriation, which was applied in the development of station squares and mixed-use buildings. (b) Act for Sectional Ownership of Building (1962): Medium-rise condominiums and office buildings with classification ownership were emerging particularly in metropolitan areas. This Act supported the development of such buildings, which led to a boom in condominium buildings. (c) Amendment of the Building Code (1961/1962): It eliminated height limits by designating areas as special districts and bulk districts, which allowed the construction of high-rise buildings. In 1968, the first high-rise building in Japan, Kasumigaseki Building, was constructed. A special district designation for Tokyo metropolitan area in 1965 enabled the construction of a high-rise building district in Shinjuku subcenter with 1000% of floor area ratio (FAR). It started the era of high rises and high-far buildings. Development mechanisms for new urban development include the Act on New Residential Area Development of It aimed to provide huge amounts of good residential areas in suburban areas, where population was overconcentrated in particular, which not only provided housing but also developed urban infrastructure based on the regional master plan. It was intended for large-scale urban area development. Public infrastructure included roads, parks, water supply and sewerage systems, public facilities (such as schools and hospitals), and common commercial spaces. It also intended to develop trunk roads and offices if necessary. In other words it aimed to develop a new town with multiple urban functions. Tama New Town and Senri New Town were developed in suburban areas under this Act. The private sector started to become active in suburban residential area development during this period. (d) Land Readjustment (1954): The Act for Land Readjustment project was established in 1954 in order to develop and improve public facilities, such as roads, parks, and rivers, and to expand residential areas. In land readjustment projects, land owners provide a certain amount of land, depending on the right of the land (genbu), which is allocated as public land, such as roads and parks, or sold to cover project cost. Land owners are reassigned to smaller land parcels within the same district (kanchi). The reassigned lands usually have higher values than the original ones, since urban road and parks are developed in well-organized districts. In this sense, the land readjustment scheme was very effective in the period of economic growth where land 2-11

33 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction prices kept growing. In Japan, about 4,800 projects with a total area of 2,722 km 2 were developed under land readjustment schemes. 2) Urban Environmental Improvement along with Rapid Economic Growth In the 1950s to 1960s, urban development proceeded mainly as a response to the huge urban migration, which caused various urban problems. Crowded urban blocks were widely formulated in urban areas. The urban environment deteriorated, resulting to such problems as water contamination. Sprawling accelerated. In order to respond to such urban social environmental disruption and to sustain urban economy toward continuous rapid economic growth, the City Planning Act was formulated in It intended to restructure the existing urban development system and define the basis for urban planning. With this Act, the basic framework of urban planning, planning, regulation, and project was established, although urban development was still country-centered and project-based. With its main objective of controlling sprawl brought about by rapid urbanization, it introduced growth management schemes such as designing urban divisions and development permit systems. Focusing on vertical and high-rise redevelopment of existing urban areas and new development of suburban areas, various tools to promote urban development were institutionalized, including land expropriation to prioritize public interest and to absorb development benefits based on the beneficiaries-pay principle. Later, in line with a heightened momentum for public participation, district planning was introduced in 1980, which enabled district-based regulation by city authorities. However, urban development in this period was still mostly promoted through urban infrastructure development and urban area development in response to urbanization pressures. (1) Urban Growth Management (a) Designation of City Planning Area beyond Administrative Boundaries (City Planning Act, 1968): The City Planning Act introduced the concept of the city planning area, which is where the City Planning Act is applied. The city planning area can go beyond administrative boundaries in order to develop transportation infrastructures and other public services more efficiently. In this period, the city planning area was designated by prefectural governors, not by city mayors. (b) Designation of Urban Divisions and Development Permit System (City Planning Act 1968): The city planning area is divided into the urbanization promotion area (UPA), which is urbanized or expected to be urbanized within 10 years, and the urbanization control area (UCA), where no development is permitted in principle. Urban planning tax on real estate is only levied within the urbanizing area. The development permission system was introduced in order to manage development activities in line with the planned urbanized area. It required the development of building lots above a certain size to be approved by the local government. In urbanization promotion areas, the development of more than 1,000 m 2 of land has to be approved. In principle, development activities were not permitted in the UCAs, although there are many exceptions. (c) Former Act on Large-scale Retail Stores (1973): The former Act on Large-scale Retail Stores was formulated in 1973 with major objectives of protecting the interests of consumers and securing commercial activities of small and medium enterprises 2-12

34 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction (SMEs). It required large-scale retail stores to coordinate with small and medium retail businesses, in terms of floor area, opening hours, and opening days. It usually obliged them to cut the floor area by a certain percentage. It could not, however, stop the booming of large-scale retail stores, which caused conflict with SMEs. In 1978, its regulation was further strengthened by expanding the target to include those with floor areas of more than 500 m 2. (2) Urban Development Schemes Under the City Planning Act of 1968, there were seven urban development schemes, in addition to development schemes for individual public facilities, such as roads and parks. The main urban development schemes included land readjustment, new residential area development, and urban redevelopment. (a) Land Readjustment: As described above, it was introduced in 1954 before the City Planning Act was established. The basic scheme of a land readjustment project was the replotting of lands, where the landowners were provided with equivalent land after the project. The project was to be implemented with the consent of landowners. Since it was applied both in built-up, suburban, and new urban development areas, as much as 3,500 km 2 of urban areas were developed through it. (b) Urban Redevelopment: Urban redevelopment was institutionalized in It aimed to improve the living environment in overcrowded urban areas, in terms of resistance to fire disasters, development of public spaces, and so on. With the rights conversion scheme, rights over land and buildings were to be applied to floors of newly constructed buildings in the project area. While the project basically required the consent of landowners, developers, either local government or public corporations, or cooperatives, through legal procedures transfer the rights of objectors unilaterally. Since its institutionalization, more than 800 Urban Redevelopment Projects have been implemented, which cover about 13 km 2. (c) New Urban Area Development: New urban area development project was institutionalized before the City Planning Act was established. Land expropriation scheme was applied in this project, where land was explored despite opposition from affected stakeholders. With new urban development project system, about 50 projects were implemented with a total area of 160 km 2, mainly in the 1960s and 1970s either by local governments or public corporations. (3) Improvement of Urban Living Environment (a) Subdivision of Land Use Zoning (City Planning Act 1968): Land use zoning prescribes a basis to regulate land use and building form. Land use zones were subdivided into 12 categories from the four in the previous system to ensure the orderly development and improvement of living environments. Land use zoning was designated in all the UPAs. A Building Code prescribed the detailed requirements that individual buildings had to conform to. Floor-area ratio was specified in all categories of land use zones to regulate buildings by volume and replace the conventional height limit 2. It ushered in the era of high-rise building development in Japan. (b) Shadow Prevention (1976 Amendment of the Building Code) : After the height limit was removed and the floor-area ratio regulation was introduced, many middle- to 2 Height limit remains in the exclusive residential area at 10 m. 2-13

35 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction high-rise buildings started to proliferate in urban areas. High rises usually obstructed sunshine and caused conflict between developers and original residents. Preventing building shadows was thus introduced in 1976 as an amendment to the Building Code. It regulated new buildings not to block sunshine in their contiguous areas. In other words, it required the limiting of the time when a building can block sunshine to specific periods (2 to 5 hours depending on the land use zone and distances from the building). (c) District Plan (1980): The city plan itself only provided a city-wide development framework for land use and public facilities, which is not sufficient to ensure good living environments in the local level. The district plan was introduced as a comprehensive plan for specific areas and to supplement the superior city plan. City authorities were allowed to designate land use zones, public facilities, buildings, etc. at 1:1,000 scale in the district plan. They were expected to control and induce development adequately and to formulate and preserve desirable living environments in the area. (4) Devolution of Authorization of the City Planning The City Planning Act 1968 transferred power from the central government to the local governments, including prefectural governors and city mayors. The former was supposed to decide what requires regional perspective beyond city boundaries, while the latter controls other policies. In the City Planning Act of 1968, city government had limited range of authority on urban planning. Most of the major urban planning issues, such as area division of UPA and UCA, regional infrastructure, and city development projects, were under prefectural governors authority. (5) Public Participation The City Planning Act of 1968 introduced public participation in urban planning. It required local governments to conduct public hearings during the stage of plan formulation, if necessary, and forced them to submit the draft plan, so that citizens could submit their opinions. It did not require them to respond to public opinion and could not ensure public participation in urban planning. However, it could break a path toward the following movement of public participation. The district plan, introduced in 1980, paved the way for public participation in urban planning. While regional perspective is emphasized in urban planning, local perspective is prioritized in the district plan. Since it is closely related with the interests of residents, it was obliged to consider residents opinions in the formulation of the district plan. Procedures for public participation in district planning were prescribed in detail. 3) Urban Development under Stable Growth Period, Toward Better Quality of Life In the 1980s, the bubble economy led to soaring prices of urban land. Along with increasing demand for office spaces, it led to the penetration of offices into residential areas. The City Planning Act was amended in 1992 in line with a drastic review of the land policy against the bubble phenomenon. The 1992 amendment to the City Planning Act aimed to improve the living environment in existing urban areas. While conventional urban planning was project-based and its objective was to control sprawl in the fringe areas, the living environment in existing urban areas was emphasized. More specifically, the amendment to the City Planning Act 2-14

36 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction included the further subdivision of the land use zones, inductive or staged designation of volumes depending on the capacity of infrastructure, and the enhancement of the district planning system. It also introduced urban master planning by a city authority and made compulsory public participation in the process of urban planning. On the other hand, the 1990s experienced increasing worldwide momentum for deregulation and promotion of private investment, which forced urban governance to follow. More specifically, it included special districts to induce high-rise apartment building in 1997, and the former Large-scale Retail Stores Act was deregulated in The latter amendment led to the boom of large suburban shopping centers. Combined with motorization, the decrease in public transportation services caused the deterioration of urban centers in medium-sized cities. (1) Improvement of Living Environment and Promotion of Efficient Land Use in Existing Urban Areas (1992 Amendment of the City Planning Act) (a) Further Subdivision of Land Use Zones: The conventional eight types of land use zones were broken down to 12. Specifically, land use zones for residential areas were divided into seven categories, which was originally three. It was expected to designate land use zones to be tailored to fit local conditions, which thus enabled the formulation and preservation of the living environments in residential areas in ways that were more careful and sensitive. (b) Inductive Designation of Volume: In order to induce the effective use of urban land combined with public infrastructure, two different floor-area ratios were designated in the district plans, i.e., one targeting the floor-area ratio and the other the current capacity of public facilities. While the interim floor-area ratio was applied on current situations to secure the living environment in the district, the target ratio was applied after the required public infrastructure was designated in the district plan. It also reassigned the total volume of the district into subdivided districts for a better living environment in a district. (c) Taxation on Farmlands as Urban Land Use and Productive Greenery District (1992 Amendment of the City Planning Act): In order to promote conversion of farmland within the UPAs into urban land, property taxes on agricultural land in the UPA were increased to the same level as those for urban land. On the other hand, some farmlands were preserved as open spaces in the UPA. They can be designated as productive greenery district, where reduced property taxes were applied. (2) Deregulation to Promote Private Financing in Urban Development (a) District Plan with Deregulation: The district plan was diversified in order to promote the redevelopment of existing urban areas mainly through deregulation of building standards. It provided incentives to private developers on certain conditions, such as the provision of public facilities and open spaces. The district plan for redevelopment was introduced in 1988 in order to promote the smooth conversion of land use in large-scale vacant lots of factories or warehouses into the urban land use. It deregulated the building code in the area on the condition that basic infrastructure shall be provided by the developer. The district plan for high-rise residential development provided additional floor-area ratio based on the condition that the building provided certain amounts of residential lots as well as 2-15

37 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction commercial facilities. The district plan for high-rise residential area was introduced in It deregulated floor-area ratios and eliminated the shadow prevention regulation based on the condition that buildings would be used as residences. It was applied in mixed-use land use zones with limited floor-area ratio of 400%. It aimed to promote residences in the urban center. (b) Deregulation on Large-scale Retail Stores: In line with the deregulation mentioned above and in response to overseas pressure on opening of retail markets, the regulation on large-scale retail stores was gradually eased. For example, all of the retail stores with floor areas of less than 1,000 m 2 were not required to get consensus from local stakeholders. It resulted in the boom of large-scale retail stores in the suburban areas, which had a negative impact on city development and caused the hollowing out of urban centers and the deterioration of the surrounding living environment. (3) Master Plan by City Authority After the amendment of the City Planning Act, all city authorities were required to formulate their own municipal master plans, which should comply with basic prefectural visions (policies on improvement, development, and conservation) and master plans. The municipal master plan is composed of the overall and district framework, based on which the district plan should be formulated. Public participation was also inevitable in urban planning. At this stage, there were still two layers of urban planning, namely prefectural visioning and municipal master planning. Nevertheless, it strengthened cities initiatives on urban planning and also promoted public participation. 4) Sustainable Urban Development Strategy under an Economic Recession Since the late 1990s, Japan experienced economic stagnation and entered a depopulation stage by The phenomenon of an aging society with fewer children accelerated. The hollowing out of urban centers became a serious issue particularly in medium-sized cities. This ushered in calls for an urban renaissance. In line with decentralization trends (i.e., the Act on Decentralization in 1999) more authority over urban planning was devolved to city authorities in the 2000 amendment of the City Planning Act. City authorities were becoming more important in urban development. A set of three laws on machidukuri (urban development) was passed from 2000 to 2002, including amendments to the City Planning Act, Act for Large-scale Retail Stores Location, and Act on Improvement and Vitalization of City Centers, which acted as frameworks to promote the revitalization of urban centers. In 2002, the Special District for Urban Renaissance was established as an initiative of the Cabinet Office to promote urban renaissance projects by easing regulations. In 2006, after reviewing the above three laws, various projects were implemented toward urban renaissance and better urban living environments. These projects were conducted and driven by city authorities. A city-centered approach in the formulation of plans enabled the incorporation of urban environment comprehensively in planning, which in the conventional approach was considered separately. In response to increasing concerns about the global environment and international commitment to reduce GHG, sustainable urban development and an integrated approach to urban and environmental policies became predominant. 2-16

38 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Compact city development was one such integrated approach for sustainable development, which aimed at promoting compact urban structures oriented toward public transportation. It was also closely related with urban renaissance. In 2004, the Act on Landscape was formulated together with the amendment to the Act on Outdoor Advertising and the Act on Urban Greenery. In 2010, the Low-carbon City Guidance was formulated by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). This set of three laws on landscaping became the starting point of the institutional mechanisms to develop and preserve landscape and urban greenery, which are important for the urban living environment. (1) Urban Renaissance In order to promote urban renaissance and revitalize downtown areas, three institutions were established between 2000 and 2002, namely the revised City Planning Act, Act on Large-Scale Retail Stores Location (regulations on large-scale, visitor-attracting facilities such as shopping centers and theaters), and Act on Vitalization of City Centers. These three were intermixed to provide a comprehensive framework for urban renaissance through the initiative of city governments and in coordination with relevant stakeholders, such as commercial sector and residents. They were integrally amended in (a) Restrictions on Large-scale, Visitor-attracting Facilities (i) Act on Large-scale Retail Stores Location: Large-scale, visitor-attracting facilities such as shopping centers and theaters with floor areas of more than 10,000 m 2 were strictly regulated. It required the preservation of living environments in the surrounding areas in terms of traffic congestion, safety, noise, solid waste management and treatment, etc. (ii) Revised City Planning Act: This prohibits the building of large-scale, visitorattracting facilities with more than 10,000 m 2 except for commercial zones and quasi-industrial zones in UPAs. It also prohibited the building of such facilities in UCAs and outside city planning areas, even though it was previously allowed if they were well planned. Instead, city governments can designate special land use zones to build large-scale, visitor-attracting facilities. (b) Urban Renaissance (i) Act on the Vitalization of City Centers: This aimed to accumulate urban functions within city centers and to revitalize urban economic activities and improve living environments through close coordination with relevant stakeholders. City authorities are required to take the initiative in formulating plans to vitalize city centers, which should be approved by central government ministries headed by the Cabinet Office. On the other hand, the central government should provide necessary assistance, such as in the preservation of historical cityscapes, promotion of residential development in urban centers, and infrastructure development in city centers. (ii) Act on Special Measures for Urban Renaissance: This was established with the initiative of the Prime Minister s Office in The priority areas for urban renaissance were designated by the Prime Minister s Office and each area has a special district for urban renaissance. In this special district for urban renaissance, a special city plan designates the land use, floor-area ratios, height limits, and so 2-17

39 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction on. Ordinary building standards, such as floor-area ratios, were not applied in these districts. It required the city authority to incorporate the needs of the private sector and to develop infrastructure in the special districts in order to promote private sector participation in urban development. As of 2010, 50 special districts for urban renaissance were named. (2) Low-carbon City Development The concept of low-carbon city development was established in response to the increasing concern on global warming, over which the city was required to take action. In 2010, the MLIT established the Guidance for Low-carbon City Development. It provides the basic concept and action plans together with evaluation methodologies on low-carbon policies. It covers transportation/urban structure, energy, and greenery. In the transportation/urban sector, a public-transportation-oriented compact city development was emphasized. It is closely related with the above-mentioned urban renaissance strategy. Actions on the energy sector included the utilization of unused energy, promotion of energy-efficient buildings, and area-wide energy management systems. The greenery sector includes the formulation of a greenery master plan, development and preservation of greenery in the city, and preparation of countermeasures for the heat island phenomenon. (3) Social and Cultural Environment in the City While only natural environments and pollution management have been the focus of environmental policies, the recent sustainable urban development concept will cover the comprehensive living environment, including social and cultural environment, as well as the natural environment. In 2004, the Act on Landscape was established which was corroborated by amendments to the Act on Urban Greenery and Act on Outdoor Advertising. With this Act, landscape became regarded as an important urban environment resource, which should be developed or preserved in close coordination with residents. It allowed city governments to formulate landscape plans, either for inside or outside the city planning area and to designate detailed regulations by area. Landscape protocols could be set as an overall rule among citizens, if they agreed. The city government could also regulate the design and structure (height, etc.) of individual buildings in the designated landscape district. (4) Cities Initiatives and Public Participation After the Act on Decentralization was issued in 1999, administrative functions imposed upon local governments by the central government were abolished and city governments were given more authority. They were also applied to urban planning, where roles and sharing have been changed. In other words, cities were allowed to take the initiative in city development including the formulation of city development master plans, while prefectural governments provided the regional perspective, including the formulation of master plans for city planning areas, designation of area divisions, and approval of regional infrastructure beyond a city s administrative boundaries. The percentage of approval of city plans made by city governments increased to 80% in 2005 from 60% in 2004, while those by prefectural governments decreased to 20% from 40% in the same period. 2-18

40 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction As more power was decentralized to city governments, the public became even more involved in urban planning processes. Public participation in the formulation of city development master plans included public hearings, public reviews of city plans for two weeks to get people s opinions, and consultations with the City Planning Council, which is a committee independent from the administrative body. In addition to the formulation of plans, project implementation and city management also required public participation. A series of urban renaissance projects conducted with local initiatives included the government, the commercial sector, and citizens. Councils for the vitalization of city centers were established to coordinate stakeholders and to promote urban renaissance projects, which involved landowners, enterprises, communities, NPOs, the private sector, and urban transportation operators. 2-19

41 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction 2.4 Historical Overview of Environmental Initiatives This section describes the historical trend of environmental policies in Japan. Since environmental policies focused on pollution management, there was little coordination among environmental policies, urban policies, and development. In the late 1990s and 2000s, as environmental problems became multifaceted, an integrated approach was required to coordinate with more stakeholders and cover different sectors. A city authority became more important in taking initiatives rather than vertically structured approaches of central government ministries. In this context, comprehensive and sustainable urban development approaches well coordinated with environmental policies was the focus. 1) Actions against Pollution: 1950s 1960s (1) Serious Pollution due to Industrialization Industrialization and urbanization from the 1950s caused serious pollution particularly due to emissions from factories. Some local authorities took action by establishing their own ordinances on pollution control, ahead of the central government. The Ordinance on Factory Pollution Control was formulated by the Tokyo metropolitan area in 1949, followed by Osaka prefecture in 1950, and Kanagawa prefecture in Later, in line with mounting public calls for pollution controls, the national government started to take action in the late 1950s. In 1958, two laws on water quality, namely the Act on Conservation of Water Environment and the Industrial Effluent Water Act were established as legal regulations against water contamination. As for air pollution control, the Act on the Regulation of Smoke Emission was formulated in The Basic Act for Environmental Pollution Control was formulated in 1967, which clearly defined the responsibilities of polluters, the central government, and local authorities on air pollution, water contamination, and waste management. Environmental initiatives in the 1950s and 1960s focused on recovering health conditions adversely affected by pollution rather than improving the people s quality of life, which was mainly done through voluntary actions and regulatory frameworks. Waste management became a serious concern in the rise of urbanization and industrialization. Along with the sophistication in the people s lifestyles and the advent of mass consumption, total waste volumes rapidly increased. The Act on Standard to Prevent Pollution on Living Environment in 1963 introduced basic solid waste management policies on the incineration of solid waste and their disposal in landfills. It aimed to improve hygiene issues through incineration and to reduce disposed waste. However, the total volume of disposed waste continued to increase at an annual average growth rate of 6% in the late 1960s, due to further increases in generated solid waste. The increase in industrial waste became a serious issue. The volume of industrial waste was 24 times larger than that of domestic waste, which could not be treated through the existing framework for waste management. This caused environmental pollution due to hazardous waste and illegal disposal of industrial waste. (2) Pollution Diet In 1970, the so-called Pollution Diet was held, where a series of pollution-related legal systems were reviewed and a total of 14 pollution-related draft laws were approved 3. An 3 The 14 laws approved in this Parliament against Pollution are: 1) amendment to the Basic Act for Environmental Pollution Control, 2) amendment to the Road Traffic Act, 3) amendment to the Noise Regulation Act, 4) Wastes Management Act, 5) amendment to the Sewerage Service Act, 6) Environmental Pollution 2-20

42 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction environment agency was established in 1971 which managed environmental standards and emission control of pollutants at factories, a task had been originally assigned to various ministries and agencies. On the other hand, all other environmental projects except for pollution control, such as pollution prevention project or environmental improvement projects, remained in the care of other ministries. The environment agency s founding made much progress on industrial pollution control such as air pollution due to SO 2. On the other hand, it was difficult to formulate comprehensive environmental policies due to the remaining vertically segmented administrative system. 2) Measures against Urban-oriented Pollution and on Energy Efficiency: 1970s Early 1980s (1) Serious Urban-oriented Pollution along with Urbanization and Motorization In the 1970s, as urbanization and motorization further progressed, urban-oriented pollution from household wastes and vehicle emissions became serious concerns. This after industry-oriented pollution due to factory emissions gradually improved. The impact of urban-oriented pollution covered a wider area and took longer periods than industrialoriented one, thereby requiring new institutional arrangements, such as vehicle emission control, as well as a review and expansion of the mandates of existing pollution controlrelated institutions. Such urban-oriented pollution required more comprehensive environmental approaches. However, environmental initiatives were still limited to the strengthening of individual regulations. In 1984, environmental impact assessment failed to be institutionalized due to opposition from industry groups. (2) Scaling Up of Actions toward Energy Efficiency Two oil shocks in the 1970s strengthened the awareness of resource scarcity at the level of the individual, enterprises, and country. The concept of energy efficiency appeared and became widely used. The Act for the Promotion of Rational Uses of Energy and Recycled Resources in Business Activities, or the so-called Energy Saving Act, was formulated in It provided the basic concept for policies on energy efficiency in Japan, comprising with the regulation on energy-efficient performances and the promotion of energy-efficient actions. It made it obligatory for the affected factories to assign supervisors to manage energy and record energy use in order to promote the efficient use of energy and electricity in the industrial sector. (3) Increase in Solid Waste and its Diversification In the 1970s, plastic waste started to increase at annual growth rates of about 25%. Changes in waste composition became an emerging issue. Since the calorific value of plastic waste is 10 times higher than that of normal waste, plastics could not be treated in the conventional manner through incinerator plants. The percentage of plastic waste reached 10% in some municipalities, which was the limit of the capacity of incinerator plants at that time. Control Expense Sharing Act, 7) Act for the Prevention of Marine Pollution and Maritime Disasters, 8) Environmental Pollution Offense Act, 9) amendment to the Agricultural Chemicals Regulation Act, 10) Agricultural Land Soil Pollution Prevention Act, 11) amendment to the Act on Water Quality Pollution Control, 12) amendment to the Air Pollution Control Act, 13) amendment to the Natural Parks Act, and 14) amendment to the Poisonous and Deleterious Substances Control Act. 2-21

43 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction In response, the Waste Management Act of 1970 set basic policies on the management of general waste, including sorted collection of combustible and noncombustible waste. The Act also distinguished industrial from general waste and established its disposal framework: the polluters-pay principle requires enterprises to dispose of their own industrial wastes, while general waste was under the jurisdiction of local authorities as practiced before. Illegal waste disposal and inappropriate treatment of industrial waste became a social issue due to the lack of supervision from administrative bodies. 3) Measures against Global Warming and on Recycling Society: Late 1980s 1990s (1) Countermeasures on Global Environmental Issues In the late 1980s, international interest on global environmental issues started to grow. In 1985, the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer was adopted. In 1987, sustainable development was used in the WECD (World Commission on Environment and Development) report. In order to tackle global environmental issues and draft more comprehensive environmental policies, the Basic Environmental Act was passed in 1993, which took over the existing Basic Act for Environmental Pollution Control of Its basic concept was to formulate a sustainable society and promote global environmental protection through international collaboration. It was followed by basic environmental standard setting and the formulation of the Basic Environmental Plan. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the third Conference of the Parties (COP3). It pushed the government to actively promote actions against global warming and toward a recycling society. In 1997, the Act on the Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures was legislated, which specified the roles and responsibilities of the central government, local governments, and the private sector in countermeasures on global warming. (2) Strengthening of Energy-efficiency Strategy and Top Runner Approach The discussions on global warming also increased to strengthen measures on energy efficiency. The Energy Saving Act was amended in 1993 and 1998 to strengthen regulations on energy use of enterprises. Enterprises which were obliged to formulate basic strategies on energy use and to submit periodic reports expanded both in terms of scale and sector. The business sector was also covered as well as industries. The toprunner approach was introduced in its amendment in 1998, which formed the foundation to promote private sector actions toward higher energy efficiency (see Box 2.4.1). (3) Actions toward a Recycling Society After Japan entered a bubble economy, the total volume of waste increased again. The diversification of lifestyles increased the share of plastic containers, packaging, and PET bottles in the generated solid waste. Construction waste also increased from construction work in urban areas. The increasing waste volume tightened the shortage in final disposal sites, which led to the recognition of the need to promote a recycling society. In 1991, the Act for the Promotion of Utilization of Recycled Resources was formulated, followed by some laws to promote recycling. These included the Act on the Promotion of Sorted Garbage Collection and Recycling of Containers and Packaging formulated in 1995 and the Act for Recycling of Specific Kinds of Home Appliances in

44 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Box Top Runner Approach Top Runner Approach was introduced in 1998 in the context of increasing global needs to promote energy efficiency against global warming. It is legally prescribed in the Act on Energy Saving, Section 6: Measures related to Machinery and Equipment. It sets energy efficiency targets for electric appliances and fuel consumption of vehicles based on the value of the most energy-efficient products on the market at the time. It requires other products and requires manufacturers to achieve the set target within a specific period. Manufacturers that cannot achieve the set target are subject to admonition, disclosure, instructions, and fines of up to one million yen. As of July 2010, 23 items are designated under the Top Runner Approach (see Table A). The target standard for each item is composed of the coverage of target, criteria of energy efficiency, contents to be indicated, and measurement of energy efficiency. The criteria include target year, target standard, and judgment per category. Table A Items under the Top Runner Approach Item 1. passenger vehicles 2. freight vehicles 3. air conditioner 4. electric refrigerators 5. electric freezers 6. electric rice cookers 7. microwave ovens 8. fluorescent lights 9. electric toilet seats 10. TV sets 11. Video cassette recorders 12. DVD recorders 13. Computers 14. Magnetic disk units 15. Copying machines 16. Space heaters 17. Gas cooking appliances 18. Gas water heaters 19. Oil water heaters 20. Vending machines 21. Transformers 22. Routers 23. Switching equipments Source: Standard of Top Runner Approach. Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, METI This Top Runner Approach has successfully encouraged the private sector to promote energy efficiency and achieve technical innovations in a variety of areas. Since it improves the energy efficiency of electronic goods, it automatically improves energy saving once consumers renew their equipment, without any effort on the users. However, the price of the goods increase as well since manufacturers need to spend much on research and development for new technologies. It is necessary to disseminate information on energy efficiency to consumers and enhance their awareness of the environment in order to market high-priced goods widely. As seen in Table B, the Top Runner Approach has led to improved energy efficiency than originally expected. Table B Improvement of Energy Efficiency of Items under the Top Runner Approach Item Improvement in Energy Consumption (%) Original Target (%) TV Sets 25.7 (from 1997 to 2003) 16.4 Video cassette recorders 73.6 (from 1997 to2003) 58.7 Air conditioners 67.8 (from 1997 to 2004) 66.1 Electric refrigerators 55.2 (from 1998 to 2004) 30.5 Electric freezers 29.6 (from 1998 to 2004) 22.9 Passenger vehicles (gasoline) 22.8 (from 1995 to 2005) 22.8 Freight vehicles (diesel) 21.7 (from 1995 to 2005) 6.5 Vending machines 37.3 (from 2000 to 2005) 33.9 Lighting 35.7 (from 1997 to 2005) 16.6 Copying machine 72.5 (from 1997 to 2006) 30.8 Electric computer 80.8 (from 2001 to 2007) 69.2 Magnetic disc 85.7 (from 2001 to 2007) 71.4 Electric toilet 14.6 (from 2000 to 2006) 10.0 Source: Standard of Top Runner Approach. Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, METI

45 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Emerging issues on waste management included countermeasures on dioxin, regional transfer of industrial wastes, and illegal disposal and treatment of industrial waste. The existing framework for waste management could not work properly to solve the above issues, where there was no economic incentive for waste generators to properly manage their waste. A fundamental change in industrial waste management was necessary, which strengthened the polluters-pay principle and required waste generators to take responsibility for waste management. In 1993, the manifest system was introduced in order to clarify the responsibilities of waste generators and prevent illegal disposal. Ithich obliged waste generators to put a manifest on all industrial wastes. The manifest includes types and volumes of waste, name of disposal generator, collecting and delivery traders, disposal contractor, and others. It allowed the monitoring and management of the movement of industrial wastes properly and the identification of the responsible waste generators. Institutional frameworks to promote the restoration of the polluted environment were also developed. It included the promotion of an administrative subrogation and to ensure financing that would allow the restoration to their original state. 4) Comprehensive Environmental Strategy: in the 2000s In the 2000s, international concern on global environment further increased. In 2005, The Kyoto Protocol came into effect. In this context, it was expected to take further action on global environmental issues. The Energy Saving Act was amended in 2005 and 2008 to strengthen energy efficiency strategies. Regulation by enterprises, which was originally done by factories or buildings, was introduced in Increasing awareness of resource saving and necessity to reduce waste volume due to the shortage of final disposal sites have kicked into gear toward a recycling society was defined as the First Year of the Recycling Society when the Basic Act on Establishing a Sound Material-Cycle Society was formulated, comprehensive frameworks were established to promote 3Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle). It covered production, consumption, recycling, and disposal from upstream to downstream. Upstream policies include the Basic Act on Establishing a Sound Material-Cycle Society and Act for Promotion of Effective Utilization of Resources. Institutions for the collection and recycling stages include the Act for Food Waste Recycling and Act for Recycling of Specified Kinds of Home Appliances, Act on Automobile Recycling, and Act on the Promotion of Sorted Garbage Collection and Recycling of Containers and Packaging. The Wastes Management Act was also amended as a basic policy at the disposal stage. From the late 1990s to 2000s, environmental problems diversified, as seen in global warming issues and the 3R promotion. Comprehensive approaches were inevitable to involve various stakeholders and cover different sectors, while pollution control focused on specific sectors. In this context, a city authority became more important in initiating comprehensive approaches rather than central government ministries which tended to focus on sectors under their jurisdictions. It also resulted in sustainable and comprehensive urban development approaches which harmonize with urban planning and environmental policies. Various city-based environmental programs were conducted including Eco-model projects initiated by the Cabinet office in 2008 and Environmental Action Model Projects conducted by the MLIT and MOE, Eco-town Programs by METI, the details of which are described in the next chapter. 2-24

46 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Table Historical Changes in Japan s Environmental Policies Year Socio-economic Condition/Urban Environmental Issue Urban Policy 1950 Industrialization ŁSerious pollution due to factory emissions [Massive infrastructure development] Project-oriented urban policy Urban development schemes ŁNew town development 1960 Urbanization and overconcentration in metropolises ŁExpansion of urban areas, mixed land use 1970 Motorization, urbanization and suburbanization ŁUrban-oriented pollution (vehicle emissions, human sewage) Łincrease waste New-type of urban facilities (high-rise buildings, largeshopping centers) Łdecrease in public transportation use Łemerging issues on urban environment (e.g.,obstruction of sunshine by high rises) Oil shock (1973, 1979) ŁIncreased awareness of need for energy efficiency [Urban environmental improvement along with rapid economic growth] 1968: City Planning Act (area division, development permit, devolution of urban planning) Urban development schemes - Land readjustment - Urban redevelopment - New urban area development 1973: Large-scale Retail Stores Act (control on largescale stores) 1976: Amendment to the Building Code ŁShadow prevention Overall Environmental Policy [Pollution management (mainly against factory emissions) ] Foregoing actions by local government 1960s: Takeoff of pollution control by central government 1970: Pollution Diet 1971: Environment Agency 1973: Pollution-related Health Damage Compensation Act [Countermeasures on urban-oriented pollution and promotion of energy efficiency] - Prevention of pollution - Natural environment protection Environmental Initiatives by Sector Pollution Management (Air, Water, Soil) [Water] 1958: Two laws on water quality (Act on Conservation of Water Environment and Industrial Effluent Water Act) [Air] 1962: Act on Regulation of Smoke Emission 1967: Basic Act for Environmental Pollution Control (air, water, waste, etc.) [Air] 1968: Air Pollution Control Act [Air] Strengthening air pollution control Expansion of coverage (1970: amendment to the Air Pollution Control Act) Total volume control (1974: amendment to the Air Pollution Control Act) Vehicle emission control (1978: Japan Muskie Act) [Water] Drastic restructure 1970 Act on Water Quality Pollution Control/ Sewerage Service Act 1978 Total volume control (amendment to the Act on Water Quality Pollution Control) Waste Management/ Recycling Focus on public health 1954: Waste Disposal Act Waste management and pollution control 1970: Wastes Management Act (polluters pay principle) 1970: Act for the Prevention of Marine Pollution and Maritime Disasters Energy Efficiency Promotion of energyefficiency performance 1979: Act on Energy Saving Ecology 1957: Natural Park Act Preservation of natural environment and cultural heritage 1972: Nature Conservation Act 1973: Former Act on Urban Greenery 1974: Act concerning Agricultural Land Reserved in Urban Area 2-25

47 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Year Socio-economic Condition/Urban Environmental Issue 1980 Bubble economy ŁIncrease in land prices ŁSuburbanization Diversification of lifestyle ŁIncrease in plastic wastes Urban Policy Living environment improvement 1980 District Plan [Urban development in the stable growth period, toward better quality of life] Overall Environmental Policy 1984: Environment Impact Assessment Cabinet Approval (failure of registration) [Countermeasure against global warming and recycling society] Emerging global environmental issues 1985: Vienna Convention 1987: WCED Report (toward sustainable development ) Environmental Initiatives by Sector Pollution Management (Air, Water, Soil) [Water] Water environment improvement in closed water area 1984: Act on the Preservation of Lake Water Quality Waste Management/ Recycling Energy Efficiency Ecology 1987: Domestic Act for Washington Convention 1990 Post-bubble economic stagnation Overconcentration in Tokyo metropolitan area Łdecrease in public transportation use and hollowing out of urban centers Diversification of lifestyle Increased waste such as plastic containers, paper packages Momentum of decentralization Act on Decentralization (1999) 1992 Amendment to the City Planning Act - subdivision of land use -taxation on urban agricultural land -devolution of urban planning authorities Momentum of deregulation -deregulation due to Largescale Retail Stores Act -deregulation on FAR Increasing communitybased town planning Sustainable urban development strategy under economic recession period Urban Renaissance : 3 laws of Machidukuri 1993: Basic Environmental Act 1994: first Basic Environmental Plan 1997: COP3 Kyoto Protocol 1997: Environmental Impact Assessment 1998: Act on Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures [Water] Institutionalize Countermeasures on domestic sewage 1990: amendment to the Act on Water Quality Pollution Control [Air] Strengthening vehicle emission control 1992: Automobile NOx PM Control Act Toward a recycling society 1991: Act on the Promotion of Utilization of Recycled Resources 1995: Act on the Sorted Garbage Collection and Recycling of Containers and Packaging 1998: Act on Recycling of Specific Kinds of Home Appliances Strengthened countermeasures against global warming 1997: Act on Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures 1998: amendment to the Energy Saving Act (expansion to cover business sector as well as industry, Top-runner approach) 1992: Act on Preservation of Threatened Wildlife 2-26

48 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development Including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Year Socio-economic Condition/Urban Environmental Issue 2000 Depopulation stage Aging society with fewer children Economic stagnation Ł hollowing out of urban centers Urban Policy 2002: Act on Special Measures for Urban Renaissance 2006: Amendment to the three laws on machidukuri Low-carbon city and compact city strategy 2010: Low-carbon city guidance Note: Compiled from various sources and documents. Overall Environmental Policy [Comprehensive environmental policy] 2005: Kyoto Protocol came into effect 2005: Third Basic Environmental Plan 2008: Eco-model City projects 2010: Pilot project for newgeneration energy system Strengthening of preservation and restoration of natural environment Environmental Initiatives by Sector Pollution Management (Air, Water, Soil) Serious soil contamination 2002: Act on Soil Contamination Comprehensive water environmental strategies Environmental standard to preserve aquatic organism Waste Management/ Recycling Promotion of 3Rs (production-consumptionrecycling) 2000: Basic Act on Establishing a Sound Material-Cycle Society, Act for Promotion of Effective Utilization of Resources, Wastes Management Act, Recycling Act for Food, Construction Waste, and Act for Food Waste Recycling, Act on Promoting Green Purchasing 2002: Act on Automobile Recycling Energy Efficiency 2005: amendment to the Act on Energy Saving (integrated management of heat and electricity) 2008: amendment to the Act on Energy Saving (regulation by enterprise) Ecology Environmental protection (2004 three laws for landscape) Strengthening of preservation of natural environment 2005: Act for Promotion of Natural Restoration 2008: Basic Act for Life s Diversity 2-27

49 3 OVERVIEW OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND INITIATIVES OF EACH STAKEHOLDER 3.1 Response of the National Government 1) Historical Background of National Government Actions At the beginning of the rapid urbanization accompanied with economic growth from the late 1950s, the biggest issue is to supply huge amount of houses for increased urban population and develop infrastructure to support economic growth. In order to meet such rapidly increasing demand, the national government took initiatives to promote urban planning and infrastructure development. Development framework of national government was actually vertically divided into central administrative system. It led to the sectionalism of infrastructure development in a city, such as road, water supply and sewerage, housing, river, railway and so on, which became an obstacle in formulating a comprehensive urban plan. Since the uniform standard was applied in the central-led development framework, local conditions were not well considered in urban planning and there were few mechanisms to incorporate people s opinion into it. Afterward, along with decentralization, authorization related to urban planning was devolved from the central government to prefectural governments and to city authorities. Mechanisms of public participation were also established. In other words, urban planning made the gradual transition from country-led and project-based urban planning to citybased and urban-environment-prioritized one, where the urban environment can be considered comprehensively. As for pollution management, the central government was slow to take action, while local government was ahead in responding to the citizens movement against serious environmental pollution. The first action taken by the central government was the proposal on Law on Standard to Prevent Pollution on Living Environment in 1955, which, however, could not be realized or even submitted to the Diet due to strong opposition from industrial groups and relevant ministries. Afterward, as pollution problems became more serious, the national government started to take action such as the formulation of the Law on Regulation of Smoke Emission in 1962, the conduct of a survey on pollution impact, and countermeasures on pollution sources such as air pollution in the city of Yokkaichi. There was increasing request to set basic principles to move forward, such as the clarification of responsibilities of the central and local governments and polluters, as well as a definition of pollution. In 1967, the Basic Law for Environmental Pollution Control was formulated, which required setting desirable environmental conditions with target standards and implementing measures for it such as regulations setting. In the so-called Diet on Pollution in 1970, several laws and institutions for pollution management were approved. In this sense, while the national government followed the actions of some advanced local governments, the central government succeeded in formulating a nationwide framework for pollution management. In other words, the national government prescribed nationwide uniform standards and promoted enterprises to observe them, which contributed in improving the environmental conditions. 3-1

50 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction 2) Overall Framework of Policies and Initiatives of the National Government Urban environment covers every sector and industry in a cross-sectoral manner, wherein various ministries are involved, as shown in Table Overall urban planning and management are under the jurisdiction of the MLIT. Environmental actions used to be carried out separately according to resource, such as air and water, until the Basic Environmental Law was established in With this law, the Ministry of Environment (MOE) has taken the lead in overall environmental policy setting including the formulation of the Basic Environmental Plan and has coordinated with relevant agencies. For example in waste management and recycling sector, with the Basic Act on Establishing a Sound Material-Cycle Society as core, the MOE takes the initiatives and coordinates in formulating actions on each stage including production, consumption, collecting and recycling, and waste treatment. METI is in charge of the development of a recycling industry, promotion of the efficient use of resources and energy in the manufacturing sector, and support for intercorporate and area-wide recycling system within industrial parks. The MLIT is in charge of promoting recycling in the construction sector, and MOFA in the food sector. As for pollution management, the MOE sets environmental standards, manages pollution control, and monitors the environment in an integrated manner, while other ministries are in charge of managing related sectors. Recently, as described in the Basic Environmental Plan, there are increasing concerns on a comprehensive and area-wide approach on the environment to create a positive growth cycle with the economy and to balance with society, rather than conventional individual environmental actions. In this sense, cross-sectoral, cross-ministerial, and city-based approaches are becoming more important. As for countermeasures on global warming, the central government or Cabinet Office has taken initiatives based on the Kyoto Protocol Target Achievement Plan to achieve international commitments, while the MOE has a central role based on the Basic Environmental Law as described in the Basic Environmental Plan. There are several environmental initiatives on global warming by the central government, since global warming relates to various sectors and requires coordination among ministries compared to other environment issues. It also shows a growing domestic and international interest on global warming. Most of the initiatives of the central government come from international commitments or policy speeches by the Prime Minister, which promoted cross-ministerial actions and local government-based approaches. It also includes environmental campaigns such as Cool Biz, which has strongly contributed to increasing people s awareness of the environment. 3-2

51 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Table Mapping of National Government Policies and Strategies on Urban Environment Overall Pollution Control Environmental Policy Air Water Waste Management and Recycling Energy Efficiency/ GHG Central Government 1) Kyoto Protocol Target Achievement Plan Challenge 25 Campaign Eco-Model City Project Ministry of Environment Basic Pollution control Environmental Plan Management of pollutants Environment Decontamination Impact Environmental monitoring Assessment Ministry of Economics, Industry, and Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism Support for environmental technologies (toprunner approach, eco point) Promotion of ecobusiness Smart city Compact city Public transportation oriented development Eco-driving Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare Ministry of Agriculture, Urban-rural Forestry and Fisheries coordination 1) Including cabinet and cabinet secretariat Petrol control Low-emission vehicle Waste management Promotion of recycling society (3R) Countermeasures on global warming Promotion of water business Promotion of Renewable energy recycling society (basic energy policy) (3R) Energy efficiency Eco-town program strategy (Energy Development of Saving Act) recycling industry Energy management (ESCO, smart grid) Emission control for River basin management road transportation Water quality improvement Promotion of lowemission vehicle Recycling of wastewater and Sewerage development Environmental rainwater improvement along road/railway Water supply Water resources Recycling of construction waste Food recycling 3R in food industry Low-carbon city Efficient logistics Heat-island prevention Energy saving house and building Eco-biomass strategy The roles and functions of government ministries are briefly summarized below. (1) Ministry of Environment The Ministry of Environment (MOE) was formed in 2001, when the Environment Agency was reorganized. The MOE is the lead agency to formulate overall environmental policy including the Basic Environmental Law. It is in charge of the overall waste management, pollution control, natural environmental protection, and protection of wild habitats. It cooperates with other ministries on countermeasures on global warming and on ozone layer protection; formulation of a recycling society; environmental risks of chemical substances; preservation of forests, greenery, rivers, and lakes; and environmental impact assessment. (a) Basic Environmental Law and Basic Environmental Plan The Basic Environmental Plan is the fundamental plan on environmental protection formulated based on the Basic Environmental Law. The first Basic Environmental Plan in 1994 set the concept of environmental policy with recycling, coexistence, participation and international action. The second plan in 2000 showed the basic direction of environmental policy with polluter pays principle, environmental efficiency, preliminary strategy, and environmental risk. The third Basic Environmental Plan was formulated in 2006, which put the priority of environmental strategy on the integrated improvement of environment, economy, and society toward affluence built with environment. It showed the transition from Ecology Preservation of natural environment and eco-diversity Protection of wildlife Urban greenery dev. Bio-diversity in a city Symbiosis with nature along river Coastal environment Forest preservation Utilization of agri land 3-3

52 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction conventional individual approaches for each environmental sector to comprehensive, area-wide, and city-based approaches focusing on a good cycle with economy and balance with society. It applied the polluter pays principle, extended producer responsibility, and life cycle assessment to develop environmental business mechanism, which are consistent with the concept and basic approaches of the Eco 2 initiative. (b) Act on Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures In response to the climate change mitigation policies in the international community, the Government of Japan enacted the Law on the Promotion of Measures against Global Warming in April It prescribes roles and responsibilities of the major stakeholders such as the central government, local governments, business, and industry, as well as citizens. It established a legal framework which encourages and mandates central government and local government to formulate national and local government action plans (e.g., action plans on climate change mitigation measures on national and local government activities). It also requested concerned industries or enterprises to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to report and publicize them. The roles and responsibilities by actor are summarized in Table In order to achieve the international commitments to the Kyoto Protocol, the law also stipulates the formulation of the Kyoto Protocol Target Achievement Plan by the central government, which is described in the next pages. Table Roles and Responsibilities by Actor in the Act on Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures National Government Actor Role Required Action Local Government Business Sector To monitor environment. To formulate systematic plans against global warming to promote emission control and absorption. To coordinate with relevant institutions to incorporate emission control on them To reduce its own GHG emission To provide support on actions of local governments enterprises, and citizens To conduct researches on policies To promote international cooperation To reduce its own GHG emission To provide information for residents and enterprises to promote actions against global warming Others To reduce its own GHG emission To contribute to others actions, such as production improvement and international cooperation To cooperate on policies of national and local governments Citizens To reduce GHG emission in their daily activities To cooperate on policies of national and local governments Source: MOE, Framework of Act on Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures (2) Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (obligated) to formulate action plans to reduce its own GHG emissions (obligated) to formulate action plans to reduce its own GHG emissions (required to take effort) to formulate action plans to reduce its own GHG emissions and to contribute others actions - METI takes a central role in promoting environmental business and developing environmental technologies. With various support measures and economic incentives, it has contributed to the development of up-to-date technologies or eco-innovations. It covers a wide variety of sectors, including energy efficiency, renewable energy, water environment, and recycling of resources. 3-4

53 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Recently, METI has focused on comprehensive, cross-sectoral, and area-wide approaches, as well as on the promotion of individual technological innovations, such as the Top Runner approach. For example, the amendment to the Act on Energy Saving in 2008 introduced energy management system by enterprise, which was originally required by facility, building, or factory. If the total energy consumption of a company exceeds 1,500 kl, all its facilities, including offices, factories, and stores, are objects for regulation on energy management, which was not an object before the amendment. It has not only expanded the target facilities for regulation on energy management but also strengthened the comprehensive actions by enterprises. METI and MOE jointly commenced eco-town initiatives in 1997 which aimed to integrate different factories and promote optimal use of resources and energy within each industrial park. Local governments promoted coordination among different enterprises, of which details are described later. Eco-town initiatives aimed at a city-based and one-system approach, which is also addressed in Eco 2 initiatives. METI formulated a vision for industrial structure, which provided a basis for the New Growth Strategy approved by the Cabinet. Facing the deadlock of industry in Japan, it aims to step out from the conventional industrial structure and business model during the period of economic growth. It reviewed roles that government has played and proposed the roles that it is expected to play in the global arena. In other words, government is required to take the lead to promote public-private partnership and to support the formation of consortiums with the private sector. It focuses on environmental and energy industry as one of five strategic areas and aims to develop environmental industries in line with the export strategy of the infrastructure system. In particular, focus is given on smart community and next-generation vehicles. (3) Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism In order to promote sustainable society against serious global environmental problems, MLIT formulated its environmental action plan. Its primary focus was integrated development of environment and socio-economy. It also emphasizes comprehensiveness, coordination with people and enterprises, and area-wide and time-range approach, which correspond with Eco 2 initiatives. As the ministry responsible for overall urban planning and urban management, it has initiated its environmental policy with low-carbon, urban and regional development and has promoted comprehensive environmental approaches such as compact urban structure, district-based environmental policies, promotion of public transportation, and greenery development. In 2010, the Low-carbon City Guidance was formulated. It showed the basic concept of a city-based approach toward low-carbon society; indicated detailed actions (both software and hardware) in urban and regional structure, energy sector, and greenery development; and explained how to estimate the impact of each action on CO 2 reduction. MLIT is also in charge of countermeasures on global warming under its jurisdiction, including the transportation sector such as vehicles and public transportation and domestic and business sectors such as houses and buildings. Countermeasures in the transportation sector include the promotion of low-emission vehicles (as countermeasures on each vehicle) and the development of bicycle e-lane (as countermeasures on road traffic), and the promotion of efficient logistics and public transportation use (as 3-5

54 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction environmental friendly transportation system). Those in the domestic and business sectors include countermeasures of each house and building such as the improvement of heat insulation capacity and renewable energy use in the sewerage system. MLIT is also responsible for pollution management under its jurisdiction. It includes sewerage development to prevent water contamination, water management along rivers, traffic-related air pollution control such as control of vehicle emissions, traffic flow management, and so on. MLIT promotes recycling in construction industry jointly with MOE under the Construction Recycling Act, effective use of sewerage resources such as waste and heat, and recycling port network. 3) International Commitment and Environmental Initiatives of the National Government (1) Kyoto Protocol and Kyoto Protocol Target Achievement Plan The Kyoto Protocol was concluded at the third Conference of the Parties, or COP 3, to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change on December 11th, 1997 with an aim to curb global warming. It obliges industrialized countries to reduce by 2012 greenhouse gas emissions, including carbon dioxide and methane, from their 1990 levels. Accordingly Japan is required to reduce its GHG emission by six percent from its 1990 level. The Kyoto Protocol came into effect in 2005 after the Russian government ratified it. However, the total amount of GHG emission in Japan had increased by 7.7% from its 1990 levels. In order to accelerate efforts to achieve the target of the Kyoto Protocol, the Kyoto Protocol Target Achievement Plan was formulated in It outlined six basic directions, namely (i) environment improvement balanced with economic development, (ii) promotion of technological innovations, (iii) participation of all stakeholders, (iv) use of various policy instruments, (v) focus on the process of evaluation review, and (vi) international cooperation. The detailed policies and countermeasures were identified to reduce GHG emission, increase forest absorption of carbon dioxide, and promote the Kyoto mechanism. Cross-sector actions and basic platform, which are required to promote the above policies and countermeasures, were also identified. As for policies on energy-related CO 2, the Kyoto Protocol Plan emphasized the formulation of low-carbon city and region, including city structure and transportation system. It included area-wide and cross-sector approaches rather than individual ones, such as compact city structure, area-wide use of energy, coordination among relevant stakeholders, greenery development to prevent heat islands, low-carbon transportation system, and so on. In other words, the Kyoto Protocol Plan showed the close connection of low-carbon policies with city planning or city development. A city is required to promote city-based, low-carbon strategies, which should cover all urban sectors, such as city planning, urban structure, transportation, energy system, offices, residences, waste management, etc. Detailed policies and measures to reduce energy-related CO 2 are summarized in Table

55 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Table Overall Framework of Policies on Energy-related CO 2 in Kyoto Protocol Target Achievement Plan Low-carbon City and Regional Design Low-carbon transportation and distribution system Policies and Countermeasures Compact and low-carbon city structure District-level approaches Area-wide use of energy Coordination among all stakeholders Prevention of heat island, such as greenery development Long-life management of residences Low-carbon transportation system, such as transportation demand management, promotion of public transportation Low-carbon distribution system, such as modal shift efficient operation of trucks through coordination with cargo owners and transporters Policies of Each Sector (1) Industrial sector Voluntary action plans by industrial groups Promotion of energy-efficient equipment Enforcement of energy-management (2) Business sector Voluntary action plans by industrial groups Leading actions by public organization Promotion of energy-efficient buildings, equipment and appliances Environmental campaign and education activities (3) Residential sector Environmental campaign and education activities Promotion of energy-efficient houses, equipment and appliances (4) Transportation sector Traffic management Promotion of public transportation Voluntary action plans by industrial groups Promotion of efficient logistics (5) Energy conversion sector Voluntary action plans by industrial groups Countermeasures by energy Introduction of renewable energy Source: Kyoto Protocol Target Achievement Plan, amendment in 2008 (2) Hatoyama Initiatives and Challenge 25 Campaign Former Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama announced the ambitious target to reduce GHG emission by 25% from 1990 levels by 2020, which was called Hatoyama Initiatives. It started the Challenge 25 Campaign led by the central government. Challenge 25 Campaign took over the then existing campaign against global warming Team Minus 6% and deployed a wider range of actions to achieve the target of CO 2 reduction. It promoted countermeasures on global warming, integrating all policies in Japan. It proposed detailed actions to reduce CO 2 in offices or homes as Six Challenges, which enhanced people s environmental awareness and promoted actions at the individual level. The Eco-model Project commenced as part of Challenge 25 Campaign. The Eco-model City Project aimed to formulate a low-carbon society and to identify pilot cities or areas with advanced environmental actions. It intended to absorb a wide range of city-based and cross-sector actions toward low-carbon city and to apply the good practices to other cities nationwide. (3) New Growth Strategy In 2010, the New Growth Strategy of Japan was approved in a Cabinet meeting with the three major topics of strong economy, strong financing, and strong social welfare. It aims (i) to sustain a nominal growth rate of more than 3%, (ii) to achieve positive increase in consumer prices, and (iii) to decrease unemployment rate to under 3%. Seven key strategic fields have been identified as follows: 3-7

56 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction (i) Growth fields with existing advantages of Japan: environment and energy, health (medical and nursing care); (ii) Growth fields as frontier: Asia, tourism and regional development; and (iii) Platform to support growth: science, technologies, and information-communication, employment and human resources, and financing. Environment and energy are identified as a growth field with green innovation. More specifically, it aims to develop an environmental market with more than JPY50 trillion by 2020, create 1.4 million new jobs in the environment sector, reduce global GHGs by more than 13.0 billion tons with Japanese private technologies, which is equivalent to GHG reduction within Japan. Prior to the New Growth Strategy of the Cabinet, METI formulated the Industrial Structural Vision 2010, where business-solution industry related to environment and energy is identified as one of the five strategic fields. It focuses on smart-grid and new-generation vehicles as key industries in this sector. MLIT s growth strategy established in 2010 focuses on the promotion of low-carbon society with green innovation. It covers transportation such as modal shift, new-generation vehicles, houses and buildings with higher energy efficiency, and urban planning for a low-carbon city. 4) National Government Funding for the Environmental Sector Financing for environmental protection in order to promote various pollution control measures started to increase rapidly in the 1970s. Expenses for environmental protection of central government reached JPY3.0 trillion around 2000, which was originally only JPY100 billion in the early 1970s. However, it decreased in the last decade after peaking in the early 2000s. It is partly because environmental conditions somehow improved after a series of pollution control measures. Percentage achievement of air pollution standard, such as density of NO 2 and SPM, has increased. The total volume of general waste started to decrease after it peaked around Only the expenses related to global environment increased in recent years, because the central government promoted countermeasures on global warming based on the Kyoto Protocol Achievement Target Plan. In other words, environmental investment to prevent pollution is decreasing, while that in emerging issues, such as countermeasures on global warming, is increasing. Figure Historical Trend of Government Expenses on Environmental Protection Source: White Paper on Environment 3-8

57 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction 5) City-based Environmental Program Initiated by National Government (1) Eco-model City Project The Eco-model City Project commenced in 2008 with the initiative of the Cabinet Office. It aims to identify city-based good practices on low-carbon city development, to expand them nationwide and thus to achieve a low-carbon society in Japan. It also aims to revitalize regional economy through city-based approaches toward a low-carbon society. Thirteen (13) cities were selected as Eco-model cities, which set a high goal on reducing CO 2 emission and actively challenged various advanced measures toward a low-carbon city. Each detailed action plan includes a target on reducing CO 2 emission by sector and key strategies for a city. Detailed actions are listed with corresponding budgets, implementation schedules, and expected impacts on reducing CO 2 emission. There are four types of Eco-model Cities as follows: (a) Large Cities: Cities of Kitakyushu, Kyoto, Sakai, and Yokohama; (b) Regional Core Cities: Cities of Iida, Obihiro, Toyama, and Toyota; (c) Small-scale Cities: Towns of Shimokawa and Yuzuhara, and cities of Minamata and Miyakojima, and (d) District: District of Chiyoda (in metropolitan Tokyo). Eco-model Cities should be regularly evaluated based on each action plan, in terms of its progress, impact on CO 2 reduction, problems, and issues. Table summarizes the Eco-model Cities Project Some good practices were identified among the actions of Eco-model Cities as model actions applicable to other cities. These include new-environmental business creation in collaboration with financial institutions (City of Sakai), promotion of photovoltaic system with free sunshine system (City of Iida), public transportation service improvement with modification of operational schedule (City of Kyoto), promotion of residences along public transportation corridors with subsidy on housing construction and purchasing (City of Toyama), forest growing project in collaboration with advanced companies in charge of environmental development (Shimokawa town), and urban-rural coordination project (City of Yokohama). In order to expand good practices in Eco-model Cities nationwide, the Committee to Promote Low-Carbon City was formed by the end of 2008, comprising 168 organizations, including 85 city authorities, 46 prefectural governments, 12 central government ministries, and 25 governmental organizations. It sends out relevant information such as national policies and academic researches on low-carbon city development and promotes inter-city and interregional coordination. It also provides assistance to participating city authorities in formulating action plans toward a low-carbon city. An international conference was also conducted to promote its practices worldwide. (2) Eco-town Model Project The Eco-town Model Project was started by METI and MOE in 1997 in order for local authorities to establish a city-based, resource-recycling, socio-economic system through cooperation with local residents and industries. More specifically, it aims to build environmental industry by utilizing local industries and to promote reduction and recycling of waste by incorporating local conditions. 3-9

58 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Table Summary of Eco-model Cities City Kitakyushu Kyoto Sakai Yokohama Iida Obihiro Toyama Toyota Shimokawa Minamata Miyakojima Yuzuhara Chiyoda Pop. (000) / Area (km 2 ) Pop. 990 Area 488 Pop.1,470 Area 828 Pop.840 Area 150 Pop.3,650 Area 437 Pop.110 Area 659 Pop.170 Area 619 Pop.420 Area 1,242 Pop.420 Area 918 Pop.3.9 Area 644 Pop.29 Area 163 Pop.55 Area 205 Pop.5 Area 237 Pop.45 Area 12 CO2 Reduction Target 0. base year 1. by mid-term (2030) 3. by % 2. 30% % % 2. 40% 3. 60% % 1) 2. 15% 3. 60% % /capita 2. > 30%/capita 3) 3. > 60%/ capita % % 4) 3. 70% % 2. 30% 3. 50% % 2. 30% 3. 50% % 2. 30% 5) 3. 50% 6) % 2. 32% 3. 66% % 3. 50% % % % % 2) 2. 50% 2) (CO2 absorption 3.5 times) 3. 70% 2) (CO2 absorption 4.3 times % 3. 50% Source: Eco-Model Project, Cabinet Office 1) targeted to limit increase of CO2 emission by 5%. 2) excluding CO2 reduction owing to energy conversion 3) target by 2025, 4) target on CO2 emission of residential sector, 5) challenging target by 50%, 6) challenging target by 70%, Vision and Major Action Plan Green Frontier City in Asia Advanced low-carbon model 200 year district Unused energy supply system in industrial zone Pedestrian-based urban planning toward zero-carbon city Transit mall of main street, vehicle control on local small streets Promotion of Kyoto-specific low-carbon houses and Modern townhouse of Kyoto Community-based approach through eco neighborhood associations and eco-school Low-carbon industrial complex and low-carbon life style Installation of mega-solar system, large-scale fuel cell, energy-efficiency equipments and so on Residential solar power system (100,000 households) Community cycle system with local industry City-wide zero-carbon lifestyle by sharing knowledge and increasing alternatives through city-citizen partnership Increase renewable energy by 10 times by 2025 Economic incentive (lower property tax etc)for high-performance energy-efficient homes Promotion of renewable energy through community participation and low-carbon town planning Introduction of centralized heat supply system into individual residences Area-wide use of renewable energy at district base. Rural Eco-model City Use of biomass resources such as cow manure compost as a substitute for kerosene Promotion of no-tilling farming Toyama s compact city strategy toward low-carbon city LRT network development Promotion of residences along public transportation corridors Urban development with advanced environmental technologies, eco-car life Demonstration of advanced environmental technologies in low-carbon model district Car-sharing system of plug-in hybrid cars Creation of charging infrastructure for solar power system Low-carbon model society in symbiosis with the northern forest Harvesting Yanagi (carbon fix) to develop future biomass fuels Installation of local district heating system Small-scale sustainable city both on economy and environment Sorting of general waste into 22 categories High-quality recycling Producing bio-ethanol from bamboo and other local resources Self-sufficient energy supply system with local natural resources, such as sugarcane Use of bio-ethanol as fuel Power generation with bagasse CO2 free transportation Reproductive cycle model with woody biomass Sustainable forest management with woody pellet production with capital from local credit transaction Installation of 40 wind generators by 2050 Low-carbon urban planning with high energy efficiency Improving energy efficiency of small-to-mid size buildings Advanced district heating system Utilization of unused energy Evaluation as of 2008 A A B C B B A B A C B B B 3-10

59 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Eco-town plans, which are formulated by local authorities, are evaluated by METI and MOE in terms of originality, pioneering spirit, and applicability to other cities. Once approved, financial support is provided both on hardware projects, such as advanced recycling facilities and R&D projects, by METI and on software projects, such as dissemination, promotion, and provision of information, by MOE 1. As of 2008, 26 Ecotowns were certified, wherein the local authorities and businesses work to achieve zero emission. Details of some eco-town projects are described in Chapter 3.3. It is required to share know-how and issues which have been experienced in eco-town projects in order to promote a resource-recycling, socio-economic system nationwide. The current issues of eco-town projects are the following three points: (i) to consider impact on global warming in eco-town projects, (ii) to promote maximum use of local resources, and (iii) to formulate resource-recycling system on a regional scale. (3) Environmental Action Model Project (Environmentally Sustainable Transportation, EST) The Kyoto Protocol Target Achievement Plan requires the transportation sector to reduce CO 2 emission to million tons or by % from the level of On the other hand, most regional cities in Japan have experienced suburbanization and increasing use of passenger cars, which caused various urban issues. These include shrinking of public transportation services due to decreased number of passengers, hollowing out of urban centers, and decreasing mobility among the elderly and young without passenger cars. Increasing use of passenger cars has also caused various environmental problems such as air pollution, noise and vibration, and GHG emission. In order to solve such transportation-related issues, it is necessary to avoid overdependence on passenger cars and reduce environmental load. In this context, areawide and comprehensive approach is needed to change a city s structure and promote existing individual policies, such as improvement of the energy efficiency of vehicles and introduction of new-generation vehicles. The Environmentally Sustainable Transportation (EST) strategy aims to reduce CO 2 emission in the transportation sector and to establish sustainable urban and transportation systems which can ensure people s mobility for a long time, regain a city s vitality, and make it livable. MLIT commenced EST model projects in 2004 jointly with MOE. It provides intensive support to selected cities for EST projects. It requires pilot cities to set environmental targets, validate the outputs, and ensure the sustainability of the projects. Various stakeholders are involved in EST projects such as local governments, local businesses, transportation operators, road administrators, police, NPO, and so on. Detailed actions on EST include the promotion of public transportation, smoother car traffic, environmental improvement for pedestrians and bicycles, introduction of low-emission vehicles, mobility management, and so on. (4) Low-carbon City Guidance, MLIT The Kyoto Protocol Target Achievement Plan strongly noted the need to formulate lowcarbon city and regional structure, as well as socio-economic system. To that end, a low- 1 Subsidy on hardware projects by METI was demolished in 2005 and that on software projects by MOE was demolished in

60 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction carbon urban and regional design is specified as a tool, of which detailed actions include compact and low-carbon urban structure, area-wide use of energy, and prevention of heat islands such as greenery development. The Action Plan on Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures, which shall be formulated based on the Act on Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures, are supposed to include urban planning components, such as the promotion of public transportation use, preservation and development of urban greenery, and so on. The Act also required urban planning to consider global warming countermeasures. Urban planning is required to coordinate with environmental policies more than ever. In this context, MLIT formulated the Low-carbon City Guidance in It aims to support each local government to examine low-carbon city development throughout the city in time for amending its urban plan. It shows the basic concept of and detailed actions on low-carbon city development, including hardware and software, and methodologies to evaluate the impact of each action. The basic concept for low-carbon city development is to shift to a compact city structure. Comparison of population density with CO 2 emission in Japanese cities and elsewhere clearly show that there is a close correlation between urban structure and CO 2 emission. The guidance identifies necessary actions in urban structure and transportation sector in order to realize a compact city structure. Then it lines up actions to reduce CO 2 emission and increase CO 2 absorption in energy and greenery sector, which can supplement the actions in the urban and transportation sectors. Overall framework of the guidance is shown in Figure The guidance is discriminating since it shows methodologies for impact assessment in each sector. It introduced that impact of actions in urban structure and transportation sectors should be assessed with the person trip data if it is available, or with the census OD survey data. Area-specific actions, such as bicycle promotion, parking policies, etc., should be assessed individually, since the above data cannot be used. Impact of actions in the energy sector should be assessed by using the unit energy load by building use or the unit CO 2 emission by floor area of each building use if the volume of energy and gas use cannot be calculated. As for the greenery sector, the absorption of CO 2 can be estimated based on the absorption coefficient and volume by tree species. If it is not available, CO 2 absorption can be estimated based on the greenery area. The impact of heat island prevention and biomass supply on CO 2 emission reduction cannot be quantitatively estimated, which requires comprehensive assessment. 3-12

61 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Figure Overall Framework of Low-carbon city Guidance 3-13

62 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction 3.2 Initiatives of Local Governments 1) Historical Background of Local Government Initiatives Local government initiatives on environmental management started with the formulation of ordinances on pollution control prior to central government actions. These include the Ordinance on Factory Pollution Control of the Tokyo metropolitan government in 1949, followed by Osaka prefectural government in 1950, Kanagawa in 1951, and Fukuoka in The Tokyo metropolitan government also formulated the Ordinance of Smoke Emission Control in These ordinances helped trigger pollution control policies of the central government, such as the Act on Regulation of Smoke Emission in Although the initial ordinances of local governments did not designate any emission control with quantitative standards, the Pollution Control Ordinance of the Tokyo metropolitan government formulated in 1969 established environmental standards and required the submission of notifications and formulation of pollution control plans. Later, total volume control was introduced in ordinances of several local governments, which was also incorporated into the Air Pollution Control Act. Local governments also responded to local conditions such as in the form of agreements on pollution control with local enterprises. For example, the city of Kawasaki concluded agreements related to air pollution control with 39 factories within the city in 1970 in order to strengthen emission control at sources. As environmental problems became complicated and diversified, local governments were expected to take the initiative on comprehensive environmental policies. Various environmental programs which target local governments, such as Eco-model City Project and Eco-town Program, were conducted by central government ministries. Cities to actively respond to environmental issues have attained the position of advanced environmental cities, which are expected to take the lead in environmental policies in Japan. In line with decentralization, the authority of local governments expanded to cover cityinitiated developments, including community-based urban planning and coordination with citizens. City-oriented approach promoted the conduct of comprehensive urban planning rather than sectoral approach led by central government ministries. With the rising momentum on countermeasures on global warming, city plans are also required to consider environment toward sustainable development. This chapter picked up sustainable urban development strategies initiated by local governments, as follows: (a) Urban Planning and Land Management Schemes for Sustainable Cities: Compact city development, public-transportation-oriented development, redevelopment of unused areas, integration of urban design with ecological systems, urban development resilience to disasters. (b) Comprehensive Approach for Recovery from Pollution, from Gray to Green: Water environment, air environment. (c) Comprehensive Approach for Energy and Resource Efficiency: Promotion of renewable energy and energy efficiency, management of domestic wastes, zeroemission industries. (d) Financing Schemes for Sustainable Development: Financing for sustainability and resilience of cities, environmental taxation. 3-14

63 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction 2) Urban Planning and Land Management Schemes for Sustainable Cities (1) Compact City Development in City of Yokohama (a) Overall Description A compact city is a city with an intensive network of residential areas and urban functions, depending on its size. A compact city starts as a walkable town, with neighborhood units for daily life and neighborhood commercial districts for urban facilities. As its population increases, the urban core is formed with higher urban functions, which needs to ensure accessibility from residential areas. In order to formulate a compact city, it is required to set a clear vision and urban structure while the city is expanding. The city authority should share them with citizens and developers and to implement projects without changing the vision for a long time. The city of Yokohama experienced rapid population increase in the 1960s. Due to the delay of the postwar reconstruction, the central area deteriorated. In suburban area, infrastructure development could not catch up with residential development to provide a bed-town for Tokyo, resulting in disorderly sprawl. Decreasing day-time population and increasing night-time population had lost balance between work and life within the city and deteriorated the energy of Yokohama. Various urban problems also emerged, such as environmental pollution, traffic congestion, inundation, lack of school facilities, solid waste management, and so on. Figure Population of Yokohama City ( ) Source: City of Yokohama Note: Figures after 2015 are estimation. In order to solve various urban problems, mid- to long-term urban development strategies were formulated in 1965 to strengthen the urban structure. It comprised transportation network development and urban center formation. (i) Transportation Network Mass transit (subway) to connect the urban center with suburban areas and to formulate urban cores at intersections with existing railway. Highway: to form a radial road network and to supplement the undeveloped trunk road network. Bay bridge: to provide a bypass for port traffic, to avoid traffic congestion in the urban center, and to be a symbol of the Port of Yokohama. 3-15

64 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Figure Future Urban Structure of Yokohama City Source: City of Yokohama (ii) Core Urban Area Development Kohoku New Town: to prevent disorderly development, to preserve urban agriculture, to provide workplaces close to residential areas, and to promote symbiosis with the environment. Land reclamation in Kanazawa area: to relocate factories located in residential areas, to redevelop vacant lots, and to provide workplaces close to residential areas. Urban center: to strengthen urban centers by connecting two urban centers and to provide workplaces close to residential areas. (b) Key Directions for Urban Development Key directions on urban center development projects to form the future urban structure were the following: (i) Increase attractiveness of urban centers by connecting corridors and expanding widely. Node (Urban Center): to develop core facilities with area-specific vision. Link (Corridor): to develop attractive pedestrian-friendly streets along major corridors. Area (Area Development): to introduce district-based regulations for better urban landscape and appropriate distribution of urban functions. 3-16

65 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction (ii) Strategic Urban Planning In order to solve various urban problems, Yokohama City formulated mid- to long-term strategies and promoted transportation network development and urban core development, rather than responding to urban problems individually. It took a comprehensive approach in coordination with central government and public cooperation and thus formed a basis for public-private partnership, which has promoted project implementation with various financing sources. The Planning and Coordination Bureau was in charge of overall management on project implementation initiated by various stakeholders in order to ensure comprehensiveness and continuity of long-term strategies. More specifically, its roles on urban development include (i) planning and overall coordination of six major projects, (ii) coordination of comprehensive system for land-use regulation, and (iii) introduction of spatial and urban design. (c) Compact City Development It spent about 40 years to implement various projects continuously and form the overall urban structure, which has made Yokohama City a self-dependent, livable, and compact city. As shown in Figure 3.2.3, the modal share of public transportation increased since That of passenger car decreased in 2008 to the level of the 1980s, although it increased in Thus energy consumption of urban transportation is curbed down with higher efficiency. The number of trips of elderly people also increased by 25% in the last 10 years, which showed improving mobility of this group. Figure Trend in Modal Share in Yokohama City Legend Railway Bus Car Bike Bicycle Walk Others Source: City of Yokohama (d) Lessons Learned In order to solve urban and environmental problems in the period of rapid economic growth and to make Yokohama livable, dynamic, and self-dependent, the city developed long-term strategies to strengthen its urban structure. It established the Planning and Coordination Bureau particularly to promote its strategies. As a result, the overall urban structure has been almost completed, where urban functions are appropriately located within a compact urban structure. Urban environmental problems also improved through regulatory frameworks such as refinement, reassignment and preservation of land use. Based on the developed urban structure, the city of Yokohama is continuously taking action on urban and environmental issues through a close partnership with its citizens, as seen in G30 and Green Taxation as described later. It has also promoted its experiences and know-how in urban development and environmental technologies to developing countries. 3-17

66 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction A city experiencing rapid population growth is required to formulate its urban vision and future structure in the long term, such as 30 to 50 years, and which should be shared with citizens, developers, and city authorities. More important though is to implement projects continuously. (2) Public-transportation-oriented Development in Toyama City (a) Overall Description Toyama City is one of the regional centers in Japan and has a population of 420,000 and a very wide area of 1,242 km 2. With its high dependence on passenger cars for transportation and its flat terrain, the expansion of urban areas accelerated, resulting in the lowest urban density among all prefectural capitals in Japan. The vehicle ownership in Toyama is still increasing and petrol consumption per household is about JPY93,000, which is 1.4 times the national average or second highest among all prefectural capitals. On the other hand, the population of Toyama City started to decrease in 2005, while it also faces rapid aging and low birth rates. Toyama City is a typical regional city which highly depends on passenger car transportation and faces depopulation in an aging society with fewer children. Figure Demographical Changes in Modal Shares in Toyama City Expansion of Urban Area and Population Density (Area: km 2 ) (pop. Density: pax/ha) Modal Share (All Purposes) DID Area DID Pop Density Walk 2-wheel Car Bus/Tram Rail Source: City of Toyama In these surroundings, Toyama City has launched a basic strategy, entitled "Public Transport Oriented Compact City Development," through coordination among city authorities, citizens, and the private sector. It aims to restructure a city into a compact one and to make it livable without the use of passenger cars by activating public transportation including railway and accumulating major urban functions, such as residential, commercial, and business, along public transportation corridors. It aims to increase the percentage of population using public transportation to 40% from the current level of 30%, to shift from passenger car to public transportation, to shorten travel distances, and to promote a move from detached houses to apartment houses. With these actions, it set a target to reduce CO 2 emission by 30% in the transportation sector and 10% in the residential sector by It further targets to reduce it by 50% in the transportation sector and by 20% in the residential sector by 2050 with continuous efforts toward compact city development. 3-18

67 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Figure Compact City Strategy Framework of Toyama City Concept of Reform of Urban Structure with Public Transportation <Present> < Future > Future Population Framework < Percentage of population in the area with good access to public transportation> pop. 421,239 Pop. 389,510 30% 40% Present 20 years later Pop. Density High Low Railway Service High Low Bus Service High Low Walkable area from Station/ Bus stop Pop. in the current PT area 1) Existing Pop in the expanded PT area Migrant into the existing and expanded PT area Source: Proposal of Eco-model City, City of Toyama 1) PT area refers to the area with good access to public transportation (b) LRT Network Development A core project of the Public Transportation Oriented Compact City Development strategy is LRT network development. Toyama City converted a conventional railway, Toyama Port Line, into an LRT and has commenced another project to expand the LRT network. The LRT development project conversion of the Toyama Port Line, which was the first LRT in Toyama and in Japan, was decided based on the vision of the city s sustainable development, where wider socio-economic benefits were considered in addition to operational viability. The first LRT line, 7.6-km Toyama Port Line was operated by JR West and when converted into an LRT line, its operation was handled by a quasi-public corporation, Toyama Light Rail, in April The cost of this conversion project was about JPY5.8 billion, which comprises JPY1.85 billion for new seven-coach LRT, JPY1.55 billion for the construction of new rail, JPY2.5 billion for upgrading the existing rail. Railway infrastructure was transferred to Toyama City from JR West without charge, together with a contribution of JPY1.0 billion from the latter. In FY 2009, operating revenue and expenses of Toyama Port Line was JPY320 million and JPY420 million, respectively, where about JPY100 million was subsidized by Toyama City to cover the deficit. In order to continuously operate the LRT network in spite of the operational deficit, it is inevitable to gain public understanding to provide financing for the LRT toward a compact city and also for them to use it. (c) Promotion of Residences along Public Transportation Corridors In order to increase population in the city center and along public transportation corridors, the city authority decided to provide subsidies as economic incentives to individuals to reside and to developers to construct houses in designated residential areas, as shown in Table While the city center covers 436 ha, public transportation corridors were allotted with residential areas within a radius of 500 m from railway stations and 300 m from bus stops. As of 2010, a total of 411 houses in the city center and 334 houses along public transportation corridors were subsidized. 3-19

68 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Figure LRT Line and Its Connection with Bus in Toyama City Individual Source: City of Toyama Table Subsidy to Promote Residences in Designated Areas in Toyama City Target Area Subsidy Remarks Purchasing houses City Center JPY500,000 / house - Public Transportation Corridor JPY300,000 / house If moving from outside, JPY100,000 / house will be added Renting houses City Center JPY10,000 / month Maximum for 3 years City Center JPY1.0 million / house - Constructing Developer houses Public Transportation JPY0.7 million / house - Corridor Source: Eco Yokohama, Presentation material of City of Toyama (d) Lessons Learned Toyama City launched the concept of Public Transportation Oriented Compact City Development in order to become a walkable city without need for passenger cars, as a sustainable urban development strategy in the context of depopulation and an aging society. It is only one of a few cases of regional cities which reformed its urban structure by centering on public transportation network. It is usually very difficult to shift people to public transportation once they have become heavily dependent on passenger cars. However, Toyama City took comprehensive strategies toward compact city development, including renovation of public transportation infrastructure from a long-term point of view, subsidy to promote residences along public transportation, and so on. The case of Toyama showed that it takes a long time and huge amounts of money to transform a spread-out city into a compact one. A city should have a long-term perspective to launch urban development strategies and consider future urban structure, precisely when it is growing. (3) Integration of Urban Design with Ecological System, Koshigaya Lake Town Project (a) Overall Description of Koshigaya City Koshigaya City is located in the southeast of Saitama prefecture, about km from the center of Tokyo. On the river plain of the Nakagawa River, several small to mediumsized rivers and agricultural waterways run through the city. While the lowlands were used as rice fields, residential areas developed on the natural levees. The population of 3-20

69 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Koshigaya City started to increase when it became directly connected to central Tokyo through public transportation. From 50,000 in 1962, the city s population reached 300,000 in 1996 and 330,000 in Koshigaya City is a typical suburban city of Tokyo, which experienced rapid urbanization from increasing migration into the Tokyo metropolitan area. From the late 1960s when its population exceeded 100,000, it faced various urban environmental problems such as disorderly residential areas expanding into agricultural lands, land subsidence due to overextraction of groundwater, inundation due to inadequate drainage system, water contamination due to inflow of untreated wastewater into rivers, increased traffic accidents, and lack of urban facilities such as schools and medical facilities. In order to solve such problems, Koshigaya City promoted various urban infrastructure development and environmental measures as well as pollution control through coordination with the national and prefectural governments, public corporations, and citizens. It is a typical experience of a medium-sized city which underwent rapid economic growth in the suburb of a metropolitan area in Japan. The Koshigaya Lake Town project was developed based on such experiences of Koshigaya City on urban environmental improvement. (b) Water Environmental Challenges in Koshigaya City (i) Land Subsidence and its Challenges: Since Koshigaya City is located on a river plain with soft ground, it faced serious land subsidence due to overextraction of groundwater mainly for drinking and industrial use. In 1972, groundwater extraction was regulated under the Pollution Control Ordinance and the city started to supply water with surface water from the river. All water wells in the factories within the city are also regulated under the prefectural Ordinance for the Protection of the Living Environment and reporting obligations are mandated for other water wells under the city s environmental ordinance. These actions decreased the dependence on groundwater and slowed the progress of ground subsidence. (ii) River Water Contamination and its Challenges: Rapid urbanization and entry of factories caused water contamination in the city s rivers, evaluated as the worst in water quality among all first-class rivers by the MLIT. In addition to regulations on factory effluents passed by the central government, such as the Act on Water Quality Pollution Control, and by the prefectural government, such as the Ordinance for Protection of Living Environment, Koshigaya City conducted on-site inspections on the quality of discharged water and the operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment facilities at factories to improve water quality. If the quality of discharged water does not meet the standard, the city issues an order to improve it and ensure compliance with emission standards. As for domestic wastewater, the city developed a public sewerage network and has worked on connecting individual houses to it, as well as installing septic tanks. The city also developed raw water transmission with a maximum capacity of three tons of water per second from the Arakawa River to the Ayase River in order to improve the water quality of the Ayase River. Koshigaya City conducted joint researches and workshops with other city authorities on the water quality of the Ayase River. As a result, the Immediate Action Program for Better Water Environment of the Ayase River was formulated in Monitoring surveys of water quality and cleaning of the river are also conducted every year together with citizens. 3-21

70 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction A round of challenges, including regulations on discharged water, development of sewerage and installation of septic tanks, and related campaigns, have gradually improved the river s water quality. Figure Land Subsidence in Koshigaya City ( ) (Senryu Town) (Taisei) (SengenDaito) (Hirakata) (Shimomakuri) (Koshigaya) (Location Name) (Yaei Town) Source: City of Koshigaya Figure Average BOD Values in the Ayase River ( ) Source: City of Koshigaya (c) Passive Design: Urban Design in Harmony with Nature Urban Renaissance commenced the Koshigaya Lake Town Project, a land readjustment project, in 1999 and partly opened in It is an urban development project covering 226 ha. The plan was to build 7,000 houses and accommodate 22,400 population. It is characterized by a large-scale retention pond with an area of 40 ha and a regulatory volume of 1.2 million m 3. It has been developed integrally with urban infrastructure in the land readjustment project in order to improve area-wide flood control. Its extensive water surface not only improves flood control in the area but also prevents the occurrence of 3-22

71 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction heat islands. With passive design 2, wind from the retention pond and waterways are channeled toward the residential areas. With the retention pond as the core of community development, Koshigaya Lake Town is a comprehensive urban development aiming for a symbiosis with water environment. This concept was extracted from the experiences of Koshigaya City in tackling various water environment problems, such as land subsidence, water contamination, inundation, and so on. Based on past coordination between the city government and citizens, the plan to use the retention pond was formulated through public participation, which contributed to enhancing the environmental awareness of the citizens. Other notable actions toward a comprehensive environmental urban area by Koshigaya Lake Town include the construction of condominium buildings with the largest solarheating system in Japan, commercial facilities with photovoltaic systems, urban development integrated with the ecosystem, and rainwater harvesting system. A new station was developed on the existing JR line in the middle of Koshigaya Lake Town to improve accessibility. All areas of the town are within 1 km from the station, which the people can access on foot or by bicycle. (d) 20% CO 2 Reduction Project From the start of planning, Koshigaya Lake Town introduced comprehensive, town-level policies against global warming, which is designated as 20% CO 2 Reduction Project by the MOE. Its developer, Urban Renaissance, together with housing developers and commercial business owners, took the initiative to develop an advanced low-carbon urban center. The low-rise residential area is designed to allow wind to easily pass through, from the water surface of the retention pond in the town center, in order to ease the load of cooling and heating systems. In the high-rise residential area, a solar heating system, which is the largest in Japan, was introduced for heating and hot water. One of the largest shopping centers in Japan is equipped with advanced environmental technologies which can reduce CO 2 emission by 20%, or 90 million tons compared to that of same-scale systems. Its primary technology is Japan s first hybrid gas system, which is expected to reduce CO 2 emission by 6,500 tons. Lighting control according to time slot and the introduction of LED lights have also contributed a lot. Figure Image of Koshigaya Lake Town Source: Urban Renaissance, City of Koshigaya 2 Passive design is a planning method which takes advantage of local natural conditions, such as sunlight, wind, and water, to achieve a comfortable town and lifestyle. 3-23

72 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction (e) Lessons Learned During rapid economic growth, it is necessary to promote infrastructure development that responds to increased population and agglomerated industries in parallel with pollution control. Pollution control measures require regulations based on national regulations. Regional infrastructure development requires coordination with central and prefectural governments and urban infrastructure development requires public involvement. Coordination and cooperation with all related stakeholders to promote various projects simultaneously is exactly what a city is supposed to do. In the Koshigaya Lake Town, the experiences and lessons learned from past actions on environmental problems and urban issues could lead to comprehensive water environment improvement and countermeasures on global warming, which require the involvement of various stakeholders. In other words, based on the experiences and knowhow accumulated in the process of urbanization new urban development schemes should form a symbiosis with the natural environment and result in countermeasures on global warming. (4) Stock-type Concept in Kitakyushu City (a) Overall Description The Action Plan for Eco-Model City in Kitakyushu City includes the realization of a stockoriented society as one of its objectives. A stock-oriented society is one that builds valuable things and uses them for a longer period of time, which allows, for example, the longevity of houses and social capital, which require large amounts of resources and incur big costs. Multigenerational use can assure an affluent life, sustainability of industry and economy, as well as harmonization with the environment in an integrated manner. In order to ensure longer operating life of a stock-oriented society, it is inevitable to incorporate disaster prevention in urban development, in addition to the economic and environmental points of view. In particular, since Japan often experiences natural disasters, it is important not only to improve the security of each facility, but also to assess the risk of damage from natural disasters in the form of a hazard map and incorporate it into the distribution strategy of infrastructure. An assessment of various factors can improve a city s resilience to disasters and as a lowcarbon city reduce its environmental impact. With the concept of a stock-oriented society, Kitakyushu City has conducted its case study in the designated area, Yahataeast district, the actual impact of which will be evaluated in the future. (b) Lessons Learned In recent climate change measures in the city of Kitakyushu, the realization of a stockoriented society is emphasized, which will be an important viewpoint for cities in developing countries expecting a rapid future development. Stock-oriented society means that the longevity (or the arrangement based on a longer-term vision) of houses and infrastructure that require a large amount of resources and costs allows to limit unnecessary investment and to reduce environmental burdens, which leads to the realization of an affluent life by residents, sustainability of industrial activities, and harmonization with the environment. 3-24

73 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Figure Risk Assessment Framework on Natural Disaster Damage in a Stock-oriented Society Source: City of Kitakyushu, Toward a Comfortable Country, Japan- Manual for a Stock-oriented Society (5) Comprehensive Disaster Prevention Plan in Tokyo (a) Comprehensive Disaster Prevention Plan The nation s capital, Tokyo, has faced various crises, including terrorism, large-scale accidents, emerging infection, as well as major earthquake and natural disasters such as typhoons. It includes the sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway system in 1995, concentrated downpour in Nakano and Suginami districts in 2005, major power outage in the Tokyo metropolitan area in 2006, explosion accident at a hot spring facility in Shibuya district. The Tokyo metropolitan government enhanced its crisis management systems in 2003 ahead of other municipalities. The Disaster Prevention Office, which mainly covered natural disasters, was reorganized into the Comprehensive Disaster Prevention Office, which can respond to human-caused disasters such as terrorism. The Safety Inspector is directly under the Mayor and is in charge of coordination among, and information sharing with, all related agencies in case of emergencies. Figure Risk Management Structure of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Source: Handbook for Disaster Prevention Measures of Tokyo Metropolitan, 2008, Tokyo Metropolitan Government 3-25

74 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction (b) Urban Planning Resistant to Earthquake Disasters Earthquake countermeasures include prevention of earthquake disasters and emergency treatment and rehabilitation from the disasters. The former includes urban disaster prevention planning which coordinates with urban planning. The urban disaster prevention plan intends to strengthen quake resistance and fire endurance of buildings and urban facilities and to improve urban structure in order to reduce the damage from disasters and prevent it from spreading. Its basic strategies are as follows: (i) Disaster-resistant Urban Structure: To develop blocked zones against the spread of fire and evacuation spaces which can be used for a smooth evacuation and rescue operation, as well as prevent large-scale fire disasters and deterioration of municipal government performance. (ii) District-level Disaster Prevention: To promote urban development areas as disaster prevention areas with flame-resistant buildings, among other innovations, and enclosed by blocked zones that can prevent the spread of fire, while taking account of local conditions. (iii) Quake and Fire Resistance of Individual Buildings: To promote monitor earthquake resistance and earthquake retrofit and to improve fire endurance of individual buildings to save people from building collapse. The Tokyo metropolitan government designated blocked zones against the spread of fire, as evacuation spaces, and as focal development areas together with development targets and implementation schedules, as shown in Figure and Table In order to achieve them, a comprehensive approach has been taken, including urban development schemes integrated with road development, community-based approach for redevelopment of overcrowded residential areas, utilization of private projects, emerging regulation on fire-prevention management and quake resistance of individual buildings, and so on. In 2010, the Tokyo metropolitan government made a policy obliging all the buildings along the core axis for fire prevention to be checked on their earthquake resistance in order to enhance seismic performance along the corridors (see Box 3.2.1) Blocked zone against spread of fire Road for emergency transportation Urban area Evacuation space Table Target of Urban Development for Disaster Prevention Plan Development Target (2015) [Percentage of completion] Along core axis for disaster prevention: 95% In the focal development area : 65% [Percentage of quake-resistant buildings along road for emergency transportation] 100% [Percentage of flame-resistant area] in the focal development area:65% (to be improved to 70% by 2025) To make all areas accessible to evacuation spaces within a short distance. To develop all evacuation spaces with appropriate effective area. Source: Machinami Vol46, 2010, Center of Architecture and Urban Development for Disaster Prevention in Tokyo Development Direction Combination of road development and promotion of fire resistance, regulations and incentives Barrier-free pedestrian environment for the elderly and people by laying power lines underground and eliminating differences between road and sidewalk Campaign to enhance awareness on quake resistance Provision of support to enhance quake resistance of buildings, such as subsidy Combination of road widening projects with urban area development such as redevelopment of overcrowded residential areas Development of emergency evacuation route network Promotion of greenery areas integrated with development of park and so on Secure of evacuation spaces by park development and improving fire resistance around it Improvement of safety for evacuation by increasing quake resistance of public facilities within a evacuation space 3-26

75 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Figure Tokyo s Urban Development in the Disaster Prevention Plan Legend Corridor for Disaster Prevention (road) Blocked Zone for Fire Spreading (major) (general) Corridor for Disaster Prevention (river) Dev. Area Focal Dev. Area Evacuation route Administrative boundary JR railway Source: Machinami Vol37, 2005, Center of Architecture and Urban Development for Disaster Prevention in Tokyo 3-27

76 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Box Compulsory Requirement of Check for Quake-resistant Buildings along Emergency Transportation Route The Tokyo metropolitan government introduced obligatory regulation for owners of office buildings and apartment houses along the emergency transportation corridors to conduct a diagnosis on earthquake resistance in order to prevent collapsed buildings from hindering rescue activities in the case of earthquakes. It aims to achieve the target of the Tokyo metropolitan government on percentage of quake-resistant buildings along road for emergency transportation at 100% in It is the first obligation on private buildings in Japan, of which target will exceeds over 6,000 buildings. The current Act for Promotion of Renovation for Earthquake-Resistant Structures only requires owners to take effort to on check and improve quake-resistance, of which decisions are left to each owner. On the other hand, diagnosis on earthquake resistance will take about JPY1,000 per m 2, including checkup of concrete from pillars. For example, the cost of diagnosis on earthquake resistance of a building with a total floor area of 3,000 m 2 exceeds more than JPY3 million. Such high cost discourages building owners to conduct a diagnosis on earthquake resistance due to opposition of tenants or prevents consensus building of owners in a condominium apartment. In this context, the Tokyo metropolitan government decided to issue its own regulation to improve earthquake resistance of high public buildings. Target corridor is primary roads for emergency transportation, which connect bases of rescue activities such as Tokyo Metropolitan City Hall, airport port and so on. Target buildings are mid-to-high rise buildings which can block more than half of streets if collapsed and were constructed before 1981 or based on the former standard on earthquake resistance At present, subsidy on earthquake resistance diagnosis shall be basically provided by municipalities with some additional support of government. The amount of subsidy differs by municipality, i.e. Shibuya District provides subsidy for 80% of total cost, while the city of Koganei does not provide any. The Tokyo metropolitan government shall increase its subsidy up to 90% of total cost. It also intends to increase subsidy to conduct earthquake retrofit of buildings when necessary. Once the new ordinance is formulated, it shall require prompt action of target owners and may impose some penalty for violators such as charging of fines or public announcement of their names. Source: Tokyo Metropolitan, 2010 (c) Urban Management Less Vulnerable to Floods In 1949, Tokyo experienced serious flood damage when a river dike burst, Now in the Tokyo metropolitan area, flood damage due to overflow of rivers has dramatically reduced, as a result of river improvement and development of retention ponds.. On the other hand, urban-oriented inundation due to overflow of small- to medium-sized rivers has emerged as rainwater rarely penetrates into the soil in urbanized areas and flows into urban rivers in a short period of time. Recent concentrated heavy rain can also be blamed in part. The Tokyo metropolitan government formulated its Basic Policy against Storm Rainfall in 2007 in order to respond to such emerging flood damage. It includes the installment of street inlets or seepage pits at residences to mitigate stormwater runoff and the promotion of large-scale flood control projects such as river improvement. It also formulated a flood hazard map which provides information on areas expected to be flooded and emergency evacuation procedures. (d) Lessons Learned Disaster prevention should be closely related with the urban structure itself. It is desirable to promote urban development and establish an urban structure that fit with natural 3-28

77 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction conditions in order to prevent and alleviate disaster damages. Earthquake countermeasures require the relocation of urban functions from active-fault zones and road and transportation plan for blocked zones against the spread of fire and for emergency transportation. Flood control countermeasures require risk assessment of land use and urban development in low-lying areas, temporary retention and permeation type urban facilities to prevent stormwater runoff. The actions taken by the Tokyo metropolitan government shows coordination of disaster prevention and urban planning, which aims to promote long-term development of infrastructure for disaster prevention that can form a core urban structure, such as road, park and waterfront. 3) Comprehensive Approach to Recovery from Pollution: From Gray to Green (1) Water Environmental Improvement in Kitakyushu-City (a) Challenges on Water Contamination in Dokai Bay Challenges on water environment improvement started from countermeasures on water contamination in Dokai Bay. Dokai Bay is deeply edged inland more than 10 km and shaped like a slender waterway after land reclamation. After the state-owned Yahata Steel Mill started operation in the 1920s, factories were constructed one after another in the bay area, which caused serious water contamination. In 1942, the fish catch in Dokai Bay diminished to zero. Industrial recovery after the World War II and the following economic growth further worsened the pollution level. From the mid-1960s, the odor nuisance in the bay became serious. This environmental pollution progressed to such an extent that the bay was called the 'Sea of Death.' The survey conducted by the city of Kitakyushu revealed that asthma morbidity among schoolchildren was significantly high in the polluted area. The water quality survey in 1969 showed that 98.5% of total discharged water and 97.3% of total COD which flowed into Dokai Bay were discharged from the 20 major factories in Kitakyushu area. The quality of the discharged water, such as the highest values of COD and cyanogen are 400 mg/l and 25.0 mg/l respectively, showed that no treatment was properly applied. Countermeasures on water contamination in Dokai Bay include regulatory framework, dredging of the sludge, and so on. The report on water contamination prepared by the Kitakyushu district labor union in 1971 and the activities of the Women's Society had enhanced people s concern on pollution of Dokai Bay. (i) Dredging of Contaminated Sediment: The Kitakyushu Port Management Association, which was responsible for managing Dokai Bay then, organized the Dokai Bay Clean-up Study Group and conducted an annual survey, and revealed that the harmful material accumulated in high concentrations. Dredging of contaminated sediment was conducted from 1974 to The dredging cost was JPY1.8 billion in total, of which 71% were covered by the companies that discharged the pollutants. The remaining 29% were shared by the national government, the city of Fukuoka, and the city of Kitakyushu at 50%, 25%, and 25%, respectively. (ii) Regulatory Framework on Water Quality: The Japanese government regulated emissions of methyl mercury conducted by the Water Conservation Act in 1968 and designated Dokai Bay for methyl mercury regulation in 1969, which required the factories located on the coastal area not to emit methyl mercury. In 1970, the wastewater quality standards were expanded to cover nine items including cadmium 3-29

78 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction and cyanide. In addition, Hibikinada was designated as target area and the maximum allowable concentration of each pollutant was set for each type of industry located on the coastal area of Dokai Bay which covered 45 factories and enterprises, and 513 facilities. In the wastewater standards, ph, COD and other items were also added. Moreover, in 1973, the Fukuoka prefecture enforced additional wastewater standards, which were 3 to 7 times lower, and therefore stricter, than the national standards of six items which included COD, cyanide, and arsenic. In addition, the Water Pollution Control Act allowed the city of Kitakyushu to implement a more detailed water quality control, since the authority in regard to acceptance of wastewater facilities or inspections had been delegated from Fukuoka prefecture to Kitakyushu City. Thanks to comprehensive regulatory framework and the removal of contaminants by dredging, the water quality of Dokai Bay improved significantly by the late 1970s. In the Comprehensive Survey of Dokai Bay conducted in , more than 527 kinds of creatures, including phytoplankton and bird life, were recorded which proved that the ecological system in the bay had been rehabilitated. Figure Water Quality of Dokai Bay Contamination at Dokai Bay Water Quality of Dokai Bay Source: Website of City of Kitakyushu (http://www.city.kitakyushu.jp/) (b) Challenges on Water Contamination in the Purple River The Purple River, or the Murasaki River, running through the city center, had been severely polluted in the 1970s, because belated development of sewage and wastewater treatment could not catch up with rapid urbanization and industrialization. The river had been extremely contaminated and caused odor from untreated industrial wastewater from factories and human sewage discharged from houses illegally located along the river. As a result, Japanese trout, a symbol of a clean river, disappeared from the river. Later, the development of a sewerage network significantly improved the water quality of the Purple River, as shown in the Figure In the 1970s, regulatory and institutional frameworks were strengthened, which also contributed to water quality improvement. The acceptance of wastewater facilities, on-site inspections, issuance of orders to improve had been delegated from Fukuoka prefecture to Kitakyushu City in the Water Pollution Control Act. The Pollution Control Division, the precursor of the Environment Bureau, was reorganized into the Pollution Control Bureau, where the number of offices also increased from 22 to 47. Illegal housing which caused water contamination was removed from 1966 to These efforts gradually improved the water quality of the Purple River. The BOD decreased to 1.2 mg/liter in 1998 from 13 mg/liter in

79 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Figure Water Quality of the Purple River and Sewerage Network Coverage Water Quality Sewerage Coverage Source: Website of City of Kitakyushu (http://www.city.kitakyushu.jp/) (c) Community-based Waterfront Environmental Improvement People s environmental awareness had been enhanced through voluntary activities on cleaning-up of the river, which has continue even after the water quality improved in the 1980s. Kitakyushu has been implementing riverside development projects which consider ecosystem conservation and restoration and have been called "eco-friendly river improvement." These projects have been conducted with active public participation and have been utilized as a basis for learning environmental issues. It includes trash collection campaign, releasing of juvenile Japanese trout, environmental education for the children, doing and participating in international conferences and workshops on environmental conservation. The Purple River is positioned as a core of urban redevelopment, and in 1988, the city of Kitakyushu was designated as "My Town, My River Development Project", which not only aims to control flood and improve the river but also to form an attractive urban space by linking the river developments with redevelopment and road construction planned all over the city. The Master Plan to Develop Attractive Waterfront Development was formulated in 1994 which aimed to increase the waterfront where citizens could walk around in from 2 km to 20 km, which later expanded to 25 km. At present, about 13.4 km of waterfront has been completed, covering commercial areas and greenery. (d) Lessons Learned In the high economic growth period, the city of Kitakyushu suffered from serious water pollution of the Dokai Bay and the Murasaki River due to industrial and domestic wastewater. However, in the 1970s, the city realized significant improvement on water quality as a result of regulations on wastewater set by the government and the collaboration among government, citizens, and businesses. In recent days, the city of Kitakyushu has focused on developing the town with amenities such as riverside and seaside developments. The approach is not only to improve the water quality, but to formulate an urban space utilizing the merits of a water environment. The activities for creating a better water environment are based on high public awareness of the environment and collaborations among government, citizens, and businesses that had been built from tackling pollution problems during the city high economic growth period. 3-31

80 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction (2) Air Environmental Improvement in Kawasaki-City (a) Overall Description The city of Kawasaki started to develop Keihin Industrial Zone in its coastal area after land reclamation project commenced in Industrialization expanded to inland area in the mid 1930s. In the 1960s and 1970s, Kawasaki was a major powerhouse driving Japan s high economic growth, where every kind of industry concentrated including steel, electricity, food, petroleum, chemicals, and air carriers. In the process of industrialization, serious pollution, including air pollution and water contamination, occurred. Air pollutants emitted from factories and cars caused serious health problems among residents in Kawasaki such as chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma. Facing to such serious pollution, Kawasaki City conducted various policies against pollution, prior to the central government. To provide relief to pollution victims, the city government put in place a pollution victim relief scheme. It also tightened measures on polluting sources by signing air pollution prevention agreements. Kawasaki City Ordinance for Pollution Prevention was enacted, in order to supplement central legislative framework. Institutional framework was also strengthened. It included the establishment of a division in the city government exclusively for pollution control, the Pollution Monitor Center, and the Pollution Research Laboratory in order to strengthen monitoring of environmental conditions. On the other hand, businesses have taken active steps to invest in pollution prevention measures, resulting in the development of various technologies and techniques to prevent pollution. Businesses also invested in the training of engineers and technicians who hold expertise in pollution prevention and laid the technological foundation for antipollution measures. In the late 1970s, the traffic volume of motor vehicle had increased dramatically, and vehicle emission-related air pollution became serious, such as NOx and PM. While factory-related air pollution improved on sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxides focus on total amount regulation for stationary sources. However, due to increase in automobile traffic and increase in the proportion of diesel vehicles, it was very difficult to achieve the national standards for air quality. Therefore, the city of Kawasaki formulated the Plan for Automobile Pollution Prevention in City of Kawasaki, and decided to promote comprehensive vehicle pollution control measures (see Table 3.2.3). While the density of air pollutants (SO 2, CO, SPM) dramatically reduced, air pollution along roadsides was still a significant environmental problem in some areas. Figure Annual Average Concentration of Pollutants in Kawasaki City Carbon Monoxide along Roadsides Sulfur Dioxide in Urban Areas Source: Air quality of Kawasaki City in

81 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Table History of Countermeasures on Air Pollution in Kawasaki City Year Event Level Type of Countermeasure 1960 Enforcement of the former Basic Act for Environmental Pollution Control City government Regulatory Framework 1967 Enforcement of Basic Act for Environmental Pollution Control Central government Regulatory Framework 1968 Enforcement of Air Pollution Control Act Central government Regulatory Framework 1968 Establishment of a continuous monitoring system for sulfur dioxides, etc. City government Platform through the use of centralized air pollution monitoring equipment 1969 Rules for Pollution Victim Relief Scheme City government Regulatory Framework 1970 Commencement of agreements signed with 39 factories within Kawasaki City government Regulatory Framework City regarding the prevention of air pollution to tighten antipollution measures aimed at pollution sources 1972 Promulgation of the Kawasaki City Ordinance for Pollution Prevention City government Regulatory Framework 1972 Completion of the Pollution Monitor Center City government Platform 1972 Introduction of automatic monitoring systems for sulfur oxides at 42 major City government Platform factories 1973 Establishment of the Kawasaki Pollution Research Laboratory City government Platform 1973 Enactment of Basic Outline on Kawasaki Automobile Pollution Prevention City government Policy/Plan 1977 Publication of the Promulgation of the Kawasaki City Ordinance on City government Regulatory Framework Environmental Assessment 1978 Introduction of automatic monitoring systems for nitrogen oxides at 32 City government Platform major factories 1991 Formulation of Plan for Automobile Pollution Prevention in City of Kawasaki City government Policy/Plan 1992 Establishment of Kawasaki Automobile Pollution Prevention Promotion City government Platform Council Enforcement of Law Concerning Special Measures for Total Emission Central government Regulatory Framework Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides 1993 Formulation of the Plan for the Reduction of Total Amount of Nitrogen Prefectural government Policy/Plan Oxides Emission from Automobiles 1999 Establishment and promulgation of the Kawasaki City Ordinance for City government Regulatory Framework Conservation of Living Environment including Pollution Prevention 2001 Enforcement of Law Concerning Special Measures for Total Emission Prefectural government Regulatory Framework Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides and Particulate Matter 2003 Revision of Plan for Automobile Pollution Prevention in City of Kawasaki City government Policy/Plan (2003 to 2005) Formulation of the Plan for the Reduction of Total Amount of Nitrogen Prefectural government Policy/Plan Oxides and Particulate Matter Emissions from Automobiles Introduction of Regulation on Diesel Vehicle Prefectural government Regulatory Framework Establishment of the subsidy program for introduction of low pollution cars City government Economic Measures 2005 Designation as Model Project of CNG vehicle promotion by MLIT City government Implementation 2007 Revision of Plan for Automobile Pollution Prevention in City of Kawasaki City government Policy/Plan (2006 to 2008) Establishment of the registration system on Kawasaki Eco-drive City government Declaration Establishment of Kawasaki Eco-drive Promotion Council City government Platform Source: City of Kawasaki, Environmental Technology Transferred from Kawasaki City to the World (b) Lessons Learned Encouragement /Promotion/ Else In this way, Kawasaki City launched comprehensive countermeasures on air pollution, either ahead of central government action or to supplement it. It included not only regulatory framework such as laws and ordinances and institutional platform, but also economic incentives and guidance to enhance private sector s active investment in pollution control. Such cooperation between government and private sector was applied in other emerging environmental issues as well as pollution control measures. The city has an abundant accumulation of experiences and know-how gained in the process of solving pollution, especially since many R&D institutions were concentrated in the city, i.e., 201 research institutions of private companies and 24 research institutions of universities and others. The collaboration with these institutions was used to promote a positive growth cycle of the economy and environment. Kawasaki City also conducted international 3-33

82 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction cooperation using its environmental technologies in order to achieve a global sustainable society. 4) Comprehensive Approach to Resource Efficiency (1) G30 in Yokohama City (a) Overall Description The total volume of solid waste in Yokohama City continuously increased up to 2000 at a pace exceeding its population increase. Particularly, the increase was attributed to industrial waste, while domestic waste remained stable. Yokohama City changed its policy on waste management to G30 or to promote the 3Rs from its conventional policy to dispose waste after incineration. It set a target to reduce the volume of waste by 30% in 2010 from the level of Figure Population and Waste Volume of Yokohama City ( ) Source: City of Yokohama The basic concept of the G30 program is for citizens, businesses, and government to collaborate in promoting the 3R (reduce, reuse, and recycle of waste) activities in order to reduce consumption of resources and energy and to achieve a recycling society with lower environmental loads. It specifies the roles of each stakeholder, as follows: (i) Citizens: To make its lifestyle environment friendly and to ensure segregation of waste. (ii) Business: To design and produce products which reduce the emission of waste and promote collection and recycling of used products. (iii) Government: To formulate 3R systems, campaign, provide, and exchange information. Since the understanding and cooperation of citizens are inevitable to conduct the G30 program successfully, Yokohama City carried out extensive campaigns to explain the new rules on segregation of waste. Some 11,000 briefing sessions, 600 on-street campaign in front of the station, and 3,300 early-morning instructions were carried out. The city did not collect waste that was not sorted appropriately. Eco-education lectures were conducted at elementary and junior schools to explain about the current conditions of waste management and demonstrate waste segregation. More than 38,000 people visited incinerator plants in

83 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction In order to reduce domestic waste, a variety of routes to collect recyclable waste was formulated. It included community-based collection of resources, installation of boxes for recyclable resources, recycling of pruned branches into soil conditioner at green compost plants, and subsidy for garbage disposal or compost at residences in order to promote recycling of raw waste. As for industrial waste, the city disposed of wooden waste and recyclable paper in incinerator plants and conducted inspection at incinerator plants and at enterprises. It also held a number of briefings to enhance the understanding of enterprises and recognized excellent enterprises. (b) Impact of G30 Program The G30 campaign has contributed to significant reduction of the volume of waste. The total volume of collected waste and disposed waste decreased by 34% and 44%, respectively, in 2008 from the 2001 levels. As a result, Yokohama City decided to close two incinerator plants. It reduced the financial cost of future rehabilitation and annual operation cost by about JPY3.0 billion. It also helped reduce CO 2 emission by 870,000 tons in 2008 from the level of Yokohama City continues to promote the G30 program, including conversion of citizen s lifestyle to promote 3R and pilot projects of composting and gasification of raw garbage. (c) Lessons Learned Yokohama City successfully conducted the G30 program and achieved significant reduction of waste volume. It is a product of a comprehensive approach on waste management as well as the understanding and collaboration of citizens and the business sector. The city introduced integrated management of general waste, industrial waste, and recyclable resources; set targets of reduced volume of incineration treatment and landfill disposal; formulated rules and platforms to promote 3R activities; and conducted intensive briefing for citizens to follow the rules. More importantly, citizens acknowledged and followed the rules. The G30 program was successful since all stakeholders, citizens, business sector, government, and so on played their expected roles. With the closure of two incinerator plants, the city could save funds intended for its renovation and O&M. (2) Zero-emission Industry in Kawasaki City (a) Overall Description METI commenced the Eco-town Project commenced in 1997 to promote resource efficiency in the industrial sector. With a concept of zero emission, i.e., to use waste from some industries as resources for other industries and to reduce the total waste to zero, the Eco-town Project aims to promote an environment-friendly society and promote the city s economic development. Kawasaki City was designated as the first eco-town in Japan with the Kawasaki Eco-town Plan. It covers its whole coastal area of about 2,800 ha and aims to balance the city s industrial sector with the environment. In Kawasaki Eco-Town, companies promote to convert their activities to resource-recycling in their production and to reuse by-products and industrial waste effectively as raw materials. Taking advantage of the concentration of a variety of industries, such as steel, chemical, petrochemical, cement, and others, collaboration among facilities and companies within the eco-town area resulted in the effective use and regeneration of energy and resources at a high level. 3-35

84 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Table Situation of Solid Waste Management Before and After G30 Program Before G30 (2001) After G30 (2009) Segregation into 5 categories and 7 items Segregation into 10 categories and 15 items Domestic waste Bulky waste Cans/Bottles/PET bottles Small metal items Used dry-cell batteries Recyclable Waste Aluminum, Steel, Glass, PET bottle, Newspaper, Magazine, Paper cardboard Domestic waste (combustible garbage) Plastic containers and packaging Noncombustible waste Spray cans Used cloth Used paper (newspaper, magazines, other paper, cardboard, paper cartons) Bulky waste Cans/Bottles/PET bottles Small metal items Used dry-cell batteries Waste Volume (2001) Waste Volume (2008) Collected Waste 1,662,000 ton Collected Waste 1,105,000 ton (-34%) Domestic waste 901,000 ton Domestic waste 585,000 ton (-35%) Office waste 678,000 ton Waste from Business 335,000 ton (-51%) Recyclable waste 54,000 ton Recyclable waste 157,000 ton (+200%) Others 29,000ton Others 28,000 ton (-4%) Intermediate Treatment Incineration treatment 1,593,000 ton Intermediate Treatment Incineration treatment 940,000 ton (-41%) Landfill disposal 16,000 ton Landfill disposal 9,000 ton (-44%) Recycled 53,000ton Recycling 155,000 ton (+192%) Incinerated Residue Landfill disposal 291,000 ton Incinerated Residue Landfill disposal 106,000 ton (-64%) Recycled 12,000 ton Recycled 22,000 ton (+83%) Waste Disposal Plant (2000) Waste Disposal Plant (2008) Incinerator Plants Incinerator Plants Kanazawa Plant (1,200 ton / day, operation from 2001) Kanazawa Plant (same as of 2000) Asahi Plant (540 ton / day, operation from 1999) Asahi Plant (same as of 2000) Tsurumi Plant (1,200 ton / day, operation from 1995) Tsurumi Plant (same as of 2000) Tsuduki Plant (1,200 ton / day, operation from 1984) Tsuduki Plant (same as of 2000) Hodogaya Plant (200 ton / day, operation from 1980) Hodogaya Plant (used for transmission point for general Sakae Plant (1,500 ton/ day, operation from 1976 waste ) Konan Plant (900 ton/ day, operation from 1974 Sakae Plant (closed in 2005) Disposal Site Konan Plant (closed in 2006) Minami-Honmoku Landfill Site (210,000 m 2, capacity: 4,270,700 Disposal Site m 3, duration: ) Minami Honmoku Landfill Site Sinmeidai Landfill Site (430,000 m 2, capacity: 6,809,700 m 3, Sinmeidai Landfill Site duration, ) Prior Actions on Waste Management Before G Start of sorted collection of cans and bins in the whole city Designation of recyclable waste, aluminum and steel cans 1997 Charging to bulk waste and general waste from business activities Installation of boxes for recyclable waste (Act on Special Measures concerning Countermeasures on Dioxins) 2000 Installation of translucid bag for collection of general waste 2001 Increase of charges on installation of garbage into incinerator plants Consignment of waste collection to enterprises (stop of public services on waste collection ) Collaboration with Citizens Before G Provision of incentives for community-based collection of recyclable resources 1997 Strengthened instruction for business sector in line with charging for business waste Note: Compiled by the Study Team based on various sources. Major Actions on Waste Management After G Yokohama G30 Program Restriction of installment of wooden waste and recyclable paper into incinerator plants 2005 Expansion of segregation categories and items (10 categories and 15 items ) 2007 put back revenue from collected resources to community 2008 Reduction of frequency of collection of domestic waste (for combustible waste: three times a week Ł twice a week, for recycled paper, etc: once a month Ł twice a month) Penalty on violators Collaboration with Citizens After G G30 eco-partner agreement with enterprises which voluntarily reduce packages and containers of the products 2009 Trilateral committee, Yokohama Challenge the Reduce (citizen, business, government) 3-36

85 The basic policy of the Kawasaki Eco-Town is as follows: Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction (i) Promote Company Eco-friendliness: Eco-friendliness of the company itself is encouraged. For example, a high-grade company that is taking various measures to become an eco-friendly plant, such as improving the environmental management system, achieving zero-emission of plant wastewater and zero-emission of wastes in the plant, constructing a transportation system with taking environment into account, etc. is introduced as a zero-emission model plant. (ii) Promote Regional Eco-friendliness: For the second step, companies under promoting eco-friendliness join hands with one another to aim at achieving ecofriendliness as the region. To achieve this, the city sets the environmental goal and lays down the regional environmental statement. The conception that serves as the core of the regional eco-friendliness is to promote the Kawasaki Zero-Emission Industrial Park Refurbishing Project. In addition, the company will constructively wrestle with obtaining the certification of ISO Series, as well as positively involve with the joint resource recovery of paper, bottles, cans, PET bottles, etc. as joint recycling in the region and with using recycled products. (iii) Carry Out Researches for Achieving the Region that makes Sustainable Development with Special Stress Placed on the Environment: Researches will be carried out for achieving the region that makes sustainable development with special stress placed on the environment. Researches will be conducted for the further sustainable development of the eco-town. For the effective utilization of energy, plant waste heat will be used in cascades. Approaches will be also made to recycle regional materials and to construct a product recycling system for the commercialization. To promote the research and development type industry, joint research and development will be made on the eco-friendly technologies by interchange of companies. (iv) Computerize the Results of Activities of Companies and the Region to Contribute to the Society and Developing Countries: The results of companies and the region will be computerized in order to make contributions to the society and developing countries. In order for companies and the region to achieve ecofriendliness and computerize the eco-town including sustainable researches on ecofriendliness, information such as eco-friendly technologies, etc. will be provided, environmental performance will be evaluated, and the environmental information within the eco-town will be positively transmitted to the areas outside the region. The Eco-Friendly Hall which has the information transmission functions will be positioned as the place of interchange, learning, and providing environmental information. At the 7.7-ha site inside the eco-town, the Kawasaki Zero-Emission Industrial Park is planned, and 17 companies are planned to launch into the Park with the group-installed building construction project system of the Corporation of Environmental Conservation applied. It was developed as a state-of-the-art model facility of the Kawasaki Eco-Town Plan. It was fully operated in In addition to controlling waste generated by the business activities of individual companies, efforts are directed at maximizing resourcerecovery from waste and regeneration of energy in order to minimize the environmental burden. The following are the major initiatives implemented by the Park. (i) Acquisition of joint certification of ISO14001 for the entire industrial park; (ii) Setting of higher reduction targets than emission standards of the generated environmental burden; 3-37

86 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction (iii) Joint reception by the neighboring businesses of the electricity from the surplus electricity; (iv) Effective use of sewerage water after advanced treatment as alternative for water for industrial use; and (v) Utilization of sewerage sludge ash as raw material in cement in nearby factories. Figure Image of Kawasaki Eco-town Source: City of Kawasaki (b) Lessons Learned Zero-emission of industrial sector cannot be realized by one factory or one enterprise alone. Coordination among various industries is inevitable in order to effectively utilize their waste and by-products. In other words, it requires an agglomeration of enterprises and factories in a specific area. The Eco-town project initiated by METI and MOE aims to promote the effective use of energy and resources within a region and expand it to advanced, environmentally sustainable urban development of the whole city. Kawasaki City designated its whole coastal area as eco-town and promoted zeroemission through coordination of various enterprises. It expanded its eco-town concept beyond industrial sector such as effective use of general waste of Kawasaki City. It is also notable in the eco-town project of Kawasaki City to promote eco-friendly actions of companies themselves or at district level. 5) Comprehensive Approach to Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Most programs toward energy-saving and promotion of renewable energy of local governments were promoted with Local Vision on New Energy or Local Vision for Energy Efficiency, with a financial support of NEDO. The Local Vision on New Energy gave a basic strategy on new energy, such as wind power, solar power, biomass (wooden, animal industry, and agriculture), which utilized regional condition of each local authority. The Local Vision for Energy Efficiency showed possible actions toward energy saving, which considered demand-supply of energy of the region. After examining expanded 3-38

87 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction possibilities to promote new energy and energy efficiency in these visions, local governments conducted feasibility study on the identified projects. As of 2008, a total of 697 and 217 local authorities have formulated their own Local Vision on New Energy and Local Vision on Energy Efficiency, respectively. NEDO provides subsidy to local authorities to conduct feasibility study as well as formulate the visions. (1) Promotion of Renewable Energy While there are several cases with a single-action only, such as the introduction of photovoltaic system or installation of wind power station in the public facilities, some of them introduced comprehensive approach to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency. For example, some local authorities integrated the promotion of renewable energy with regional industrial development. Revenues from electric power selling of renewable energy are used for other environmental actions. (a) Effective Utilization of Regional Renewable Energy Sources, Town of Yusuhara The town of Yusuhara in Kochi prefecture took advantage of its windy conditions all year round and decided to introduce wind power stations. It set a basic recycling concept that revenues from wind-powered electricity will be used to revitalize forests. In other words, it established the Environmental fund with revenues from generated electricity, about 30 to 40 million annually, and used them to provide subsidy for forest thinning operation (JPY100,000 per ha) and for photovoltaic systems. Yusuhara also introduced various renewable energy systems as well as wind-power generation. It includes installation of photovoltaic systems at public facilities such as elementary schools (17 systems with a capacity of 363 kw), shift from oil burner for wood drying to biomass boiler at woodyard, heat-pump with soil heat at heated public pools, and so on. The experiences of Yusuhara are notable since they fully take advantage of its local resources and established additional revenue for other environmental projects as Environmental Fund, which can be lessons for other cities. (b) Renewable Energy with Sewerage System, Tokyo Metropolitan Area The Tokyo metropolitan government has promoted the use of renewable energy for its sewerage system, as urban-type renewable energy. It includes biomass power generation with digestion gas generated from sewage sludge, small-scale hydroelectric power generation using head of fluid of sewerage waste flow, carbonization of sewage sludge for alternative resources at thermal plants, utilization of waste heat from sewage for regional heating and cooling system, installation of photovoltaic systems, and so on, most of which are for effective use of unused energy left in the urban infrastructure. It also shifted the use of heavy oil to city gas and promoted energy saving during the process of incineration of sewage sludge. As a result, the Tokyo metropolitan government has achieved CO 2 reduction by 16% in 2009 from the level of 1990 within its sewerage system. Urban utility services, such as water supply and sewerage, in large cities have heavy environmental load such as consumption of huge energy resources and emission of GHG. In this sense, a comprehensive approach to incorporate renewable energy and promote energy saving in such large urban infrastructure, as seen in the Tokyo metropolitan government, can contribute to environmental improvement significantly. 3-39

88 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Figure Transition of GHG Emission in Sewerage Services in Tokyo Metropolitan Area (10,000 ton CO 2/year) Reduce by 16% Target Line 956,000 t-co 2 /year (16% reduction from the level of 1990) Amount of emission cuts is equivalent to CO 2 absorbed by the forest with 70% area of Tokyo 23 wards 1990 Base Year 2004 Start Action Source: Website of Tokyo metropolitan government, Sewerage Department 2009 Target Year (2) Promotion of Energy Efficiency On the other hand, there are few cases of integrated approach toward energy efficiency done by local governments, most of which are single-shot actions such as the introduction of energy-saving equipment at public facilities and campaign activities. It is expected for local governments to conduct a wider range of actions toward energy efficiency, such as the integration of the concept of energy efficiency into urban planning. (a) ESCO Project in Public Facilities One of the actions to promote energy efficiency in public facilities is the ESCO (Energy Saving Company) 3 project. Yokohama City has contracted with ESCO to promote energy efficiency at its public facilities. It conducted a model project of ESCO in the southern hospital of Yokohama in 2003, which achieved 20% of energy saving (see Table 3.2.5). Since then, the city has introduced ESCO in various facilities, such as the ward office buildings, municipal hospitals, International Stadium Yokohama, libraries, etc. Table Performance of ESCO in Yokohama Southern Hospital (2008) Original Target of Reduction Actual Performance of Reduction Energy Use by 22.5% by 19.7% Utility Costs JPY49.3 million JPY57.9 million CO2 Emission 1,989 ton CO2 1,836 ton CO2 Source: City of Yokohama (b) Lessons Learned In a city, there are huge potentials for energy saving and renewable energy as alternative to conventional fossil fuel such as solar power, solar heating, wind power, biomass, smallscale hydroelectric power generation, unused energy in sewerage systems. Since such approaches to energy efficiency and renewable energy require close coordination with 3 ESCO is a commercial business providing comprehensive services for energy-efficiency, which can contribute both benefit of clients and preservation of global environment. The savings in energy costs is used to pay back the capital investment of the project and rewarded to the ESCO, which can be reinvested into the building to allow for capital upgrades. If the project fails to provide return on the investment, the ESCO is often responsible to pay the difference. 3-40

89 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction relevant stakeholders such as government, citizens, business, energy suppliers, etc, a city authority is required to control the overall framework. Some cities have integrated introduction of renewable energy with local industrial development and effective use of unused energy. Renewable energy can also secure financing sources for environmental actions by using revenues from electric generation with renewable energy in other sectors. It is also important to introduce renewable energy and energy efficiency comprehensively in the urban utility services, which have huge environmental loads, particularly in large cities. 6) Financing Schemes for Sustainable Development (1) Overview of Environmental Financing by Local Government The historical trend of local government spending on pollution control activities is shown in Figure , which include prefectures and municipalities. As described in Chapter 3.1, it has similar trend with that of the central government, which rapidly increased in the 1970s, peaked around the mid- to late 1990s, and started to decrease afterward. This trend is closely related with the improvement of environmental conditions owing to a series of investments in pollution control. It should be noted that countermeasures on global warming are not included in this figure. Since pollution has improved, expenses on environmental protection by the central government and local governments have decreased after peaking around It is also correlated with the decrease in generated amounts of general waste and the achievement of environmental standards for air. In other words, it shows that continuous investment in environmental protection has improved the environment. Recently, expenses of the central government on countermeasures on global warming have increased. Environment-related expenses are expected to be more related with global warming rather than conventional actions challenging the pollution problems such as air pollution, water contamination, and so on. (2) Financing for Sustainability and Resilience to Disaster The above environmental expenses include projects directly related to environment, such as pollution control equipments, environment-related facilities, cost of solid waste disposal. On the other hand, other general expenses of local governments such as urban infrastructure development and public transportation development are also required to consider sustainability and resilience from long-term and regional point of view. However, it is difficult to quantify the environmental impact of public transportation development on formulating compact urban structure and impact of greenery development on alleviation of heat islands, which is not considered in the conventional evaluation. With short-term profitability, such projects are easily assessed non-feasible. Sustainable urban development to harmonize economy and environment requires long-term and regional assessment on impact on city s sustainability and resilience. (a) Comprehensive Assessment on Public Transportation Development, Toyama City Public transportation development in Toyama City has applied comprehensive assessment on qualitative social and economic benefit together with actual investment amount from a long-term point of view on sustainability. 3-41

90 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Figure Local Government Spending on Pollution Control (prefectures and municipalities) Source: formulated based on the White Paper on Environment Note: Pollution control actions are mainly composed of sewerage development and waste disposal facilities development (i) Profitability of the Project Toyama assessed financial operability of Toyama Port Line, converted to LRT from the existing railway, based on the results of the demand forest. The results showed that operational expenses would exceed its incomes from railway operation about JPY20 30 million annually, assuming that repair of train cars would be required every four years. It also showed that, once connected with other LRT lines in the city, operational expenses could almost be balanced with fare receipts. Table Income and Expenditure Account Statement (in million JPY) Item 1st year 6th year 11th year 15th year Fare receipts Revenue Miscellaneous receipts Sub-total Personnel Expenses miscellaneous expense Fixed property tax Sub-total Profit before depreciation Source: City of Toyama (ii) Impact and Feasibility of the Project In judging the project impact and feasibility of regional railway project, it is important to assess if its overall social benefit can exceed the anticipated costs to operate the services as well as its financial viability. In this context, Toyama City estimated social benefit and social significance of LRT conversion project of Toyama Port Line. The benefit of the transportation project includes that for users such as shortening of travel time and waiting time and that for others, including ease of traffic congestion, decrease in traffic accidents, reduction of CO 2 and NOx, both of which can be overall social benefits. Assessment was conducted along two scenarios, i.e., (i) conversion of Toyama Port Line into LRT and (ii) renovated Toyama Port Line as an elevated line. These two scenarios were compared with without-project scenario, where Toyama Port 3-42

91 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Line was abolished and supplemented by bus services. Investment cost of each scenario was estimated, including development and renovation of facilities, based on which net benefit was also estimated. The result of assessment with 30-year span shows that the overall social benefit is the highest in Scenario 1 with conversion of Toyama Port Line into LRT line, which is JPY12.0 billion higher than Scenario 2 with renovation as an elevated line and JPY31.0 billion higher than the without-project scenario. It is also concluded that net benefit is also highest in the Scenario 1. It shows that LRT conversion project can bring about much more social benefit than renovation into elevated line or introduction of alternate bus service, which can even justify government subsidy on development and renovation of facilities and shortfall in its operation. Table Estimated Costs and Social Benefits 1) by Scenario Item Scenario 1 Conversion to LRT Scenario 2 Renovation as Elevated Line Scenario 3 Supplemented by bus Services For users Shortening of travel time 9,000 5,700 0 Reduction of travel cost Benefit For others Decrease of traffic accident Reduction of CO2 emission Alleviation of traffic congestion 20,100 11,900 0 Sub-total 30,600 18,900 0 Operational balance ,200 Cost Construction investment - 4,500-6, Renewal of facilities -2, Sub-total -6,800-6,000 1,400 Net Profit 22,400 11,500 - Source: City of Toyama 1) for 30 years, social discount rate 4%, JPY million (b) Lessons Learned The feasibility of urban development projects should incorporate external effect such as saving of resources and improvement of environment, as well as financial viability. It is required to assess the impact on important components for sustainable urban society qualitatively and quantitatively, such as mitigation of global warming, resistance to disaster, involvement of elderly people, and so on. It is also necessary to internalize external effects as much as possible and to clarify beneficiaries and cost sharing, in order to formulate financially sustainable implementation plans. (3) Green Taxation in Yokohama City (a) Overall Description In Yokohama City, the ratio of green coverage, or the total amount of green, has continuously decreased along with urbanization. About 100 ha of greenery, including forest and agricultural land, have disappeared annually from 2004 to 2009, most of which are located in private land. The survey research on people s attitude conducted in 2008 showed that 58% of respondents wanted to increase greenery and 40% wanted to keep the current level. Only 1% of respondents answered the loss of greenery is unavoidable. In other words, there is a great need to increase or sustain the area for greenery. 3-43

92 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction In response to such citizen s demand, the city decided to promote new development and expansion of greenery area and formulated Yokohama Plan to Increase Greenery. This plan aims to stop the loss of greenery within Yokohama City and to inherit green and clean Yokohama to the next generation. The plan is composed of 3 core actions, namely to preserve forest area, to preserve agricultural land and to develop greenery. Actions to preserve forest areas include expansion of designated preservation area under greenery protection system by twice in the next five years from the current level of 830 ha to preserve two-thirds of the forests which need to be preserved. It also includes operation and management and utilization of preserved forest areas through close cooperation with citizens. Secondly, actions to preserve agricultural land of 50ha for five years include acquisition of prime agricultural land and provision of conventional support for farmers to keep their lands. Private farmland shall be also developed in order to promote citizens participation for agriculture. Actions to develop greenery are composed of greenery development in private lands and public facilities with 1km of planting fence and 10 ha of greenery area for five years as well as community-based greenery network development. In order to secure stable financing sources to promote the Yokohama Plan to Increase Greenery, Yokohama City established Yokohama Greenery Tax, which shall be topped up equally on residential tax on individuals and corporate bodies. Yokohama Greenery Tax shall be saved as Yokohama Greenery Fund and managed separately from the general account. As of 2009, the total amount of project cost of the Yokohama Plan to Increase Greenery is estimated at JPY 7,187 million, of which 14.8%, or JPY 1,064 million, shall be secured from Yokohama Greenery Fund. Some of particular actions include management and utilization of forest area and agricultural land, acquisition of greenery area, training of farmers, community-level greenery development, and so on. Table Overview of Yokohama City s Greenery Tax Period of Taxation 5 years from FY 2009 Taxation Individual: JPY900 /year shall be toped up equally on the residential tax. (except for citizens who has income lower than the standard and shall be exempted from residential tax with lower income) Corporate Body: residential tax shall be increased by 9% (except for corporate bodies exempted from the residential tax for the initial two years) Tax Revenue About JPY2.4 billion per year (Individual: JPY1.6 billion, corporate body: JPY0.8 billion) Save as Fund Taxation revenue shall be saved as Yokohama Greenery Fund Usage Preservation of forest and agricultural land as public-owned land (support for owners to preserve the land, or acquisition if necessary, such as inheritance) Promotion of greenery development Improvement of O&M and enhancement of greenery quality Promotion of public participation Source: City of Yokohama (http://www.city.yokohama.jp/me/somu/citytax/shizei/midorizei.html) 3-44

93 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Figure Historical Changes in Greenery Ratio and Population Greenery Coverage (%) Population (10,000) 1970 (50%) 1980 (40%) 2004 (31%) Source: City of Yokohama (b) Lessons Learned In the developing countries, it is difficult to secure funds for new development project due to overstrained financing. However, it is difficult to recover urban greenery once lost. Appropriate and timely greenery development can play a significant role to ensure urban sustainability. Special taxes for greenery development can a tool to secure financial sources for such greenery development, which should be acknowledged and accepted by the citizens. (4) Forest Environment and Water Resources Preservation Tax in Kanagawa Prefecture (a) Overall Trend of Taxation on Water Resources in Japan Recently increasing number of municipalities has introduced water resources tax or forest environment tax in order to secure financing for preservation of water resources for drinking water and forestry protection. Water resources tax or forest environment tax is introduced as a special tax for specific purpose of a municipality, with the purpose of charging the cost for its forest development and improvement projects on its residents. Forest can play various functions to cultivate water sources, to prevent flooding and sediment disaster, to absorb CO 2 emission, to preserve biodiversity, to provide recreation, and so on. It has been big concern for municipalities to stop depredation of forests and recover them. 3-45

94 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Table Forest Environment Tax or Water Resources Tax by Prefecture Year Prefecture Tax Tax Amount 1) Revenue Application of funds (JPY mil) 2003 Kochi Forest Environment Tax I: JPY 500 Forest environmental protection etc. 1.7 C: JPY Okayama Forest Development Tax I: JPY 500 Forest function strengthening etc. 5.6 C: 5% 2005 Tottori Tax on Forest Environment I: JPY 500 Forest development etc. 1.8 Preservation C: JPY 5% Shimane Tax for Water and Greenery I: JPY 500 Improvement of devastated forest, 2 Forest Development C: JPY 5% etc Yamaguchi Forest Development Tax I: JPY 500 Forest development etc. 4 C: JPY 5% Ehime Forest Environmental Tax I: JPY 500 Forest development and protection 3.5 C: JPY 5% etc. Kumamoto Tax for Water and Greenery I: JPY 500 Renovation of mixed forest, etc. 4.9 Forest Development C: JPY 5% Kagoshima Forest Environmental Tax I: JPY 500 Forest environmental protection etc. 4.2 C: JPY 5% 2006 Fukushima Forest Environmental Tax I: JPY 1,000 Forest management, etc. 10 C: JPY 10% Hyogo Greenery Tax I: JPY 800 Forest development for disaster 21 C: JPY 10% prevention etc. Nara Forest Environmental Tax I: JPY 500 Campaign and work-study program, 3.6 C: JPY 5% etc. Ohita Forest Environmental Tax I: JPY 500 Forest development for disaster 3.1 C: JPY 5% prevention etc. Shiga Tax on Biwa Lake Forest I: JPY 800 Forest development etc. 6 Development C: JPY 11% Iwate Forest Development Tax I: JPY 1,000 Forest development for environment 7 C: JPY 10% etc. Shizuoka Forest Development Tax I: JPY 400 Improvement of devastated forest, 9 C: JPY 5% etc Miyazaki Forest Environmental Tax I: JPY 500 Forest development etc. 2.8 C: JPY 5% 2007 Wakayama Kinokuni Forest Development Tax I: JPY 500 Forest development and related 2.6 C: JPY 5% projects Kanagawa Water Resources Preservation I: JPY % Forest development at water 38 Tax on income tax resources Toyama Tax for Water and Greenery I: JPY 500 Forest development etc. 3.5 Forest Development C: JPY 5% Yamagata Greenery Environmental Tax I: JPY 1,000 Improvement of devastated forest, 6 C: JPY 10 % etc Ishikawa Forest Environmental Tax I: JPY 500 Forest development etc. 3.7 C: JPY 5% Hiroshima Forest Development Tax I: JPY 500 Renovation of devastated forest, etc 8.1 C: JPY 5% Nagasaki Forest Environmental Tax I: JPY 500 Forest development through 3.7 C: JPY 5% community participation 2008 Akita Tax for Water and Greenery I: JPY 800 Renovation of mixed forest, etc. 4.8 Forest Development C: JPY 5% Ibaraki Forest and Lake Environment Tax I: JPY 1,000 Forest development and 16 C: JPY 10 % preservation etc. Tochigi Forest Development Tax I: JPY 700 Forest development for environment 8 C: JPY 7% etc. Nagano Forest Development Tax I: JPY 500 Forest development, etc 6.8 C: JPY 5% Fukuoka Forest Environmental Tax I: JPY 500 Renovation of devastated forest, etc 13 C: JPY 5% Saga Forest Environmental Tax I: JPY 500 Renovation of devastated forest, etc 2.3 C: JPY 5% 2009 Aichi Forest and Greenery Development I: JPY 500 Forest development etc. 22 Tax C: JPY 5% Source: Miyagi Prefecture 1) I: Individual, C: Corporate 3-46

95 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction (b) Water Resources Preservation Tax in Kanagawa Prefecture Most of water supply in Kanagawa prefecture depends on dams along two large water system of the Sagami River and the Sakawa River, of which water comes from the Tanzawa mountains. Since water stored in the dams are nurtured, cultivated and purified by surrounding natural environment such as rivers and forests in the upriver. However, depredation of forest and lack of wastewater treatment in the upper river basin has threatened such natural environment. In order to solve such problems, Kanagawa prefecture introduced Water Resources Preservation Tax as, which additionally charged to prefectural tax on individuals in As special tax for specific purposes to preserve forest and water resources environment, its revenues shall be used for project of preservation and reclamation of water resources. In order to clarify its application, special account has been newly established together with special fund. As of now, its revenues have been used for implementation of the projects identified in the Five-year Action Plan on Preservation and Reclamation of Water Resources Environment for 2007 to In FY2007, the tax revenues from Water Resources Tax was about JPY3.6 billion, while the project implementation cost for the above five-year plan was about JPY3.2 billion. Table Revenue and Expenditure of Water Resources Preservation Tax in FY2007 Revenue (JPY 000) Expenditure (JPY 000) Tax revenue from Water 3,591,048 Resources Preservation Tax Profit from managing fund 893 Ł Donation 609 Interest 716 Project implementation for preservation and reclamation of water resources Fund (to be used in future) 3,245, ,630 Total 3,593,266 Total 3,593,266 Source: Kanagawa Prefecture, Report of Water Resources Preservation Tax and Project Implementation (c) Lessons Learned It is one of the most important urban infrastructure to secure water resources for residents. In order to secure funds for the preservation of water resources and the development of watersheds, an increasing number of municipalities have introduced its own water resources tax and forest environmental tax as special taxes for specific purposes. It enables a city to fund its own projects and charge such project costs to its residents. It can be a financing scheme for cities in developing countries to secure funds to conduct necessary projects. 3-47

96 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction 3.3 Participation of Community / Civil Society 1) From Public Opposition to Public Participation (1) Residents Movement against Pollution since 1950s Residents efforts for environment started from public opposition to pollution in the 1950s. There had been large-scale lobbying campaigns of hundreds of citizens with the government for pollution control in Yokohama City and so on since the early Opposition campaigns against construction of an industrial complex in Mishima City and Numazu City were particularly significant in 1963 and 1964, respectively. Against the background of serious pollution caused by the industrial complex in Yokkaichi City, citizens from all walks of life participated in the opposition campaigns, while the conventional lobbying campaign was mostly done by fisher and farm folk against enterprises. As a result, the local councils in those cities adopted a resolution against the construction of industrial complexes, which called off the project. People directly damaged by pollution such as air pollution filed lawsuits to ask for compensation and promote pollution control. Typical pollution case in Yokkaichi City was brought by the residents in 1967, which awarded them in Such citizen s movement against urban problems and pollution problems was a driving power for local governments, country and then the private sector to take action on pollution control. (2) Public Participation Since 1980s In the 1980s, citizens lobbying activities slowed down as pollution problems had somehow been solved. Instead, public focus shifted to active public participation from passive action against pollution problems. As described in Chapter 3, the amendment of the City Planning Act in 1968 introduced public participation into the urban planning process and the District Plan formulated in 1980 made much progress on community participation in urban planning. Citizens movement which originated with the opposition against pollution problems also contributed to make people more aware of urban problems and enhanced their willingness to participate in urban development. Particularly in the areas which experienced serious pollution problems, citizens participation expanded into various activities, such as community-based urban revitalization, recycling activities, and so on. 2) Increased Public Awareness of Environmental Issues Two oil shocks occurred in 1973 and 1979 significantly affected people s awareness on environment. It built a sense of crisis on shortage of resources and made people rerealize that natural resources were not innumerable. Later people became to relate importance on effective use of limited resources with environmental problems. In the 1990s, international society showed growing interest on global environment. Global warming problem is closely related with people s life, since people also cause global warming through CO 2 emission in their daily life. In this sense, it enhanced further increase of people s awareness on environment. Various educational campaign on environment, such as Challenge 25 and Cool Biz have also significantly contributed to make people more sensitive to environment. It is also said that the recent long-lasting economic slowdown has made people reflect on consumption-intensive lifestyle for economical reasons, which also led to increased environmental awareness. 3-48

97 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction The survey conducted by the government showed that 74.1% of respondents are willing to take some actions against global warming in 1998 (Survey on Global Environment and Lifestyle, General Administrative Agency of the Cabinet), while 50.8% of people did not consider environmental problems seriously in 1971 (Survey on People s Environmental Awareness General Administrative Agency of the Cabinet). In other words, people, as a consumer, have been more conscious on environment. More people are willing to buy goods which use fewer resources, generate less waste, or contribute to environmental preservation even with higher price, where added value on environment is highly appreciated. Such growing environmental awareness of consumers has directly affected on business strategies, resulting in development of eco-friendly products. On the other hand, such environmental awareness is very sensitive to economic climate. For example, willingness to pay for eco-friendly goods temporally declined after burst of the bubble economy in the early 1990s. It is also pointed out that people with higher income tend to put more priority on environment. Household Income (JPY million /year) Table Environmental Awareness by Household Income < Price priority (%) Environment priority (%) Source: Environmental Awareness of Consumers and Environmental Strategy of Distribution Industry Recently, a variety of environmental activities have been widely conducted to enhance environmental awareness of next generation. It includes Eco-club projects, where children take initiatives on environmental actions and learning in the region with a strong association with municipalities. On the other hand, it is also pointed out that there is a gap between increasing environmental awareness and actual actions. In order to make full use of high environmental awareness, basic platform and institutional framework is required to support actual environmental actions, such as eco-goods market, systemized environmental organization, political concern on environment, and so on. 3) Community-based Environmental Activities (1) Community-based Sorted Collection of Recyclable Waste (a) Overall Description In Japan, community-based collection of recyclable waste is widely done by community organizations, such as neighborhood association, PTA and so on. It utilizes the unity of local community, which traditionally existed in Japan, for public-interest activities in the area. The volume of resources collected by such community-based activities is 2.83 million ton in 2003, which has increased by 1.5 times in the last ten years from 1.92 million ton in More than 90% of collected resources are waste paper such as newspaper. The volume of recyclable waste collected by community-based activities account for 30% of all collected recyclable waste of general waste. (b) Mechanism of Community-based Sorted Collection Community-based sorted collection system of recyclable waste is conducted in close coordination among municipalities, citizens, and contractors. There are several arrangements regarding this. In one case, citizens take the initiative to form collection 3-49

98 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction systems and directly deal with collection traders, where municipalities provide direct subsidy. In another case, community-based organizations, municipalities and collection traders jointly form cooperation systems. Or, municipalities take the initiative to conduct sorted collection and sell resources to collection traders. Community-based organizations can be neighborhood organizations or PTAs in elementary schools, in case the local community has been undermined. Private traders can be a main actor, as seen in Yokohama City. Municipalities provide various types of support to promote community-based sorted collection of recyclable gods. In 2008, about 80% of municipalities provided support to community-based sorted collection of recyclable waste. It included the provision of financial incentives (91.3%), PR and publication of collection, provision of subsidy for collecting traders, lending of necessary instruments (9.4%). For example, Setagaya Ward in Tokyo provided financial incentives for community-based organizations with more than 10 households and. Additional subsidy was also provided depending on actual performance. Community-based organizations could use equipment required for collecting activities including containers and flags. Table Support of Local Government on Community-based Sorted Collection Collected Item Recyclable waste included in the garbage collection services of local government (newspaper, magazine, cardboard, bottle, and can) Recyclable waste not collected by local government (clothes, carton, etc) Source: White Paper on Recycling, 2006 Basic Subsidy JPY 6 / kg JPY 10 / kg Volume of Collected Waste (ton/year) Additional from 1 ton to 10 ton JPY 9,000 From 10 ton to 20 ton JPY 12,000 From 20 ton to 50 ton JPY 15,000 above 50 ton JPY 17,000 Community-based sorted collection of recyclable waste has widely and continuously expanded, because it has saved cost for waste collection services of municipalities. The survey on community-based sorted collection of recyclable waste conducted by Dynax Urban Environmental Institute showed that cost for community-based activities on collecting recyclable waste is lower than that for municipal services 4. At present, most municipalities have duplicate routes to collect recyclable waste, namely community-based activities and municipal services. It is desirable that municipal services supplement community activities. In other words, community-based organizations or NPOs should conduct what they can do, while municipalities should be in charge of what NPOs cannot do. Some municipalities already consider community-based activities as a core route of collection of recyclable goods, and municipalities provide services for recyclable waste and in areas which cannot be covered by community-based activities. (c) Lessons Learned Community-based sorted collection of recyclable goods can be sustainable by providing several benefits for all stakeholders, namely cost saving and decrease of waste volume with increased environmental awareness of citizens for municipalities, strengthened connection within a community and financial incentives for citizens, and increase of transaction volume for collection traders. It is important to utilize its market principle of recyclable waste and to formulate role sharing of citizens, collection traders and 4 The cost of community-based collection and that of public collection is JPY12 and JPY30 in City-A, JPY44.5 and JPY72 in City-B, and JPY6 and JPY24 in City C, respectively. 3-50

99 municipalities, which shall be suited to the local conditions. Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction (2) From Social Welfare for Disabled People to Urban Development Integrated with Social Welfare for All (a) Overall Description Nerima Ward has experienced an increase in population and is faced with an aging society with fewer children. In 2008, population over the age of 65 exceeded young population from 0 to 14. Its share reached at 17%. The number of disabled people is also increasing. In 2005, there were 16,634 with physical disabilities and 3,055 with intellectual disabilities, which increased by 19% and 43% in the last 10 years, respectively. It is estimated that the total number of elderly, disabled, and small babies will account for 30% of the total population by In response to such changes at society, Nerima Ward has conducted community-driven actions toward urban development integrated with social welfare from early on. It originally started from improvement of living environment for disabled people. Later with recognition that barrier-free is important for all, including the elderly and people caring children as well as disabled people, it has expanded to urban development integrated with social welfare for all. Historical overview of Nerima s urban development integrated with social welfare is shown below. (i) 1982: Nerima Action Plan on Disabled People; (ii) 1984: Designation as City with Advanced Welfare for Disabled; (iii) 1993: Basic Outline for Urban Development integrated with Social Welfare; (iv) 2001: Promotion Committee for People-friendly Urban Planning (later strengthened in to Promotion Committee for Urban Planning integrated with Social Welfare in 2003); (v) 2003: Plan for Administrative Reform (expanded collaboration with citizens); and (vi) 2006: Comprehensive Urban Development Plan integrated with Social Welfare. It is notable that collaboration with citizens is emphasized in all stages of urban development, from planning to implementation. Based on the current problems and issues identified and shared with citizens, necessary actions will be examined and implemented through coordination with a municipality and its citizens. The Promotion Committee for People-friendly Urban Planning formed in 2001 and later reorganized as the Promotion Committee for Urban Planning integrated with Social Welfare is a basis for cooperation with citizens. The Comprehensive Urban Development Plan integrated with Social Welfare in 2006 introduced 200 monitors for urban development in order to incorporate diversified opinions, including the disabled, elderly, and children and formulate urban development from the user s point of view. This plan focused on sympathy, cooperation, and implementation platform, and identified the roles of ward government and citizens in each action plan. (b) Lessons Learned Nerima s urban development plan integrated with social welfare has formulated a platform for cooperation with citizens at every stage of urban development. In other words, citizens can participate in the formulation and implementation of the plan and its evaluation to reflect their opinion in forthcoming plans. Nerima Ward has expanded social welfare for the disabled and the elderly into urban development with universal design and livability. 3-51

100 4 DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES AND INITIATIVES BY THE PRIVATE SECTOR 4.1 Historical Trend of Environmental Actions by the Private Sector In the beginning of Japan s rapid economic growth, the private sector was not active in environmental issues and on pollution management. Even when the Basic Act for Environmental Pollution Control was established, or a concept of liability without fault was introduced such as in Air Pollution Control Act, industrial groups showed resistance to legislative processes. However, negotiation with pollution victims, regulations established by national and local governments, and lawsuits stemming from pollution rapidly changed the attitude of enterprises on pollution issues and management. They eventually recognized the fact that they had to tackle pollution management as a social responsibility and they started to take concrete actions. As a result, the total private investment in pollution control facilities increased at an annual growth rate of from 34% to 69% during the period 1966 to After the first oil shock, the total amount of investments in pollution control facilities reached JPY960 billion in 1975, which accounted for 17% of total private facility investment. Pollution control and management became one of the priorities in private investment. With such investments, enterprises developed various technologies and know-how on pollution control in order to meet strict regulations, such as those on emission standards. They contributed significantly in improving the environmental conditions in Japan and in fostering one of the world s top environmental technologies. Since government requires the designation of supervisors for heat management and for pollution control management within specific enterprises, a group of internal experts on the environment was organized, which served as a basis in the development of pollution control actions. Since the 1990s, along with increasing concerns on global warming and resource scarcity, the private sector has also been required to prepare countermeasures on global warming and the promotion of a recycling society, including pollution control. It is widely recognized that environmental actions are inevitable among Figure Environmental Actions in the Private Sector Source: Environmental Statistics, MOE, Japan, ) Percentage of corporations among all listed companies. enterprises and businesses. This has resulted in the Keidanren Charter on Global Environment in 1991 which established the Keidanren Voluntary Action Plan on Environment in 1996 in order to promote active environmental actions in the business world. More enterprises have also started to incorporate environment concerns in their management strategies and formulated detailed action plans incorporating environmental targets since 1990 as shown in Figure

101 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction 4.2 Overall Description of Environmental Technologies Environmental technologies developed by the private sector have significantly contributed in achieving sustainable urban development in Japan, while urban governance, such as laws, regulations, and public investment, has played a major role in urban development. This chapter describes environmental technologies and businesses in the private sector in Japan. There are various definitions and categories of environmental industry. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) defines environmental industry as follows: The environmental goods and services industry consists of activities which produce goods and services to measure, prevent, limit, minimize or correct environmental damage to water, air and soil, as well as problems related to waste, noise and ecosystems. This includes cleaner technologies, products and services that reduce environmental risk and minimize pollution and resource use. Based on the above definition, the OECD categorizes the environmental industry into (i) pollution management, (ii) cleaner technologies and products, and (iii) resources management. In this report, environmental technologies are summarized in Table based on OECD categories, where information on environmental technologies prepared by the National Institute for Environmental Studies and environmental business categories by METI also integrate notable technologies which are in line with Eco 2 initiatives and have high applicability in developing countries, as described in Chapter 4.4. A. Global Environment A.1 Renewable Energy Table List of Environmental Technologies Area Technology Description Photovoltaic generation Solar heat utilization Wind-power generation power Snow and ocean energy use Biomass A.2 New Energy Resources Liberalization of energy market Photovoltaic power system Photovoltaic housing Introduction of photovoltaic system into buildings and factories High- efficiency solar power generation Street light and garage lighting with photovoltaic system Solar heating system Solar heating and how water system Introduction of solar heating system into public facilities, factories, and residences Wind-power generation business Wind farm Steady supply of power Small wind power generator for isolated island Software for location survey Snow energy use Ocean energy use Use of deep water Direct combustion (biomass power generation with scrap wood and rice straw) Thermo chemical reaction (sludge gasification, liquid fuel by thermal decomposition, liquefaction) Biological response (power generation with sewage sludge, raw garbage, and feces Biodiesel (recycled cooking oil used for automobile fuel) Biomass plastics (biodegradable plastics from scrap wood and raw garbage) Retail electricity liberalization Expansion of natural gas market 4-2

102 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Area Technology Description A.3 Energy-saving and energyefficiency A.4 Eco Mobility A.5 Prevention for Heat Island A.6 CCS, Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Fuel cell PEFC (Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell) (in practical use for automobile and for residential use) PAFC (Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell) (in practical use at commercial facilities and offices) MCFC (Molten-carbonate fuel cells) (expected to be used at plant) SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) (expected to be used widely) Development of fueled car Technology to supply hydrogen Waste power generation High-efficiency of power generation, Super Waste Power Generation Power generation with Refuse derived fuel (RDF) Gasification fusion furnace Energy-saving equipments Energy-saving home appliances and technologies High-efficient illumination (Bulb-type fluorescent lights, LED Light, Organic EL(Electro Luminescence) light) Heat-pump Effective use of surrounding use Heat-pump used for heating, hot water supply, cooling, and cold storage Heat-pump with gas / geo-heat Energy management Micro-grid/ smart-grid (decentralized energy system) Energy-use control system Fuel cell Consulting services for energy-saving (energy-saving performance contract, ESCO) Energy management system, such as HEMS(Home Energy Management System), BEMS(Building Energy Management System) Efficient use of energy Co-generation (a system to simultaneously generate both electricity and useful heat with heat engine or a power station such as gas turbine, diesel engine, or fuel cell) (generating efficiency 60-90%) Power storage system Clean coal technology Environmental friendly use of coal High-efficient conversion of coal energy Dust collection and desulfurization technology Coal gasification carbon dioxide fixation Environmental vehicle Hybrid vehicle Fueled car (electric vehicle) Natural gas fueled car (CNG car, LNG car, Adsorbed Natural Gas car) Environmental tire Other transportation system toward low-carbon city Covering technologies of earth s surface Afforestation Urban design Separation and capture of CO2 Storage of CO2 in the ground Light rail ITS (provision of traffic information, Advanced Cruise-Assist Highway System, traffic management to east traffic congestion) Foldable bike Water retentive pavement Water retentive building material Rooftop gardening/farming Greenery on the building walls Greenery in the factories and along street Urban district designed to breath smoothly Building with low environmental load Photocatalytic houses Scientific method of CO2 absorption Physical method or CO2 absorption Membrane separation Physical absorption Cryogenic distillation method Storage of CO2 in the water-bearing layer Storage of CO2 into the coal-bed 4-3

103 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Area Technology Description A.7 Monitoring and Forecast of Global Warming A.8 Ozone Layer Protection B. Air Environment B.1 Sulfur oxidation, nitrogen oxidation B.2 Other Gas Emissions B.3 Measures Against Mobile Emission Source C. Air and Soil Environment C.1 Wastewater Management C.2 Remediation and Cleanup of Soil and Groundwater C.3 Purification of river, lake, and ocean Enhanced oil /gas recovery Storage into drained oil /gas pools, Ocean sequestration Dissolution and dilution (fixed ) Dissolution and dilution (mobile) Sequestration into the deep sea Global simulator Risk assessment lf global warming and climate change Collection and destruction of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) Alternative for CFC, non- CFC technology Exhaust gas treatment factories Photocatalytic decomposition Reuse technologies at Dust collection Fuel conversion with natural gas Diesel engine vehicles Low-emission vehicle Wastewater treatment Advanced treatment process Factory wastage treatment degradation environmental pollutants Removal of contaminants of Prevention of the proliferation of soil contamination Physical method Network for collection of CFC FCF-recovery unit FCF disposal facilities FCF destruction technologies Alternative for CFC (HCFC, HFC, PFC) Proposal for countermeasures on global warming (new alternatives) Development of non-cfc Flue-gas desulfurization technologies Flue-gas denitration technologies Sanitization of road and external walls of buildings Purification of air inside room High-efficient desulfurization equipments Absorption of sulfur oxidation with biobrid Filtering or purifying machinery and apparatus for gases Conversion to natural gas DPF (Diesel particulate filter) to reduce PM contained in the emissions NOx storage medium Development of new-model diesel engine Low-sulfur diesel fuel Improvement of fuel efficiency Fuel alternatives, electric vehicles, fueled car Aerobic bio-treatment method: flowing biological method. standard-activated sludge process, long aeration method Biofilm method solid-liquid separation method: Membrane separation activated sludge method (Membrane bioreactor, MBR) Ozonation treatment Activated carbon treatment Ultraviolet treatment Reduction/ elimination of nitrogen-phosphorus and toxic substance Advanced processing and chemical processing of heavy metal Chemical processing of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) Activated carbon and photolytic degradation of organic compound Purification with bioremediation technology Suction of ground gas, groundwater withdrawal, air sparkling, electrophoresis, aeration with high-pressure washing, phytoremediation Soil purification business Seal off of contaminated soil Solidification, insolubilization, melt-solidification Selective effluent Attenuation Sunshine cutoff Decomposition of sludge Hydrophyte Collection of algae Purification ocean contamination due to fuel oil 4-4

104 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Area Technology Description Antispeculation of waste plastic Scientific method Agglomeration and sedimentation Fungicide/herbicide treatment Oxidation of sludge with oxidant Inactivation of nutrient salts Biological method Use of hydrophyte Control of ecological system, revetment C.4 Sewage Sludge Treatment Recycling of sludge Energy use of sludge C.5 Water Purification Sludge Membrane process Microfiltration membrane (MF) Ultrafiltration membrane (UF) Nanofiltration membrane (NF) Reverse osmosis membrane (RO) C.6 Efficient use of water Recycle of rainwater and Rainwater storage system resources wastewater Permeable pavement Building/ district-base/ regional waste water recycling system Desalination of seawater Reverse osmosis membrane (RO) D. Waste Management and Recycling D.1 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) D.2 Separate Collection of Waste D.3 Plastic Recycling D.4 Recycling of Home Appliances D.5 Recycling of Automobiles Resource saving Use of recycled materials and pieces Long-life Life cycle assessment General waste Industrial waste Platform for plastic recycling Material recycling Chemical recycling Technologies for recycling Biodegradable plastics Platform for recycling of home appliances Recycling technologies Platform for recycling of Downsizing of container Weight saving of automobile Modularization of pieces Simplification and recycling of packaging materials Green procurement Long lasting pieces Skeleton-infill (SI) house Long-lasting construction materials O&M Assessment of environmental load in the all stages of resource taking, material production, product production, distribution, consumption, waste and recycling Environment-conscious design Reduction of waste and sub-product in the production process Community-based sorted collection of waste Recycling system for container and package Recycling system for home appliances Recycling system for automobiles Network for collection and disposal of industrial waste Institutional arrangement for plastics containers and packaging Intermediate treatment (make a bale) by local authority and bidding system Reproduction and bulking filter of materials Reproduction of PET bottle Recycling of foamed polystyrene Recycling of other plastics such as ERP Used for Reducing agent or materials of shaft furnace Used for Chemical raw material in the coke-oven Conversion to oil of waste plastics Fuel utilization through gasification Infrared rays classification of plastics Volume reduction system of plastics Use of microbe or corn Reprocessing into nonwoven cloth or foamed materials Use of raw garbage Institutional arrangement for recycling Network of collection and recycling of home appliances Database of industrial waste disposer Demolition and separation technologies Recycling technologies Collection of CFC Institutional arrangement for automobile recycling 4-5

105 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Area Technology Description automobiles Introduction of environmentally conscious design Recycling technologies Recycling of iron and aluminum Improved percentage of recycled automobile shredder residue (material recycling, thermal recycling) Elimination of toxic substance, such as CFC and lead Reuse of bumper Material use of waste tire D.6 Construction Recycling Platform for recycling of waste in the construction works Institutional arrangement for recycling of construction waste Demolition and separation technologies D.7 Other Waste E. Chemical Materials E.1 Management of chemical Materials E.2 Dioxin E.3 Other Toxic Substance Recycling of construction debris Raw garbage Wastepaper Bottle F. Natural Environment (Eco-System) F.1 Urban Greenery Development F.2 Prevention of Natural Disaster Management of chemical materials Exhaust emission control at incinerators New-model incinerator Soil decontamination, countermeasure against fly ash Extermination of pollution sources sick building syndrome Asbestos polychlorinated biphenyl Environmental hormone Prevention of earthquake disaster Flood control Recycling of concrete mass Recycling of asphalt Recycling of wood residue (chipboard) Treatment of construction sludge Industrial waste recycling (composting, feeding stuff, extraction of oils and fats) Disposal of garbage at residences Food recycling network (supermarket, farm family, and recycling industry) Technology to remove a foreign object Use of 100% recycled paper for newspaper Recycled into activated coal Recycled into high-intensity panel Extreme light returnable bottle Effective use of colored bottle Conversion of glass bottle into tile Green chemistry (reduction of environmental load due to chemical chemistry ) REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, of Chemicals) Absorption of with activated coal Bag filer with catalyst Degradation and elimination using catalyst plasma degradation Gasification melting furnace Low-cost disposal equipment Detoxification of fly ash with medical agent Microbial resolution Supercritical water decomposition Physical and scientific treatment Immobilization into glassy solid of contaminated soil Dechlorination Absorption and resolution of formaldehyde Houses constructed entirely of natural materials Prevention of contamination of Indoor condition Shatter-resistant of asbestos Asbestos elimination Treatment of waste with polychlorinated biphenyl Management schemes against chemicals (Pollutant Release and Transfer Register, PRTR) Use of materials without environmental hormone Promotion of rooftop gardening Farming on the roof of residences Greenery development in the factories and along the street Urban district designed to breath smoothly Secure of firebelt Secure of evacuation centers Community-based initial fire fighting Retention pond 4-6

106 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Area Technology Description Embankment Permeable pavement F.3 Ecosystem Conservation Reforestation Overseas planting Use of non wood fiver Sustainable forest management F.4 Symbiosis with Nature, Environmental Creation G. Environment-related Services G.1Environment Impact Assessment G.2Environmental Audit Waterfront development harmonized with nature, biotope Environmentally friendly housing Strategic environmental assessment at upper level planning and policies Method of measurement for environmental impact Biodiversity evaluation Environmental auditing system of enterprises Environmental report of enterprises G. 3 Eco-Labeling Eco labeling system (eco-mark, unified energy-saving label, recycled paper mark ) CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency) Green procurement G.4 Noxious Substance Analysis Screening analysis Analytical method with a high degree of accuracy G.5 Eco-education Kid s eco-club Eco-family Energy-saving household account Eco councilor Note: Compiled by the Study Team based on various sources and documents. 4-7

107 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction 4.3 Environmental Business Market As environmental concerns continue to spread both globally and nationally, the environmental business market has correspondingly expanded, particularly in the latter half of the 1990s, both in terms of market size and employment. The Ministry of Environment estimated the size of market and employment in environmental business in Japan at JPY29.9 trillion and 769,000 employees in 2000, respectively. It increased from JPY24.7 trillion and 695,000 employees in 1997 and is forecast to increase to JPY47.2 trillion and 1.11 million employees by The share of environmental market in GDP increased as well, from 5% in 1997 to 8% in On the other hand, the share of environmental employees in total number of employees in Japan is rather small, about 1.4% in 2000 and 2.0% in METI estimates have larger figures for the environmental business market, since it has broader coverage of environmental business, particularly for waste management and recycling. It estimated the size of market of environmental business at JPY48.1 trillion in 2000 and JPY67.3 trillion in Figure Estimates of Market Size and Employment in Environmental Industry Source: MOE, 2002 The difference between the MOE and METI estimates is due to the definition and coverage of environmental business. However, due to lack of available data, neither the MOE nor METI projection cover greenfield environmental business, including sustainable agriculture, forestry and fisheries industry, prevention of natural disasters, and ecotourism, which is listed in category (C) resources management group of the OECD s list of environmental industry. Only brownfield environmental business, such as pollution management, waste management, and energy sector, are incorporated (Matsuoka, 2008). Therefore, the size of the environmental business market must be larger than current estimates. 4-8

108 4.4 Notable Private Sector Projects/Technologies 1) Smart Grid / Smart Community (1) Overall Description Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Smart communities, or smart grids, are a new-generation electric network. With up-to-date information technologies, demand and supply of electricity within a specific area is monitored and effectively controlled. It can promote the optimum use of electricity and ensure stable electric supply. Smart grids integrate various systems and technologies, such as conventional electric networks, renewable energy systems (such as photovoltaic and biomass energy), storage battery, IT system (including communication), electric appliances in houses and buildings, electric vehicles, etc. While there are various estimates on its market size, it is estimated that the market size of smart grids will increase to USD1.25 trillion in Japan, US, and Europe only for infrastructure development, such as renewable energy system and information and communication system (Nikkan Kogyo Shinbun, 2010). If they include those in the developing countries, its total market size will rise to USD 2.1 trillion by There are various models of a smart community. Each model has different objectives depending on the basic conditions of the infrastructure development of electricity, communication, and so on (see Table 4.4.1). Table Typology of Smart Grids Implemented Model Objective Country Function/ Capacity Strengthening of Supply- Credibility Model Rapidly Growing Model Huge Renewable Energy Supply Model Greenfield Urban Development Source: Nikkei Ecology (May 2010) To upgrade of decrepit power network To save maintenance cost and to increase credibility of power supply in parallel To meet rapidly increasing demands on energy in newly emerging countries To minimize power loss including illegal use of power To actively introduce renewable energy such as photovoltaic system Toward low-carbon city development New development of low-carbon city A set of city system can be exported (2) Japan Smart Community Alliance United States (northeastern area) India Brazil Netherlands Belgium Japan Portugal China (coastal area) Singapore Development of new transmission and distribution network Monitoring and analysis of outage System stability etc. New electric sources (Clean Coal etc) new transmission and distribution network remote monitoring and operation Decentralized electric source such as photovoltaic system Fuel cell technologies Plug-in hybrid vehicle Not only energy infrastructure but also all urban social infrastructure for people s life, business, and transportation. The Japan Smart Community Alliance (JSCA) was established in It aims to establish Japanese smart grids and to show their grand design, since there are various types of smart grids all over the world. A vision and issues of a smart community are shared among all stakeholders, including government levels, private sector, and academe. A strategy for Japanese technologies will be formulated to promote abroad, including international standardization of smart communities. As of June 2010, JSCA was composed of 352 corporations, which cover electricity, gas, oil, communication, IT, electronics, machinery, automobiles, fuel cell, housing, developer, chemicals, mass media, financing, trading, consulting, academe, and so on. It has four working groups, namely, strategy for international market, international standardization, roadmap, and smart house. 4-9

109 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction A long-term perspective of a smart community as described by JSCA covers overall urban systems, such as urban transportation, water supply and sewerage, waste management, information technology, buildings, social systems and so on as well as the energy system itself. However, at present it focuses mainly on smart grids and the energy sector. In 2010, the JSCA formulated a roadmap for the next-generation energy and social system. There are nine action areas in the roadmap, namely, social system, power transmission and distribution network, heat network, hydrogen power and carbon capture and storage (CCS), storage battery, fuel cell, heat pump, demand-side (house and building), and transportation. In response to the huge expected demand on smart grid business, a number of corporations have latched on to the smart grid trend. Table shows the major smart grid players in Japan and the world. Table Major Smart Grid Business Players in Japan Application Communication / Information Processing Electricity/ Transportation Power Generation Toshiba Hitachi NEC Fujitsu Hitachi Toshiba MHI 1) Fuji electric J-power systems Viscas Exsym Battery for System NGK Insulators Hitachi Toshiba MHI Meiden Distribution Toshiba Hitachi NEC Fujitsu Source: METI-Japan, Discussion and Proposal of Smart Community Forum (2010) 1) Mitsubishi Heavy Industries 2) Sumitomo Forestry Corporation 3) Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation 4) Fuji Heavy Industries HS&T Fujikura Furukawa electric Smart meter Tokyo Gas Kyushu electric KEPCO TEPCO Osaki Toshiba Mitsubishi electric Fuji electric Enegate Smart house IBM Eliiypower DENSO Sanyo Sharp Panasonic Sekisui Daiwa SFC Misawa Tokyo Gas Smart Building/ School/ Store To be determined IBM Mitsubishi Electric Yamatake NTT facilities Shimizu Obayashi Kashima Takenaka Data Center Ciasco NEC Fujitsu NTT KDDI Softbank IDC Service Station Nihon Unisys NTT data Smart Charge KDDI JX 1) TEPCO Showa Shell Idemitsu Denso/ Toyota Nissan/ FHI 2) MHI Application Communication / Information Processing Electricity/ Transportation Power Generation Areva Siemens GE Alstom Table Major Smart Grid Business Players in the World Alcatel-Lucent Motorola Draka Pirelli Nexans Battery for System Transformation Transmission Transformation Transmission Distribution Smart meter Alcatel-Lucent Motorola Siemens Alstom ABB Source: METI-Japan, Discussion and Proposal of Smart Community Forum (2010) Oracle Current Silver Spring Cisco Landys+Gyr Itron Echelon GE Smart house Smart Building/ School/ Store Data Center Service Station Google / IBM/ SAP (to be determined) Cisco Grid Point Microsoft Intel IBM Grid Point Samsung LG Philips Bosch IBM Jognson Controla Sunmicro HP IBM Google Coulomb Technologies Betterplace Smart Charge 4-10

110 Pilot Project Yokohama City Toyota City Keihanna Science City Kitakyushu City Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction (3) Pilot Project on Next-generation Energy and Social System in Japan In 2010, pilot projects on the next-generation energy and social system commenced in Japan. The aim is to comprehensively examine smart communities, which include areawide energy applications using heat and unused energy, local transportation systems, changes in the lifestyle of citizens, as well as efficient energy use by concentrating the financial support of the central government. The development is expected to strengthen the environmental industry in Japan, including the growth of the next-generation industry and formulation of international standards. Four pilot projects were selected from 20 applicants and commenced in August Each pilot project would be headed by city authorities or prefectural governments and jointly conducted by the private sector. Master plans of four pilot projects are summarized in Table Table Pilot Project on Next-generation Energy and Social System Participants City of Yokohama Accenture Toshiba Nissan Motor Panasonic Meidensha City of Toyota Toyota Motor/ Denso/ Chubu Electric Power / Toho Gas/ Sharp / Toshiba/ MHI / Fujitsu / Dream Incubator etc. Kyoto Prefecture Kansai Electric Power Co. Osaka Gas Kansai Science City University of Tokyo etc. City of Kitakyushu Fuji Electric Systems / GE/ IBM- Japan/ Nippon Steel Co. Target of CO2 reduction 1) by 24% By 30% by 20% in domestic and by 30% in transportation Source: METI, Summary of Master Plans of Pilot Projects on Next-generation Energy and Social System 1) target year and base year are set at 2014 and 2005, respectively (4) Zero-emission Building Major Project Components Huge-scale energy management with 4,000 household through citizens participation in existing urban areas Energy-management system combined with HEMS, BEMS, and EV in Minato Mirai Introduction of 27,000 kwh of photovoltaic system and use of heat and unused energy 60% energy independence house with photovoltaic system, fuel cell, heat-pump, battery, and next-generation vehicles Energy-demand response at houses to support people s activities and to reduce CO2 emission without decline of life quality Energy management at residences by controlling local batteries and demand response with IT, toward increase of energy efficiency and use of renewable energy in the area. To examine up-to-date technologies of Keihanna Science City such as on-demand energy management and power visualization By 25% Real-time energy management with smart meter at 70 enterprises and 200 households Area-wide energy management with HEMS, BEMS, and demand-management connecting with industrial areas to utilize waste heat. One of the demand-side components of smart communities is zero-emission buildings (ZEBs), referring to buildings without any CO 2 emission. In other words it reduces CO 2 emissions by promoting energy efficiency and balances out CO 2 emission by generating power with renewable energy. Shimizu Corporation formulated the Front Runner CO 2 Reduction Program Roadmap for Buildings in Shimizu has completed the technological innovations needed to achieve these roadmap goals and is currently building a new head office building scheduled for completion in 2012 as a model building to showcase these technologies. The new head office building will reduce CO 2 emissions by 50% from 1990 levels (Shimizu CSR Report 2010). 4-11

111 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Sources of CO 2 emissions at the operation phase of a building are composed of air conditioning at 48%, hot water supply at 0.9%, lighting at 19%, electrical outlets at 16.5%, and power supply for equipment and facilities at 9.5%. A combination of existing technologies can reduce CO 2 emissions by about 30 40%. In order to achieve further reduction in CO 2 emission, it is necessary to introduce technologies. It includes highefficient equipment (improved by 20%), solar power generation (2 times in efficiency), high-efficient lighting equipment (3 times in efficiency), and passive building technologies. With those new advanced technologies, CO 2 emission of a newly constructed building can be reduced by up to about 70%. (5) Smart City Project in Developing Countries A smart city is a new concept of integrated energy and social system as well as electricity. It integrates various energy uses in urban areas through energy management systems which cover transportation, water supply and sewerage, waste management, houses and buildings. The core technology of a smart city is a smart grid, a next-generation electricity distribution network, which manages energy flow using IT. Compact urban structures are also key factors in a smart community, which can manage urban development in a flexible and sustainable manner, as well as promote efficient use of energy. It can also be applied in cities in developing countries. A number of smart-city projects are ongoing all over the world, including Masdar City in the United Arab Emirates, Amsterdam Smart City in Netherlands, and Tianjin Eco City in China. Each has its own perspective of a smart city. Smart-city projects can be categorized into new-development and redevelopment projects, as described in Table In order to examine the most suitable type of smart city, it is necessary to examine a target area s current conditions and estimate its future demand for land, water, and electricity. It is also necessary to identify key infrastructures and formulate a system to integrate them, all of which differ by city. Key infrastructure packages to form a smart city are shown in Table and Figure Sector Table Infrastructure Package for Smart Cities Infrastructure Water Management Water treatment plant Wastewater treatment plant with a water recycling system Water and wastewater network Small-scale portable water purification Septic tank at each house Small-scale sewerage treatment tank Waste Management Waste management network Waste and sludge power generation Energy (Electric Power) Smart grid (ICT) with energy management system coordinated with other infrastructure Renewable energy system (photovoltaic, wind power, biomass, etc) Rechargeable battery system Solar thermal power generation Under-utilized energy Transportation Electric vehicles (motorbike, passenger car, bus) Community transportation system Pick-up and delivery service for multi-materials Intercommunity transportation system Inter-city transportation Source: JGC Corporation, Eco Yokohama 4-12

112 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction Figure Smart and Compact Community Technologies Source: JGC Corporation, Eco Yokohama (6) Lessons Learned A number of smart-city projects are ongoing around the world and the market for smart grids and smart cities is rapidly growing. A number of up-to-date elemental technologies for smart grids are being developed around the world, especially in Japan, such as renewable energy, smart meters, home energy management systems (HEMS), and zeroemission buildings. On the other hand, there are various types of smart city. Each project has different objectives and requires different infrastructure and systems, depending on the natural and socio-economic conditions and existing infrastructure stock. In this sense, it is important to examine the local conditions of a target area and identify specific needs, then allow for the integration of the necessary components into the optimum smart city. 2) Sustainable House (Sekisui House) (1) Overall Description CO 2 emissions from the domestic sector have increased by 40% from their 1990 figures. There is an urgent need to reduce CO 2 emissions in the housing sector. The reasons for the increasing CO 2 emission in the residential sector include the increasing number of households, the trend toward a nuclear family, the increase of single households, and the diversification of electric appliances. Housing manufacturers have promoted smart houses and low-carbon houses in order to reduce CO 2 emission in the residential sector. Since it launched the Declaration on Sustainability in 2005, Sekisui House has set the core strategy of sustainability in all of its business activities. It promotes zero waste during a house s construction stage and 100% reduction of CO 2 emission while it is being used. It also established a new value concept of sharing, which addresses changes in a society, such as the deterioration of local communities, and instead emphasizes the connection among individuals, between individuals and their respective communities, and with nature. 4-13

113 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction (2) Low-carbon Houses About 70% of the total volume of CO 2 emission in the life cycle of a house is attributed to the residential phase, while the remaining 30% occurs during the construction and demolition phases. In 2005, Sekisui House proposed low-emission houses, which can reduce 20% of total CO 2 emission during the residential phase by improving the energy efficiency of each house. It includes thermal insulation, airproof design, and energyefficient equipment such as high-efficiency hot water supply system. At present, its updated type of smart house, called Green First, can achieve 60 80% reduction of CO 2 emission during the residential phase. It includes electric power generation either by a photovoltaic system or a fuel cell system as well as improvement of energy efficiency. If installed with both a photovoltaic and a fuel cell system, the total CO 2 emission can be reduced by 100%. It is estimated that 19% of total CO 2 emission can be reduced by introducing energy-efficient design, 10% by energy-efficient equipment, 27% by electric power generation of a fuel cell system, and 44% by that of a photovoltaic system, or total amount of reduction of 100%. (3) Zero-emission Factory In 2005, Sekisui House achieved zero emission during the construction of houses. All kinds of industrial waste generated at the housing construction site were sorted, collected, and recycled. Nothing was burned or discharged. All construction wastes were sorted into 27 categories at the construction site and transported to a zero-emission factory, where all wastes were resorted into 60 types and recycled in their own system. Sekisui House could achieve zero-emission because they were allowed to collect all wastes and put them into one factory and treat them together. They have special authorization for an area-wide management of industrial waste, even though it is required, in principle, to treat industrial waste within a prefecture. The investment cost to develop a zero-emission factory was about JPY860 million. On the other hand, this recycling system with a zero-emission factory reduced the total housing cost by JPY39 million per month in 2005 and JPY250 million in half a year in It has also reduced the construction waste of building a new house by 40%, from 2,893 kg to 1,810 kg. (4) Smart Community with Concept of Sharing The concept of sharing aims to formulate a smart community for the future, connecting individuals, houses, community, and the natural environment. It is composed of shared nature, shared place, and shared energy. (a) Shared Nature: A house and community are designed to be connected with the natural environment, such as wind and greenery. Greenery network is established in the urban district to keep the flow of wind. Connection with nature, such as cool wind, can generate natural scenery in the community and promote better outdoor life for the people. It is expected to generate a shared value of nature among communities. (b) Shared Place: Integrated common spaces are developed within a district including shared gardens, shared waterfronts, shared plazas, shared cars, and so on. It can provide a common oasis for people to relax. A smart community center is a center which manages the common spaces, as well as collects and sends out community information. 4-14

114 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction (c) Shared Energy: Energy management system, centered in the smart community center, can include renewable-electricity generation system and smart grid connecting a local distribution network to an electricity network serving a broader area. Shared energy covers waste management, water supply, and electricity. Sekisui House intends to pursue the smart community concept through some eco-model project city in Japan. It requires cooperation with all stakeholders including national government, local authorities, relevant private sector, and communities in order to form smart communities. (5) Sustainable Design Laboratory Another unique approach to environment taken by Sekisui House is the Sustainable Design Laboratory. It aims to realize harmonious coexistence among people, homes, and nature. In Sustainable Design Laboratory, which started in 2006, various kinds of experimental tests on sustainable lifestyles in a city were conducted, including up-to-date environmental technologies, impact of lifestyles on global warming, and so on. (a) Harmony with Nature: Sustainable lifestyle is examined in terms of harmony with nature. It uses wooden materials, such as the Japanese cedar, and uses them without nails or metals. Its effective ventilation system adopts the engawa space concept and roof windows to keep wind flow. It can allow natural airflow from the outside to pass through during summer instead of using air conditioning, while it allows sunlight to heat up the interior, thus reducing heat load. (b) Efficient use of Energy: It introduces a heat pump system using groundwater for air conditioning and floor heating. Groundwater is also utilized to cool the earth floor during summer. Pellet stoves are installed to reduce CO 2 emission, the heat of which is used to prevent cold draft in a room. (c) Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle: Recycled materials are used in the housing structure, such as recycled PET heat-insulating materials, floor covering using recycled glass, and so on. Domestic wooden materials are also used. (6) Lessons Learned The series of actions taken by Sekisui House is considerable since it covers not only energy-efficient technologies for a house but also considers the concept of community, of sharing and harmony with ecology. Company-based and area-wide approach for integrated waste management, not on an individual basis, has achieved a zero-emission factory. 3) Energy-saving Tuning System (Panasonic) (1) Overall Description The share of cost in the total life span of a building is much larger during the O&M stage while it is being used rather than the initial cost. It is important to continuously improve energy efficiency after completion, which can lead to cost savings as well as reduced environmental costs of the building. Panasonic introduced an energy-saving tuning system in its headquarters in order to achieve optimal operation of lighting and air-conditioning facilities and thus ensure a comfortable office environment. The Panasonic headquarters was opened in 2003, which is used for offices and showrooms. With a concept of a 100-year building, up-to-date 4-15

115 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction technologies for energy efficiency are actively introduced from the beginning. It includes building energy management system (BEMS) to monitor overall energy use and a metering system for electricity and heating. While the building was originally designed with high energy-efficient performance, Panasonic continuously tried to sustain and even improve its performance on energy efficiency after its operation started. The major issues were how to identify rooms for improvement and how to develop a platform to ensure sustainable actions for energy efficiency including users and managers. Energy-saving tuning was introduced, which included visualization of energy use and identification of possible actions to improve energy efficiency. As a result, Panasonic succeeded in reducing the O&M cost and CO 2 emission of the building. (2) Energy-saving Tuning (a) Platform for Implementation Three types of platform were formulated to implement energy-efficient actions continuously and sustainably: (i) Office Administration: To control daily energy-saving operation and to find the problems on energy losses and share them with outside experts using sat tool. (ii) Expert Committee for Energy Saving: The Expert Committee is composed of internal experts and office management staff, with designers and developers of the office building as outside experts. The committee looks for possibilities for energy saving, examines techniques for energy-saving tuning, and finds solutions to problems. (iii) Promotion Committee for Energy Saving: The Promotion Committee is composed of the building owner, management staff, users, and the above Expert Committee. The committee formulates and implements the energy-saving plan. (b) Tool for Energy-saving Tuning The sat tool is an analytical tool to visualize operational data of building facilities. Anybody can use it anytime anywhere. It has the following four functions: (i) Data Collection: To collect operational data of building facilities for a unified management. (ii) Data Analysis: To convert data into graphs. (iii) Energy management: To compare energy consumption with the target volume or that of the previous year. (iv) Dissemination: To send operational data to outside experts. (c) Tuning Schemes Based on an examination of energy consumption in 2003, various tuning schemes were identified in 2004, which could flexibly respond to usage pattern. The identified tuning parameters were elaborated in the following years. Tuning schemes can be categorized into four, as follows: (i) Tuning 1: Some of the designed functions remain unused since users simply do not know them. At first, it is necessary to maximize the use of the originally designed functions and then to achieve a more effective use. (ii) Tuning 2: It is necessary to find the initial failure and solve it. 4-16

116 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction (iii) Tuning 3: It is required to adjust operating pattern depending on usage. It is also possible to provide advice to users to change their usage pattern and guide them to adopt the optimal pattern. (iv) Tuning 4: Advanced tuning aims to find the remaining possible points to be adjusted, which cannot be observed by users. While it may take time and cost to find the optimal solution, efficient tuning can be achieved with optimal parameters, which can be identified through comparison and analysis of various operational data. (3) Results and Effects of Tuning (a) Reduction in Primary Energy Consumption As shown in Table 4.4.6, the volume of primary energy consumption of a building continuously decreased. The reduction rate of the second year to the base year was 13.6%, approaching the target reduction rate of 15%. Table Volume of Primary Energy Consumption Primary Energy Consumption (GJ/year) Reduction Rate to the Base Year (%) Reduction Rate to FY 2003 (%) Unit Consumption (MJ/m 2 /year) Base year 125, , , , , Source: website of ECCJ Award of Minister of Economic, Technology and Industry on Energy-saving. Energy consumption decreases in spring and autumn, which are not peak period for airconditioning use. It shows the effect of various energy-saving tuning such as reduction of part-load operation of fan motors and resolution of mixing loss, in addition to the simple adjustment of the preset temperature and curtailment of operating hours. (b) Cost-Benefit Analysis The cost to implement energy-saving tuning equals JPY36.7 million, which is composed of manpower cost at JPY8.49 million, analytical tool cost at JPY3.40 million, an additional measurement for tuning at JPY12.16 million, and adjustment of parameters (tuning implementation) at JPY12.65 million. Considering that the number of experts was whittled down to six people from the initial 12 and the cost was calculated by the average for two years, the actual cost could be lower than the above estimate. On the other hand, the benefit of tuning is simply calculated with the total saving in energy consumption. Energy consumed in FY2004 and 2005 decreased from FY2003 at JPY44.38 million as a whole. Therefore, it can be said that the total cost was recovered within two years. (4) Future Implementation Plan Energy-saving tuning has been continuously undertaken at Shiodome building. It is important to maintain the current energy-saving schemes and to identify another potential for energy saving. The PDCA (plan do check act) management cycle for energy-saving tuning will be further elaborated in the following actions. 4-17

117 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction (i) Application to other major buildings of the company; (ii) Formulation of methods to share the know-how on data analysis with building administrators; (iii) Development of internal experts; (iv) Utilization of the sat tool as an energy-saving scheme; and (v) Continuous effort at Shiodome building to achieve the target rate of reduction of 15%. (5) Lessons Learned The initial cost is much smaller than the O&M cost in the total life cycle cost of a building. In order to reduce O&M cost, it is at least necessary to ensure that the installed technologies work as expected. The above-mentioned energy-tuning system of Panasonic is an innovative tool to further improve energy efficiency from the originally expected level. 4) Decentralized Water Supply System (JFE Engineering) (1) Overall Description The decentralized water supply system is expected to complement the conventional centralized water supply system, which depends on large dams. It is composed of rainwater harvesting to utilize rainwater and graywater recycling to utilize wastewater. Figure Decentralized Water Supply System Source: JFE Engineering, Eco Yokohama An experimental project on decentralized water supply system is being conducted in Southeast Queensland, Australia by the joint-venture association of JFE Engineering and Nomura Research Institute with the cooperation of Kawasaki City and the Urban Water Security Research Alliance of Queensland. It aims to supplement the existing centralized water supply system and thus achieve a stable water supply in the region. With the financial support of NEDO, it was expected to be constructed in 2010 and tested from 2011 to (2) Background The state of Queensland is located in the east side of Australia. Southeast Queensland has a population of 2.8 million in As its population is estimated to increase to 4.2 million by 2030, its annual water demand should increase from 500 million m 3 in 2008 to 750 million m 3 by Even if they succeed in reducing water demand through various 4-18

118 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction water-saving measures, they need to secure new water supply at 100 million m 3 per year. On the other hand, they face difficulty in building a new dam due to lack of site for construction. Desalination of seawater, another alternative water supply, is also not feasible since it requires huge investment and may have adverse impacts on the marine environment. Therefore, they decided to introduce a decentralized water supply system to cover the growing water demand. (3) Experimental Project on Decentralized Water Supply System A decentralized water supply system is being experimented in Fitzgibbon new urban development area of 295 ha, located 12 km from central Brisbane. The plan is to develop about 2,000 homes over the next five years. Its decentralized water supply is composed of roof rainwater and stormwater. (a) Roof Rainwater Harvest: Roof rainwater collected from storage tanks is be treated through a membrane filtration and ultraviolet disinfection and then used as drinkable water. (b) Re-use of Stormwater: Stormwater on the ground collected in stormwater storage ponds shall be treated through a membrane process and then used as non-portable water, such as watering and toilet flushing. With this system, portable water use is expected to be reduced by 40%. Solar photovoltaic power generation will also be installed, which is expected to reduce the use of electricity supply by 50%. An advanced treatment system to utilize recycled stormwater as drinkable water and to recycle graywater as non-drinkable water will also be examined in order to respond to unexpected drought. The experimental project is being conducted by the joint venture association of JFE Engineering and Nomura Research Institute with financial assistance of NEDO. While JFE Engineering is in charge of designing the facility, construction, and pilot operation, Nomura Research Institute is doing a feasibility study of the project. Kawasaki City provides technical assistance on water service operation such as water quality management and tariff collection system. The experimental project started in 2009 and was expected to be constructed in 2010, followed by its trial operation from 2011 to After obtaining a license as a water service provider, it will start commercial operation from (4) Blackwater Recycling JFE Engineering has done research and development on blackwater recycling system through biological and ultra-filtering technologies. It aims to achieve a zero-effluent system with blackwater recycling system together with rainwater harvesting and graywater recycling systems. (5) Lessons Learned The decentralized water supply system proposed by JFE is related to the Eco 2 initiative since it selected a small-scale system that is cost-effective and resource-efficient rather than investing in huge infrastructure. Since a decentralized system can supplement a conventional centralized system rather than alternating with it, it is important to find the optimal balance of decentralized and centralized systems. 4-19

119 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction 5) Mixed Paper Recycling (Sanei Regulator) (1) Overall Description Sanei Regulator in the Corelex Group produces coreless toilet paper, called Corelex, with recycled waste paper. With an advanced recycling technology for mixed paper, which is difficult to recycle, it implements a closed recycling system. Mixed waste paper collected by local authorities or waste tickets of the JR Group are recycled into toilet papers, which are used in the original organizations. Corelex group as a whole has about 45% share in the recycled toiled paper product. It has received patent in 16 countries. It opened a new paper recycling factory in Kawasaki City in 2003, which was certified as the world s first zero-emission paper manufacturing factory and the first model project for a recycling society. (2) Institutional Framework for Paper Recycling (3) Paper Recycling Technologies in Japan With a long history of paper recycling, Japan has achieved a high percentage of paper recycling. As shown in Figure 4.4.3, about 75% of used paper is collected and 62% is recycled. The total amount of recycled paper and paper board is 19 million tons and 12 million tons per year, respectively. Those that are difficult to recycle are recycled and reused as materials in construction, civil engineering and agriculture, and as fuel. The basic institutional framework for the paper recycling industry in Japan is the Act for the Promotion of Effective Utilization of Resources and the Act on the Promotion of Sorted Garbage Collection and Recycling of Containers and Packaging prescribed in 2001 and 1995, respectively. The former applies to the production stage and obliges paper manufacturing industries to promote the efficient use of resources, as well as reduce and recycle by-products. The latter applies to the consumption and waste collection stage and requires paper plastics and containers to be recycled. Figure Historical Trend of Paper Recycling in Japan ( ) Collection Rate of Used Paper Recycling Rate of Used Paper Source: Japan Paper Association (http://www.jpa.gr.jp/) 4-20

120 (4) Corelex Group and Closed Recycle Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction The Corelex Group started mixed waste paper recycling 15 years ago in Kamakura City. The city introduced sorted collection of mixed paper. It provided paper bags for mixed paper for the public, collected mixed waste paper, and sent them to factories in Shizuoka to be recycled into toilet paper in factories of the Corelex Group. The Corelex Group is characterized by its product, Corelex the coreless toilet paper, which owns the patent for coreless toilet paper in 16 countries. A roll of Corelex has about m, while one roll of the ordinary toilet paper has 60 m. It is efficient in terms of cost and space, besides having a low impact to the environment. Currently, the Corelex Group accounts for 45% of waste toilet paper. It includes the production of outside companies for which Corelex Group provides technical assistance. If these companies are not included, the share of Corelex Group is about 32 33%. The Corelex Group introduced closed recycling. In collaboration with the JR Group, used tickets are recycled into toilet paper which are used in the toilets at the stations of the JR Group. It is part of a B2B (business to business) market. The Corelex Group also cooperates with the Aeon Group and sells huge amount of toilet paper to be used in the toilets of Aeon s shopping centers. Another innovative technology of the Corelex Group is the recycling of confidential documents. They can dissolve a closed box of confidential documents and classify other materials, such as metals, plastics, etc. With this system, clients can put a closed box directly into the pulper, while other companies introduced manual sorting in a closed room. (5) Zero-emission Paper Manufacturing Factory The Corelex-Sanei Tokyo City Plant started operation in 2003 in the Kawasaki industrial area as the first model project of a resource-recycling society, which is being promoted by the government. It is the only paper manufacturing factory to achieve zero emission. Before it opened the zero-emission paper manufacturing factory, which was requested by the government as part of the Eco-Town project in Kawasaki City, several issues were tackled such as the following: (a) Secure of Water Resource: The paper manufacturing industry requires a huge amount of water, about 100 tons to produce a ton of paper. Kawasaki City decided to provide treated wastewater to the factory, which originally was discharged into the sea. The factory uses about 20,000 tons of treated wastewater per day supplemented by industrial water. It is the only case in the world where a large amount of recycled wastewater is used in a factory. (b) New Location: Since it is the first paper manufacturing factory in Kawasaki City, there was concern that it might be difficult to secure the labor force. It was also difficult to conduct maintenance since most of the relevant industries were located in Shizuoka prefecture, where the Corelex Group is originally based. It was, however, realized that those disadvantages could be offset by Kawasaki City s proximity to a source of wastewater and the market for toilet paper. It was estimated that transportation cost from the factory in Kawasaki City would be one-eighth that from Shizuoka prefecture and it was environmentally friendly as well. 4-21

121 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction (6) Lessons Learned Sanei Corelex has expanded its business by incorporating new and unique perspectives in the waste-paper recycling industry, which include the development of a closed-recycling system and city-based zero-emission industry. As a result, it achieved a big share in the toilet paper industry at 45%. Notwithstanding its achievements, it has faced several problems in the existing institutional framework, wherein it takes long to get government approval for projects. Some of the problems were solved through negotiation with government authorities, while others were the result of compromises, wherein new solutions were proposed. For example, Kawasaki City required a cash deposit before they could recycle the wastewater, even though this material was merely discharged before. This is because there is no institutional framework to regulate the use of wastewater, so-called chusui, and the city government cannot provide it for free. Another issue is the definition of confidential documents which differ by municipality. Once it is classified as waste, normal transporting corporations, such as Yamato and Sagawa, cannot transport it anymore. In the same way, used logistics pallet cannot be used as fuel in factory incinerators. Since used pallets are considered waste, they must be transported and treated by a specific waste disposer. These problems were eventually negotiated with Kawasaki City in favor of Sanei Corelex. 6) Waste Power Generation (Kawasaki Heavy Industries) (1) Overall Description Power generation from waste is generating power using high-temperature steam, which starts in the incineration process. There are several types of waste power generation, each of which uses different waste. Power generation using biomass waste is identified as renewable energy in the RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standards). In Japan, as of 2006, waste power generation was introduced in 325 incinerator plants, 293 of which are operated by local governments (total power generation capacity is 1,590 MW with a generating efficiency of 10.9%) and 32 by the private sector (total power generation capacity is 331 MW with a generating efficiency of 18.0%). While only 20% of incinerator plants are used for waste power generation, more than 50% of total collected waste is used because the plants are mostly large. As of the end of 2005, 7.1 billion Kwh of power was generated through waste power generation, which is equivalent to the power consumption of 1.95 million households. (2) Kawasaki Plant Systems Kawasaki Plant Systems, which was merged with Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI) in November 2010, expanded environmental business in the world. Particularly in China, it has cooperated with the Conch Group and conducted various environmental projects, including 114 cement waste heat power plants. (3) Zero-emission Eco Town System with Waste Power Generation Technologies Anhui Conch Kawasaki Co. Ltd., a joint venture company of Kawasaki Heavy Industries and Conch, a partner of KHI, has developed a zero-emission eco-town system, called CKK System (Conch Kawasaki Kiln System) as a combination of their waste treatment technology and cement pyro-chemical technology. It integrates existing cement plant processes with waste incinerator and thus can detoxify, reduce, and recycle waste. Waste is treated and changed to gas-fuel and raw materials to be used in the cement plant. It 4-22

122 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction can reduce fuel use by 5 20%, which is about a reduction of 160,000 tons per year of CO 2. Dioxins generated by waste treatment can be detoxified in the high-temperature cement plant process. Since it is not required to construct a treatment facility exclusively for harmful materials, construction cost can be reduced to one-third or one-fourth of that in China and one-tenth of that in Japan. Operation cost can also be saved. Anhui Conch Kawasaki Co. Ltd. constructed a pilot waste treatment plant with a treatment capacity of 600 tons per day, the first part of which is in the pilot operation phase. Kawasaki Heavy Industries intends to cover sewerage treatment in the CKK system, where sludge can be used as material for waste treatment plant. (4) Lessons Learned The CKK system received the Blue-sky Award from UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization) for being an advanced environmental and energy-efficient technology. The Blue-sky Award is given to a technology that promotes renewable energy in developing countries. KHI has tried to adjust Japanese technologies with local needs and conditions in close coordination with local partners, rather than just transferring technology as it is. Thus, it has succeeded in expanding its business around the world. 4-23

123 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction 4.5 Initiatives of Industry Organizations In Japan, industry-led voluntary initiatives have largely contributed in improving environmental performance of industries and bring many innovations, in addition to government-led regulatory framework, such as top-runner approach as described in Chapter 2. Each company has been proactive in improving their environmental performance to ensure resource efficiency and competitiveness. 1) Keidanren Voluntary Action Plan 1 With the Keidanren Chamber on Global Environment formulated in 1991, Nippon Keidanren declared to promote voluntary and active actions on environmental improvement, with the acknowledgement that environmental actions are inevitable for companies themselves and those businesses. Detailed action plans, so called Keidanren Environmental Appeal, were announced subsequently, which covered countermeasures on global warming and actions toward a recycling society. Based on the above Keidanren Environmental Appeal, the Keidanren Voluntary Action Plan on the Environment was formulated in 1997, which was composed of countermeasures on global warming and actions toward a recycling society. In response to Keidanren s plan, 36 industrial groups formulated their own voluntary action plans, which included distribution, transportation, financing, construction, trade, and so on covering 137 organizations. Each action plan had two parts of action against global warming and toward a recycling society. It established the target of limiting CO 2 emissions in FY2010 to under that of FY1990 levels and of reducing waste by 86% of FY 1990 level by FY It should be noted that it is a voluntary action, not a compulsory one led by government. It is innovative on the following points: (i) It established a target with the maximum possible at that time; (ii) Various industrial groups joined, including distribution, transportation, construction, trade, insurance, and conventional energy-intensive industries such as manufacturing and energy. There was then no such action plan which included non-manufacturing industries in the world; (iii) Most of the industrial groups set performance targets for the countermeasures on global warming and waste management; and (iv) Action plans were to be reviewed annually, the results of which would be published. Periodic review can create a mechanism for industrial groups to tackle environmental actions continuously. Based on the follow-up study on countermeasures on global warming in 2009, the total CO 2 emission of 34 industrial groups was million t-co 2, which decreased by 16.8% from FY1990 levels or 6.8% from the previous year. Most industrial groups achieved their own targets. 1 Nippon Keidanren is a comprehensive economic organization, born in May 2002 by amalgamation of Keidanren (Japan Federation of Economic Organizations) and Nikkeiren (Japan Federation of Employers' Associations). Its membership of 1,601 is comprised of 1,281 companies, 129 industrial associations, and 47 regional economic organizations (as of June 15, 2010). 2 It was replaced with the original target to reduce by 75% in 2007, since it was achieved ahead of schedule. 4-24

124 Study of Japanese Experiences on Sustainable Urban Development including Pollution Control and Management, Resource/Energy Efficiency and GHG Reduction On the other hand, CO 2 emission of the domestic and transportation sector increased by 7.5% in 2008 from FY1990 levels, which was also reviewed in the follow-up study. The share of these sectors is continuously growing, as CO 2 emissions of the industrial sector are declining. Since industrial sectors are closely related to the CO 2 emission level of the domestic and transportation sectors, such as the provision of energy-efficient equipment, distribution of goods, etc. Keidanren urges industrial groups to strengthen their efforts at CO 2 reduction. As for waste management, the follow-up study in 2009 showed that the total amount of industrial waste is 6.44 million tons, a reduction by 89.1% from that in FY1990 or by 25.7% from the previous year. 4-25

125 ANNEXES

126 ANNEX A CASE STUDY 1: KITAKYUSHU CITY

127 1 SUMMARY 1) Rationale for Being Selected as Case Study City The City of Kitakyushu was borne out of industry. Having experienced significant pollution and waste problems in the process of development, it has continuously tackled environmental issues through collaboration among industry, academe, government and citizens, to overcome these problems. As a result, the city was stipulated in the implementation plan of Johannesburg Summit in 2002 as a model environmental city in Asia, and attained consecutive first place in Japan s Top Eco-city contests in 2006 and In recent years, it has been designated as an eco-model city, playing a leading role in promoting a modality for low carbon society as an industrial city. In addition, it has been making a continuous as well as productive contribution in international cooperation on environmental measures. 2) Summary of Case Study For the history of its environmental problems, Kitakyushu area was developed mainly on heavy and chemical industries, being one of the four major industrial areas in Japan. It experienced severe air and water pollution in the 1960s. However, its environment rapidly improved through concerted efforts by citizens, businesses, and administrators to promote vigorous and comprehensive initiatives to conclude the city s original pollution prevention act and agreement as well as to establish a taskforce for pollution prevention and a pollution monitoring center. As a result, in 1980s, it became nationally as well as internationally known as a city of successful environmental recovery. As for wastes, among all residential office wastes in the city, those treated by the municipal government had been in an increasing trend up to Since then, the municipal government has been making a pioneering effort to establish resource recycling society, aiming to use all wastes as feedstock for other industries, to eventually eliminate all wastes (zero emission). As a result, the wastes were reduced by 150,000t from 514,000t in FY2003 to 364,000t in FY2008. Eco-town initiative is a notable initiative in waste management in City of Kitakyushu. Getting the first national approval in July 1997, the initiative, as a unique local policy to integrate measures for industrial promotion and environmental conservation, has made a number of achievements for building an environment-friendly industrial city and for realizing society that allows sustainable development. Regarding the climate change issue, the total GHG emissions in City of Kitakyushu was reduced in FY2005 by 1.8% from those in FY1990. Sector-wise, the industrial sector comprises a significantly large portion of 66%, and time-wise, the commercial and residential sectors have increased. In order to promote climate change prevention measures within the city area, the city established Kitakyushu City Global Warming Countermeasure Area Promotion Plan in Then, after being designated as an ecomodel city, it established an Action Plan for Kitakyushu Eco-model City as its mid to longer-term plan, promoting various measures with an ambitious target of 50% GHG emission reduction from FY2005 level in Especially, for the promotion of global warming prevention in the city, it launched Convention for Local Promotion of Eco-model Cities to effectively and comprehensively promote the realization of low-carbon society through a concerted effort by citizens, NPOs, industries, and academia. A-1

128 The basic principle common for various environmental efforts by the City of Kitakyushu is the robust cross-sectoral partnership among industries, academe, government and citizens, and it is also based on its long-term accumulation of environmental measures and the high environmental awareness of its citizens. It should also be noted that human resources, technology and know-how accumulated in the process of its past efforts are shared with various cities in other countries mainly in Asia through an intercity green diplomatic network, which serves as a base of international environmental cooperation. 3) Appreciation from the Eco 2 Initiatives (1) Ecological Cities as Economic Cities Having developed as an industrial city, the City of Kitakyushu has realized that harmonization of economical development and environmental consideration for end-ofpipe type pollutions results in the overcoming of serious pollution problems. As for wastes as well, it has promoted various initiatives through a concerted effort by the government, businesses and citizens, aimed at establishing a true recycling society, which is not a mere introduction of waste recycling. It also worked for the creation of new industries through the effective use of resources through its Eco-town initiative. As for climate change prevention, it promoted various measures in an integrated manner to promote the sustainability of industrial economy and the harmonization with the environment, with a target of realizing stock-oriented society. (2) Eco 2 Basic Approach 1: A City-based Approach The City of Kitakyushu has implemented a city-wide approach for various environmental issues such as (air and water) pollution, wastes, and global warming. Especially, its approach in promoting its initiatives through close collaboration with the local residents and businesses is the city s basic attitude in pollution control measures. For the current climate change issues as well, the city is promoting various measures with the participation of various stakeholders. Especially, its collaboration with factories and businesses is notable in reflecting its characteristic of a heavily industrialized city. (3) Eco 2 Basic Approach 2: An Expanded Platform for Collaborative Design and Decision-Making The basic principle common for various environmental issues in City of Kitakyushu is the robust cross-border partnership with industry, the academe, government and citizens. Since it was faced with pollution problems, the municipal government has closely cooperated with the business sector to solve these problems. For the current climate change concern, the city has launched Convention for Local Promotion of Eco-model Cities working altogether with citizens, NPOs, industries, and academic institutes (with the participation of approximately 380 entities) for the realization of low-carbon society, promoting the city s climate change measures with the participation of various stakeholders. (4) Eco 2 Basic Approach 3: One-system Approach Action Plan for Eco-Model City in City of Kitakyushu maintains the realization of stockoriented society as one of its objectives. Stock-oriented society is society that builds valuable things and uses them for longer life spans. It is said that stock-oriented society allows the longevity of houses and social capitals that require large amounts of resources and costs, and that the long-time use over generations can secure the compatibility of an A-2

129 affluent lifestyle, sustainability of industry and economy, and harmonization with the environment in an integrated manner. The establishment of stock-oriented society requires the integrated evaluation of the environment and the economy within urban planning, and in this sense, the City of Kitakyushu is implementing one-system approach maintained by Eco 2. In addition, in the City of Kitakyushu, the establishment of lowcarbon society is a social change involving everything that act as a component of a city, such as urban structure, industrial structure, and civilian life, etc., and in order to make the initiative sustainable, it is important to take consideration of the history as well as the base and characteristics of the city, and how the city should adapt to social situations. (5) Eco 2 Basic Approach 4: An Investment Framework that Values Sustainability and Resiliency In the City of Kitakyushu, issues such as the establishment of an investment framework to improve the city s sustainability and resilience, etc. are matters for future consideration. The city has also made efforts to promote eco-friendly financial products under the collaboration with financial institutions, in order to promote eco-friendly behaviors of the citizens and businesses. 4) Implications to the Eco 2 Initiatives Regarding measures for pollutions already in place (air and water pollutions caused by industrial plants) and pollution prevention measures, one can refer to the pollution measures and experiences in City of Kitakyushu: As for organizations, offices for pollution control measures have been established in the city administration to guide pollution control measures and promote monitoring. For regulation, the city s original acts and agreements, etc., are implemented and are tailor-made for the local situation and are not covered by the national regulations. It is also effective to refer polluting companies to those with advanced pollution control technologies. In the recent climate change measures in the City of Kitakyushu, the realization of stockoriented society is emphasized, which will be an important viewpoint for cities in developing countries expecting rapid development. Stock-oriented society means that the longevity (or the arrangement based on a longer-term vision) of houses and infrastructure that require a large amount of resources and costs allows to limit unnecessary investment and to reduce environmental burdens, which leads to realization of affluent living, the sustainability of industrial activities, and the harmonization with the environment. The basic principle of the City of Kitakyushu in solving various environmental problems is said to be the robust cross-sectoral partnership among its industry, academe, government and public. Such an arrangement of the system would also serve as a good reference for cities in developing countries. A-3

130 2 INTRODUCTION OF THE CITY City of Kitakyushu is located in the northeast end of Kyushu, facing to Honshu across the Shimonoseki Strait. The north part of the city is facing Hibikinada, and east side faces Seto Inland Sea (Suo-Nada). Since there are mountainous area, living area such as housing and factories are concentrated in the coastal area. The area of the city is km 2, the population is 981,445 (currently July 1, 2010). In regard to the environmental perspective, City of Kitakyushu advocates the environmental capital of the world and has made various efforts related to the environment. Especially, utilizing the experiences and know-how and technologies (cleaner production) accumulated in the 1960s through overcoming serious pollution problems. The City of Kitakyushu focuses on the international cooperation in the field of environment improvement, and it has close relations and cooperation with many cities including Chongqing, Dalian, Semarang and Surabaya. The City of Kitakyushu is the most successful eco-town in Japan, since many research facilities and environment-related businesses are concentrated in the area because the promotion of eco-town project is focused in the Hibikinada area. A-4

131 3 EXPERIENCES ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS 1) Industrial Pollution (Air Pollution, Water Pollution) Kitakyushu area has been developed mainly as a heavy chemical industry city and was one of the four largest industrial zones in Japan, contributing to the modernization and high economic growth of Japan. However, the prosperity of the industries brought serious pollution problems. In the 1960s, the air quality, polluted by the smoke of factories, around the Kitakyushu area was the most seriously polluted in Japan. Dokai Bay was highly contaminated by industrial and domestic wastewater. This environmental pollution declined to such an extent that the bay was called the 'Sea of Death.' The survey by the City of Kitakyushu revealed that asthma morbidity among school children was significantly high in the polluted areas. The water quality survey in 1969 showed that 98.5% of total discharged water and 97.3% of total COD flowed into Dokai Bay were discharged from the 20 major factories in Kitakyushu area. The quality of the discharged water, such as the highest values of COD and cyanogen are 400 mg/l and 25.0 mg/l respectively, revealed that no treatment were properly applied on them. However, residents, enterprises, research institutes and governmental agencies became united in overcoming the pollution problems, and since then the situation dramatically improved. In the 1980s, the City of Kitakyushu became known throughout the world as the city that overcame serious environmental problems. Figure 3.1 Smoggy Sky and Water Pollution in the Kitakyushu Area in the 1960s Source: The website of the City of Kitakyushu Figure 3.2 Annual Variation of Air Quality and Water Quality Source: Kitakyushu s International Environmental Cooperation, City of Kitakyushu A-5

132 Figure 3.3 Annual Variation of the Water Quality in the Purple River and Sanitation Coverage 2) Waste Management Source: Kitakyushu s International Environmental Cooperation, City of Kitakyushu The amount of waste from households and offices that was treated by the City of Kitakyushu has increased up until In particular, the amount of office waste increased about 1.5 times within 10 years, around 197 thousand tons in FY2003 from around 121 thousand tons in FY1993. However, according to the measures the city employed, such as the measure to reduce office wastes in 2004 and re-examination of the household garbage collection in 2006, these wastes were reduced by about 150 thousand tons, around 364 thousand tons in 2008 from around 510 thousand tons in Figure 3.4 Trends of Amount of Waste Treated by the City of Kitakyushu Source: The Environment of Kitakyushu ) Greenhouse Gas The city of Kitakyushu emitted 15.6 million tons of greenhouse gases in FY 2005, or 1.2% of Japan s total emissions. The emission is a 1.8% decrease from its 1990 levels. Reflecting the characteristics as an industrial city, the proportion of Industrial sector is up to 66% of total emission, which is much larger than Japan s total of 35%. The emission per capita is around 16 tons, and this is also much larger than the Japan s average of 10 tons. A-6

133 Table 3.1 GHG Emissions in Kitakyushu City Category FY1990 (Unit: 1,000tCO 2/year) FY2005 % Increase Rate (%) 2005 /1990 Industry ,300 (66.8) 5.0 Energy CO2 Commercial 669 1,198 (7.8) 79.1 Residential 943 1,102 (7.2) 16.9 Transportation 1,419 1,446 (9.4) 1.9 Energy conversion (1.9) Non-energy Cement production, etc. 1, (3.6) CO2 Waste (3.3) CH N2O HFCs Total 15,860 15, Source: The Environment of Kitakyushu 2009 A-7

134 4 ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES OF THE CITY, A CASE OF WATER ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENT 1) Water Environment 1 (1) Outline In the high economic growth period, the City of Kitakyushu suffered from serious water pollution in Dokai Bay and the Murasaki River which were caused by industrial and domestic wastewater. However, in 1970s, the city gained significant improvement on water quality, as a result of the regulations on the wastewater set by the government and the collaboration with the government, citizens and businesses. Currently, the City of Kitakyushu has focused on developing town with amenities such as development of water environments through its riverside and seaside. The approach is not only to improve the water quality, but to formulate urban space utilizing the merit of water environment. These activities for creating the better water environment are based on high public awareness of citizens for environment and collaborations between the government, citizens and businesses that had been built through tackling to the pollutions in the high economic growth period. (2) Policy/Plan: Kitakyushu Regional Plan on Pollution Prevention The regional plan on pollution prevention is formulated, in accordance with Article 17 of Basic Environmental Act, by prefectural governors under the direction of the minister for the environment. The Kitakyushu Regional Plan on Pollution Prevention was first formulated in FY1972 targeted on FY1981. It has been revised in 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002 and (3) Platform: Organizations Dealing with Pollution Countermeasures The City of Kitakyushu established the Pollution Control Sub-section, consisting of four personnel, was established within the Public Health Section of the Sanitation Bureau. Since then, the City of Kitakyushu expanded the organization, the Pollution Monitoring Department was established with 22 personnel in 1970, the Pollution Control Bureau was established with 47 personnel, and in 1975 it became the largest with 79 personnel. On the other hand, The Kitakyushu City Pollution Prevention Council was established in 1963 to survey and deliberate on basic matters on pollution control. The original members of the council were 6 academics (researchers in various fields), 3 representatives of citizens (alderman and representatives of Women's Association) and 3 industry representatives (including relevant departments in charge of Yawata Steel). After the revision of the Kitakyushu Pollution Prevention Ordinance in 1971, the members became 8 academic members, 9 public representatives, 3 industry representatives. The council has played important roles in promoting pollution countermeasures by making a recommendation regarding the basic direction. 1 This chapter is based on the Handbook of Environmental Measures in Kitakyushu City (http://enviroscope.iges.or.jp/contents/76/index2.htm). The pollution countermeasures in Kitakyushu (Momoyama Gakuin University, Kazuki Taketoshi). Kitakyushu Regional Plan on Pollution Prevention (Fukuoka Prefecture, 2008), The environment of Kitakyushu City (FY2009) A-8

135 (4) Regulatory Framework (a) Water Quality Standard for Wastewater The Japanese government regulated emissions of methyl mercury conducted by the Water Conservation Act in In 1969, the government specified the Dokai Bay for methyl mercury regulation, and the regulation was set for factories located on the coastal area not to emit methyl mercury. In September 1970, the wastewater quality standards were expanded to nine including cadmium and cyanide. In addition, in November 2003, Hibikinada was specified as targeted area and the maximum allowable concentration of each pollutant was set for each types of industry located on the coastal area of Dokai Bay. The factories and the enterprises underwent the application of the standards were 45 factories and enterprises, and 513 facilities. In the wastewater standards, ph, COD and other items were also added. Moreover, in 1973, Fukuoka Prefecture enforced additional wastewater standards by the ordinance. These additional standards were 3 to 7 times lower, therefore strict, than that of national standards of six items including COD, cyanide and arsenic. In addition, the Water Pollution Control Act allow the City of Kitakyushu to implement more detailed water quality control, since the authority in regard to acceptance of wastewater facilities or inspections had been delegated from Fukuoka Prefecture to Kitakyushu City. (b) Kitakyushu Pollution Prevention Ordinance The City of Kitakyushu enforced the Kitakyushu Pollution Prevention Ordinance in 1970 in order to ensure the "first principle of ensuring public health and comfortable living environment, and to promote more aggressive pollution control administration". In 1972, the ordinance was revised and stated that compulsory notification of the designated facilities, the establishment of penalties in order to improve their compliance obligations and violations of regulatory standards, establishment of regulations for small facilities not covered by the law. The main contents are as follows: (i) Responsibilities of Business: To treat appropriately the emitted pollutants by own responsibility and burden, and may not refuse to submit documents on pollution prevention due to trade secrets. (ii) Responsibilities of the City: Smoke and other emissions control, improving the monitoring, implementation of pollution prevention projects, development of pollution complaint handling system, promote pollution prevention agreements, establishment of pollution prevention funds, etc. (5) Economic Measures: Kitakyushu Financing System for Pollution Prevention Target of the loan funds are capital costs such as the installation of equipment or machinery needed to prevent or eliminate pollution, and the funds to purchase land and the building for the relocation of factories and equipment because of environmental conflict. The number of financed projects is 295, and the amount is billion yen. The financed projects include not only water pollution, but also noise, vibration and air pollution. A-9

136 (6) Encouragement/Promotion (a) Dredging the Sludge in Dokai Bay The public interest for the pollution of Dokai Bay was increased due to the report of the situation of pollution prepared by the Kitakyushu district labor union in 1971 and the activities of Women's Society. Kitakyushu Port Management Association, which was responsible for managing Dokai Bay. They then organized the Dokai Bay Clean-up Study Group and conducted an annual survey, and revealed that harmful materials had accumulated in high concentrations. The way to dredging the sludge had been considered, and dredging of contaminated sediment was conducted from 1974 to The dredging cost was 1.8 billion yen in total, and the companies discharged the pollutants covered 71% of the cost. Of the remaining 29%, the national government covered 50% and the City of Fukuoka and the City of Kitakyushu covered 25% each. (b) Development of Sewerage Network The Purple River, or the Murasaki River, which runs through the city center, had been severely polluted in the 1970s, because the belated development of sewage and wastewater treatment could not catch up with rapid urbanization and industrialization. The river had been extremely contaminated and discharged a foul odor caused by untreated industrial waste water from factories and human sewage discharged from houses illegally located along the river. Factors that significantly improved the water quality of the Purple River was the development of the sewage network. The relationship between water quality of the Purple River and the sewerage network is shown in Figure 3.3. (c) Development of Waterfront Environment The City of Kitakyushu has implemented the development of the riverside by considering ecosystem conservation and restoration through the so called "eco-friendly river improvement". These projects have been conducted with active public participation, and also promoted to utilize as a base for learning environmental issues. Activities have been implemented, such as trash collection campaign, stocking juvenile Japanese trout, environmental education for the children, doing and participating in international conferences and workshops on environmental conservation. The Purple River is positioned in the heart of urban redevelopment, and in 1988, the city of Kitakyushu was designated as "My Town, My River Development Project". The purpose of the project was not only limited to flood control and river improvement, but it was attempted to form an attractive urban space by linking the river development with redevelopment and road construction that were planned around the city. In regard to the development of coastal area, in 1994, the City of Kitakyushu formulated The master plan on waterfront development which is familiar to the citizens, and had been developing the waterfront, where the citizens can recreate, targeting total extension of 20 km. Currently, the target is revised to 25 km and already developed 13.4 km in The surrounding area has been used by a lot of citizens. The City of Kitakyushu has been promoting to develop green areas in ports and coasts. 2) Air Pollution (Outline) Serious air pollution in Kitakyushu was improved dramatically in the 1970s through vigorous and comprehensive measures such as formulations of policy/planning, establishment of organizations, regulatory laws and agreements, economic measures A-10

137 such as finance mechanism for pollution preventions. These measures were implemented with the collaboration between citizens, businesses and the city government. Table 4.1 Actions against Air Pollution Year Action Responsibility Method 1963 Establishment of the Kitakyushu City Pollution Prevention Council The city Platform 1964 Installing automatic air pollution monitoring equipment for sulfur The city Platform oxides and suspended particulate matter 1967 Enforcement of Basic Act for Environmental Pollution Control The central government 1968 Enactment of the Air Pollution Control Act The central government Regulatory Framework Regulatory Framework Establishment of Kitakyushu pollution prevention funding system The city Economic Measures 1970 Enforcement of Kitakyushu Pollution Prevention Ordinance The city Regulatory Framework Establishment of Pollution Monitoring Center The city Platform Establishment of the Sanitation Bureau s Pollution Monitoring The city Platform Department 1971 Establishment of Pollution Control Bureau The city Platform 1972 Formulation of Kitakyushu Regional Plan on Pollution Prevention The city Policy/Plan Sign of Pollution Control Agreement between the local government and companies The city Regulatory Framework Note: Compiled by the Study Team based on various documents and sources. 3) Waste Management and Recycling (Outline) The City of Kitakyushu has been promoting pioneering efforts to promote a resourcerecycling society aimed at utilizing every waste as feedstock for other industries and realize zero waste (zero emissions). The traditional "recycling" has been developed further to promote efforts to establish a more sustainable material cycle society such as reduce, reuse and recycle. To realize the concept, many measures were introduced such as a charge for the designated garbage bags for household in 1998, measures on the business waste in 2004, the review of the domestic waste collection system in The collected trash wais handled by the city in three incineration plants, and generate electricity using heat, to sell surplus power to the grid. The Eco-Town Project is a remarkable project on waste management in the City of Kitakyushu. It was approved in 1997, and many achievements have been done to realize an environment-friendly industrial city and sustainable society through a unique regional policy combining "industrial development" and "environmental conservation" (see Key Topic 2). A-11

138 Table 4.2 Actions on Waste Management and Recycling Year Action Responsibility Method 1992 Start of the subsidy program for the composting container for The city Economic Measures kitchen scraps 1993 Start of the separate collection of cans and glass bottles The city Regulatory Framework 1994 Start of charge for the collection of oversized garbage The city Economic Measures 1997 Act on the Promotion of Sorted Garbage Collection and Recycling of Containers and Packaging (partially enforced) The central government Regulatory Framework Start of the separate collection of PET bottles The city Regulatory Framework Formulation of the Kitakyushu Eco-town plan and approval by The city Policy/Plan METI 1998 Charge for the designated garbage bags for household The city Economic Measures 2000 Act on the Promotion of Sorted Garbage Collection and Recycling of Containers and Packaging (enforced) The central government Regulatory Framework 2001 Formulation of Kitakyushu City Fundamental Plan for Domestic The city Policy/Plan Waste Management Enforcement of Act for Recycling of Specified Kinds of Home Appliances The central government Regulatory Framework 2003 The target was set reducing the amount of waste per person 20%, according to Basic Act on Establishing a Sound Material- The central government Regulatory Framework Cycle Society 2004 Strengthen the measures on business wastes The city Regulatory Framework 2006 The review of the domestic waste collection system The city Economic Measures 2007 Kitakyushu City Plastic Recycling Center The city Encouragement /Promotion/ Else Note: Compiled by the Study Team based on various documents and sources. 4) Climate Change Mitigation (Outline) In order to promote countermeasures on global warming, the City of Kitakyushu formulated "The Kitakyushu City Global Warming Countermeasure Area Promotion Plan". As specific measures, around 70 measures reflecting the characteristics of Kitakyushu, including the energy audit business, the eco-town project, the promotion of international cooperation projects, review of household waste collection system, measures on heat island. In 2008, the City of Kitakyushu was designated as the Eco-Model City, and had formulated the Action Plan for Kitakyushu Eco-Model City as a mid to long-term action plan (see Key Topic 1). Kitakyushu has been promoting climate change mitigations on the basis of these plans. Table 4.3 Actions on Climate Change Mitigation Year Action Responsibility Method 1990 Formulation of the Action Program to Arrest Global Warming The central government 1999 Enforcement of Act on Promotion of Global Warming The central Countermeasures government Policy/Plan Regulatory Framework 2004 Formulation of the Environmental Capital Grand Design The city Policy/Plan 2006 Formulation of the Kitakyushu City Global Warming The city Policy/Plan Countermeasure Area Promotion Plan 2007 Formulation of the Kitakyushu Basic Environmental Plan The city Policy/Plan 2008 Designated as an Eco-Model City The city Policy/Plan 2009 Formulation of the Action Plan for Kitakyushu Eco-Model City The city Policy/Plan Note: Compiled by the Study Team based on various documents and sources. A-12

139 5 KEY TOPICS 1) Key Topic 1: The Eco-model City In July 2008, the City of Kitakyushu was selected as an Eco-Model City by the Japanese Government. In 2009, The Action Plan of Kitakyushu Eco-Model City (Kitakyushu Green Frontier Plan) was formulated targeted on 2009 to In formulating the action plan, the new department The Kitakyushu Eco-Model City Headquarters was launched initiated by the Mayor and will promote the cross-department actions in Kitakyushu city office. In addition, in 2008, "The Kitakyushu Eco-Model City Regional Promotion Council" was established to promote the activities by public and private organizations and academia. Eco-Model City and The Action Plan of Kitakyushu Eco-Model City (Kitakyushu Green Frontier Plan) has a main concept of Sustainable development towards creating a Low Carbon Society in Kitakyushu. It aims to improve peoples happiness, achieve economic growth by 40% and to reduce CO 2 emission significantly. The action plan is composed of approaches of various sectors, such as urban development/low carbon urban structure, industrial development/innovative industries, human and social development/happy life, and sustainable development in Asia/low carbon society. Figure 5.1 Outline of Kitakyushu Green Frontier Plan Source: City of Kitakyushu, Japan 2) Key Topic 2: Kitakyushu Eco-Town Project Kitakyushu Eco-Town Project is the first of the approved projects and the most symbolic and remarkable project in the City of Kitakyushu. The project is composed of the Comprehensive Environmental Industrial Complex, the Hibiki Recycling Area, and the Practical Research Area. The Comprehensive Environmental Industrial Complex enables companies to handle and distribute recyclables generated from a broad area. They could be used as hubs for the material-cycle of individual industries and in that way create a recycling chain among them. The Hibiki Recycling Area supports small- and medium- A-13

140 sized enterprises that are venturing into the environmental industry by preparing business sites for long-term lease. The Practical Research Area acts as a centre for environmental industries in the city by concentrating organizations that engage in research and development on cutting-edge environmental technologies in this area. The table below shows the outline of the Eco-Town project. Table 5.1 Outline of the Eco-Town Project Number of projects 26 Number of researches 51 Total investment 60.5 billion Yen (The city of Kitakyushu: 6.7 billion Yen, Central government: 11.7 billion Yen, Private: 42.1 billion Yen) Employee Around 1,300 Source: The environment of Kitakyushu, 2009 A-14

141 ANNEX B CASE STUDY 2: KAWASAKI CITY

142 1 SUMMARY 1) Rationale for Being Selected as Case Study City The City of Kawasaki, where representative companies in all industries, such as iron and steel, electricity, foods, oil, chemical engineering, and transportation, etc. are located, is one of the typical cities that led the period of high economic growth in Japan. During the process of industrialization, it has experienced significant air and water pollution problems. However, under administrative initiative, businesses have proactively invested on pollution prevention, developing various pollution prevention technologies and know-how, and formulating technological bases for pollution measures, to overcome pollution problems. Given its circumstances as the location of many R&D institutions, the city has an abundant accumulation of experiences and know-how gained in the process of solving the pollution problem, as well as fostering cutting-edge environmental technologies for climate change control. 2) Summary of Case Study The City of Kawasaki, which led the period of high economic growth in Japan during 1960s and 1970s, experienced significant air and water pollution problems along with other environmental issues. In order to save pollution victims, the city arranged a relief system for pollution victims and at the same time enhanced measures to control pollution sources by establishing an air pollution prevention agreement with the major plants. It also established a pollution prevention act, and prepared the necessary system by establishing a pollution monitoring center and a pollution research institute. The businesses, on the other hand, started proactive investments on pollution prevention, and developing various pollution prevention technologies and know-how, to adapt to the new strict emission control regulations. They also trained engineers in pollution prevention within their companies and formulated a technological base for pollution control. Automobile pollution was another problem for the City of Kawasaki due to its heavy automobile traffic. Within a situation where the compliance of the national environmental standard was extremely difficult due to motor traffic increase and the increase of diesel cars, the City of Kawasaki has promoted measures to prevent automobile pollution in a planned and comprehensive manner such as the establishment of the Plan for Automobile Pollution Prevention. As a result of the promotion of these measures, the concentration of air pollutants (SO 2, CO, SPM, etc.) was substantially reduced. On the issue of waste management, the city has been highly recognized as a pioneering city in waste management. When the volume of waste increased by approximately 5% every year due to population increase and economic development and almost reached the incineration limit, the city declared a state of emergency on waste in With this background, the city laid out various measures for the reduction of wastes and the promotion of recycling. Kawasaki Eco-town, which was certified by the government in 1997 as the first eco-town in Japan, has promoted a shift to a resource recycling production activity by businesses, and has effectively used wastes and by-products as feedstock. It has also been fully utilizing the benefit of concentrated locations of various industries at the waterfront areas such as iron and steel, chemical engineering, petrochemical, cement, etc., making efforts for a high-level effective and recycling use of resources and energy in Eco-town possible through collaborative effort among facilities and companies within the area. B-1

143 On global warming concerns, the city instituted a Carbon Challenge Kawasaki Ecostrategy in 2008 to promote the harmonization of the environment with the economy as well as institute a positive growth circle. The city also has also worked for the realization of sustainable society at a global scale. Especially, the city has promoted measures for the effective use of cutting-edge environmental technologies designed in the city, such as reducing CO 2 emissions with advanced environmental technologies available in the city and promoting international contribution through such technologies. The biggest characteristic of City of Kawasaki in its environmental measures is its tremendous accumulation of experiences and know-how gained through the process of overcoming pollution problems and its advanced environmental technologies for climate change control. It should be noted that many R&D institutions are concentrated in the city, with 201 research institutions of private companies and 24 research institutions from universities and others. 3) Appreciation from the Eco 2 Initiatives (1) Ecological Cities as Economic Cities City of Kawasaki, which was on the forefront of Japan s high economic growth has realized the harmonization of the economy and the environment in the process overcoming its serious pollution problems. The accumulation of environmental technologies throughout its efforts to overcome the problems is supporting the further harmonization of economy and environment in the city. Carbon Challenge Kawasaki Ecostrategy instituted in 2008 aims to promote the harmonization and positive growth circle of the economy and the environment and to realize a sustainable society in a global scale, taking advantage of the city s accumulated advanced technologies. (2) Eco 2 Basic Approach 1: A City-based Approach The City of Kawasaki has developed a city-wide approach for various environmental problems like pollution (air pollution, factories and automobiles, and water pollution), wastes, and global warming, -- promoting measures like preparing the city s original acts and plans. While working on a city base, it has also emphasized the promotion of international contribution through environmental technologies. (3) Eco 2 Basic Approach 2: An Expanded Platform for Collaborative Design and Decision-Making City of Kawasaki has been making pioneering efforts on various environmental problems through the collaboration with businesses and administrators. It plans to establish an environmental research organization after FY 2011 that allows the collection and dissemination of information on excellent environmental technologies gained in the city and that also allows collaborative research and environmental education and learning with the collaboration of citizens, businesses and universities. The city has also set up a taskforce in the city government with the mayor as the chief and all heads of bureaus and directors of wards as team members, in order to make a government-wide effort for climate change issues in all target areas for the climate-related measures. B-2

144 (4) Eco 2 Basic Approach 3: One-system Approach Kawasaki Eco-town (the whole waterfront area of Kawasaki, approx. 2,800 ha) has been promoted as a shift to a resource recycling production activity by businesses, and effectively using their emissions and by-products as feedstock. It is notable that it has been promoting a high-level effective and recycling use of resource and energy in the eco-town through collaboration among facilities and businesses in the area, taking advantage of the concentrated locations of various industries such as iron and steel, chemical engineering, petrochemical, and cement, etc. In addition, at the zero-emission industrial complex in Kawasaki, companies have promoted waste and energy recycling to minimize the environmental burden in a coordinated manner while also minimizing their own wastes generated from business activities. These are the good examples of onesystem approach in an industrial area. (5) Eco 2 Basic Approach 4: An Investment Framework that Values Sustainability and Resiliency In City of Kawasaki, issues such as the establishment of an investment framework to improve the city s sustainability and resilience are matters for future consideration. Carbon Challenge Kawasaki Eco-strategy stipulates the establishment of Kawasaki s original scheme to evaluate measures for products and services for the perspective of lifecycle. 4) Implications to the Eco 2 Initiatives Regarding measures for pollutions (air and water pollutions caused by industrial plants), one can refer to the measures and experiences in the City of Kawasaki. As for organization, offices for pollution control measures are established by the city administration to guide pollution control measures and promote monitoring. As for regulation, the city s original acts and agreements, etc., are implemented and are tailormade for the local situation and are not covered by the national regulations. In addition, the city has an abundant accumulation of experiences and know-how gained in the process of solving its pollution problems, as well as its cutting-edge environmental technologies for climate change control. Many R&D institutions are concentrated in the city, with 201 research institutions of private companies and 24 research institutions from universities and others. The collaboration with these institutions would also be useful for realizing Eco 2. The collaboration among businesses on waste and energy recycling in Eco-town would also serve as a useful reference for the realization of Eco 2. B-3

145 2 INTRODUCTION OF THE CITY The city of Kawasaki is located in the northeastern part of Kanagawa Prefecture. The north side, across the Tama River, is adjacent to Tokyo, and the south side is adjacent to the City of Yokohama. The west side is Tama, and the east overlooks Tokyo Bay. The area is about km 2. The population of the city is 1,420,329, and 659,785 households (as of September 1st, 2010). The city s experience and expertise obtained in the process of overcoming its pollution problems and advanced environmental technologies for global warming has earned the city its reputation as a model eco city with an advance technological edge and research hub for environmental technology. B-4

146 3 EXPERIENCES ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS 1) Industrial Pollution (Air Pollution, Water Pollution) The City of Kawasaki was home to various forms of industry including steel, electricity, food, petroleum, chemicals and air carriers. It was one of the powerhouses that drove Japan s high economic growth. However, industrialization resulted in serious pollution problems including air pollution and water contamination. Air pollutants emitted from factories and cars caused serious health effects to resident in Kawasaki such as chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma. Figure 3.1 Trends of Sulfur Oxides Emissions from Factories and Enterprises in Kawasaki Source: Outline of the projects of environment bureau, Kawasaki City, 2007 Figure 3.2 Trends of Annual Mean Concentration of Sulfur Dioxide in Kawasaki City (Urban Background) Source: Air quality of Kawasaki City in 2008 Figure 3.3 Trends of Reported Victims of Photochemical Smog Source: Outline of the projects of environment bureau, Kawasaki City, 2007 B-5

147 2) Pollutions related to Motor Vehicle From the latter half of the 1970s, the traffic volume of motor vehicles increased dramatically, and air pollution, such as NO x and PM became a problem. Air pollution around the roadside is still significant environmental problem in some areas in the city. Among air pollution caused by motor vehicles, PM emitted from diesel vehicles has potential to affect human health seriously. Figure 3.4 Trends of Annual Mean Concentration of Carbon Monoxide and Suspended Particulate Matter in Kawasaki City (Roadside) Source: Air quality of Kawasaki City in ) Environmental Problems related to Urban Life Since the mid-1970s, in regard to so-called industrial pollution caused by factories, it had been considerably improved because of establishment of laws and local ordinances, including the enactment of regulations. However, as a result of social and economic development, and the improvement of living standards, concentration of population into urban area and increase of motor vehicle traffic had became remarkable, and urbanliving pollution such as noise, human sewage, detergents issues, vehicle emissions has been actualized. It was taken up as a social problem of groundwater contamination by toxic chemicals. 4) Waste Management and Recycling The City of Kawasaki received appraisal as an advanced city in waste disposal management after introducing a system of daily collection and total incineration. However, due to its rising population and ongoing economic development, the amount of waste correspondingly increased by about 5% annually and it was only a matter of time before the city nudged closer to the capacity of its incineration limit. In 1990, the city declared a state of emergency when its ability to cope with waste was severely challenged. Under these circumstances, the City of Kawasaki developed a range of measures to reduce the volume of its waste and promote recycling. 5) Energy Efficiency Japan was affected by the oil crises in 1973 and The lack of oil supply and steep price increase seriously affected Japanese society and the economy, which was heavily dependent on the Middle East oil for its energy resources. However, the crisis ushered the developments of energy efficient technologies. For example, steelmakers constructed state-of-the-art steel plants and expanded their continuous casting facilities. The innovations reduced air pollutants such as sulfur dioxides and contributed to improving the environment of city of Kawasaki as well as achieving energy efficiency. B-6

148 Figure 3.5 Historical Trend of Waste Volume in the City of Kawasaki Waste Volume (10,000 ton) Population (10,000) ) Global Warming Source: Kawasaki City Fundamental Plan for Domestic Waste Management The most remarkable characteristic of CO 2 emissions in the City of Kawasaki is that the industrial sector accounts for approximately 80% of total CO 2 emission. The emission tends to decrease recently, and it is 13.9% lower than that in FY1990. Figure 3.6 Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the City of Kawasaki (thousand tons of CO 2 ) (000 ton-co2) Generated Waste Incinerated Waste Population Base year Source: Greenhouse gas emissions from the City of Kawasaki in FY2007, August 19, 2010, The press release, the City of Kawasaki B-7

149 4 ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES OF THE CITY 1) Measures on Air Pollution (1) Outline One of the major powerhouse driving Japan s high economic growth in 1960s and 1970s, through heavy industrialization, the City of Kawasaki incurred serious pollutions problems including air pollution and water contamination had occurred. Air pollutants emitted from factories and cars caused serious health problems among residents in Kawasaki such as chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma. To provide relief to pollution victims, the city government initiated a pollution victim relief scheme and tightened measures on pollutants by implementing air pollution prevention policies. The Kawasaki City Ordinance for Pollution Prevention was enacted, and facilities and organizations such as the Pollution Monitor Center and the Pollution Research Laboratory were established. On the other hand, businesses, reacting from public pressures, took steps to invest in pollution prevention measures, resulting in the development of various technologies and techniques to prevent pollutions. Businesses also invested in the training of engineers and technicians on pollution prevention fields, and laid the technological foundation for antipollution measures. Table 4.1 Historical Actions against Air Pollution Year Actions Responsibility Method 1967 Enforcement of Basic Act for Environmental Pollution Control The central government 1968 Enforcement of Air Pollution Control Act The central government 1968 Establishment of a continuous monitoring system for sulfur The city dioxides, etc. through the use of centralized air pollution monitoring equipment 1970 Commencement of agreements signed with 39 factories within The city Kawasaki City regarding the prevention of air pollution to tighten antipollution measures aimed at pollution sources 1972 Promulgation of the Kawasaki City Ordinance for Pollution The city Prevention Regulatory Framework Regulatory Framework Platform Regulatory Framework Regulatory Framework 1972 Completion of the Pollution Monitor Center The city Platform 1972 Introduction of automatic monitoring systems for sulfur oxides at 42 The city Platform major factories 1973 Establishment of the Kawasaki Pollution Research Laboratory The city Platform 1977 Publication of the Promulgation of the Kawasaki City Ordinance on Environmental Assessment The city Regulatory Framework 1978 Introduction of automatic monitoring systems for nitrogen oxides at The city Platform 32 major factories 1999 Establishment and promulgation of the Kawasaki City Ordinance for Conservation of Living Environment including Pollution Prevention The city Regulatory Framework Note: Compiled by the Study Team based on various documents and sources. (2) Platform (a) Monitoring of Air Pollution The City of Kawasaki began to measure the concentration of dust fall in 1956, and sulfur oxides in Since 1964, the city established monitoring stations with automated measurement equipments. In 1968, the central air pollution monitoring system was set up at the city headquarters, and measurement data could be monitored centrally by telemetry system. In 1972, the pollution monitoring center was established in order to strengthen B-8

150 surveillance capabilities. In regard to the monitoring of the emission sources, in 1972, automatic sulfur oxides monitoring systems was installed to major plants (42 plants) which allowed the monitoring in real time at the pollution monitoring center. In addition, automatic nitrous oxides monitoring systems was installed to 32 plants in Source: Outline of the projects of environment bureau, Kawasaki City, 2007 (3) Regulatory Framework (a) Kawasaki City Ordinance for Pollution Prevention In order to promote air pollution measures, the city set target values on sulfur oxides, dust and nitrogen oxide emissions, and took into account the location of factories and emission levels, allowable total emissions was set for each area. Also, in order to achieve the allowable total emissions, the original total emission regulation called "Kawasaki Method" was implemented to control the emissions from factories. (b) Kawasaki City Ordinance for Conservation of Living Environment including Pollution Prevention New types of environmental concerns, such as hazardous chemicals, global warming, and other environmental problems have become complex and diverse. To address these problems the City of Kawasaki enacted various ordinances that would preempt or mitigate such concerns. The city enforced regulations to further improve the environment through enhancement of measures on nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides, and a comprehensive measure of the total reduction scheme for suspended particulate matter. 2) Measures on Motor Vehicle Pollution (1) Outline The city of Kawasaki has been promoting measures on sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxides focused on total amount regulation for stationary sources. However, due to increase in automobile traffic and increase in the proportion of diesel vehicles, it has found difficulty in achieving the national standards for air quality. To continue to address the issue the City of Kawasaki formulated the Plan for Automobile Pollution Prevention in City of Kawasaki, and decided to promote a comprehensive vehicle pollution control measures. (2) Policy/Plan (a) Plan for Automobile Pollution Prevention in the City of Kawasaki The city of Kawasaki formulated Plan for Automobile Pollution Prevention in 1991, because it was having a hard time achieving the national standard on nitrous oxides through measures for stationary sources. The plan was revised in 2003 to promote comprehensive measures to mitigate automobile pollution prevention, including measures on motor vehicles itself, traffic amount/traffic flow, and pollutions on specific area. The measures on motor vehicles itself included the introduction of low emission vehicles, promotion of diesel particulate filters, and use of clean diesel fuel. The measures on traffic amount/traffic flow include TDM (Traffic Demand Management). Source: Outline of the projects of environment bureau, Kawasaki City, 2007 B-9

151 Table 4.2 Historical Actions against Vehicle-related Pollution Year Actions Responsibility Method 1973 Enactment of Basic Outline on Kawasaki Automobile Pollution Prevention 1991 Formulation of Plan for Automobile Pollution Prevention in City of Kawasaki 1992 Establishment of Kawasaki Automobile Pollution Prevention Promotion Council Enforcement of Law Concerning Special Measures for Total Emission Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides 1993 Formulation of the Plan for the Reduction of Total Amount of Nitrogen Oxides Emission from Automobiles 2000 Enforcement of the Kawasaki Ordinance on Conservation of Life Environment such as pollution prevention 2001 Enforcement of Law Concerning Special Measures for Total Emission Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides and Particulate Matter 2003 Revision of Plan for Automobile Pollution Prevention in City of Kawasaki (2003 to 2005) Formulation of the Plan for the Reduction of Total Amount of Nitrogen Oxides and Particulate Matter Emissions from Automobiles Establishment of the subsidy program for introduction of low pollution cars 2007 Revision of Plan for Automobile Pollution Prevention in City of Kawasaki (2006 to 2008) Establishment of the registration system on Kawasaki Eco-drive Declaration The city The city The city The central government The prefecture The city The prefecture The city The prefecture The city The city The city Policy/Plan Policy/Plan Platform Regulatory Framework Policy/Plan Regulatory Framework Regulatory Framework Policy/Plan Policy/Plan Economic Measures Policy/Plan Encouragement /Promotion/ Else Establishment of Kawasaki Eco-drive Promotion Council The city Platform Source: Plan for Automobile Pollution Prevention in the City of Kawasaki (3) Platform (a) Kawasaki Automobile Pollution Prevention Promotion Council The city of Kawasaki established the Kawasaki Automobile Pollution Prevention Promotion Council consisting of related organizations, representative of citizens and the city office, and has promoted the Plan for Automobile Pollution Prevention in the City of Kawasaki. The council annually checks the progress of the measures implemented and also reviews the implementation plan for the next year. (b) Kawasaki Eco-drive Promotion Council The City of Kawasaki has been promoting eco-driving as a measure to mitigate climate change and air pollution, and establish the registration system on Kawasaki Eco-drive Declaration. It also established the Kawasaki Eco-drive Promotion Council to provide information and raise awareness on eco-drive and to organize workshops. (4) Regulatory Framework (a) Kawasaki City Ordinance for Conservation of Living Environment including Pollution Prevention In order to prevent vehicle emissions and noise problems, the ordinance defines measures such as the responsibilities of car users, idling, the guidance on reducing emissions from motor vehicles, and designation of traffic demand management area. For example, with regard to idling, drivers and the companies have been advised that they have no reason to idle their vehicles. It is also defined that the managers parking areas should enforce no idling policies. B-10

152 (5) Economic Measures (a) The Subsidy Program for Introduction of Low Pollution Cars The City of Kawasaki promotes low emission vehicles, such as new natural gas vehicles, hybrid vehicles, conversion of in-use diesel vehicles to natural gas vehicles, to private sectors to realize improvement of air quality at the road side. (6) Encouragement/Promotion (a) The Registration System on Kawasaki Eco-drive Declaration In order to promote eco-drive for citizens and companies, the city of Kawasaki established the registration system on Kawasaki Eco-drive Declaration. For citizens and companies who are registered, the registration card, the sticker, and the leaflet are delivered to them. As of August 31, 2010, the total number of registered vehicles/drivers were 31,099, among them 969 are companies and organizations, and 8,532 are citizens. 3) Waste Management (Outline) In the city of Kawasaki, the amount waste had increased by 5% per year within five years from 1985, due to economic growth and citizens changing lifestyles. It was predicted that the rate of 5% would breach the incineration capacity of the city. The City of Kawasaki declared a state of emergency on wastes and encouraged citizens and companies to cooperate in promoting waste reduction and recycling. In 1992, the Waste Ordinance was completely revised aiming to build a resource recycling-based society from the previous objective of the promotion of proper treatment. Since then, the city office has implemented various measures on waste reduction and recycling together with citizens and companies. As a result, even in the situation that the population continues to increase, the amount of waste has been reduced. However, waste from businesses continued to increase. Therefore, in 2000, in order to promote reduction and recycling of business wastes, the city office implemented various measures including the revision of the fee for waste disposal, introduction of designated waste bags, amendment of the Waste Ordinance etc. In addition, in 2004, the city office stops the collection of waste, and switch to the system wherein companies brought waste to the city s treatment facilities themselves, or entrusted for collection by a company which had a city permission to do so. In 2005, the city office revised the "Basic Plan for waste disposal, Kawasaki (Kawasaki challenge 3R)" to shift their activities regarding waste treatment from recycle-oriented measures to 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycling). Also, in 2006, "The 4th Kawasaki Industrial Waste Treatment Advising Plan" was formulated, and even for industrial waste, the city has been promoting 3R and promoting efforts to promote and proper treatment of industrial wastes. Through these measures, the amount of waste in Kawasaki has continued to decline. B-11

153 Figure 4.1 Historical Trend of Volume of Waste in Kawasaki Source: Outline of the projects of environment bureau, Kawasaki City, ) Climate Change Mitigation (Outline) Kawasaki City had formulated "Basic Environmental Plan" in 1994, and showed one of its desirable environmental images as "an environmentally friendly sustainable recyclingoriented community", and also manifested its ability to tackle global environmental issues from the local level and to achieve a recycling-oriented community, and clearly indicated the direction of policies on global warming. To strengthen its environmental measures and reduce CO 2 emissions, the City of Kawasaki plans to revise its "Global Warming Countermeasure Area Promotion Plan" by which the city works jointly with citizens and businesses to determine the amount of emissions, develop numerical reduction targets, and develop effective measures. To make this plan more effective, the city also plans to pass the Local Ordinance for Countermeasures against Global Warming (tentative title), setting out rules to tackle global warming, and to revise the city's Basic Environment Plan in fiscal City of Kawasaki established the Carbon Challenge Kawasaki Eco-strategy (CC Kawasaki) in February Under the strategy, with a view to achieving the balance and the virtuous circle between the environment and the economy, and consequently to realizing a sustainable society, the city is working on three pillars: (1) Employ the Characteristics and Advantages of Kawasaki City to Promote Countermeasures against Global Warming A virtuous circle for environment and economy to build a Kawasaki CO 2 reduction model to reduce CO 2 emissions with the use of advanced technology. Development of Kawasaki City s own system for evaluation measures of life-cycle of products and services. Promote a vision of the International Environmental Special District developed in Kawasaki City through these activities. (2) International Contributions through Environmental Technology Kawasaki City has a concentration of industries with internationally recognized environmental technologies. Kawasaki City is able to contribute to measures for global warming on an international scale in combination with these industries. B-12

154 (3) Engage in Reduction on CO 2 Levels through a Wide Range of Organizations A joint effort by citizens, businesses, and local authorities to develop effective measures for CO 2 reduction. Take maximum advantage of the lessons learned in resolving environmental problems with the high level of environmental consciousness of the citizens of Kawasaki. Table 4.3 Historical Actions against Global Warming Year Actions Responsibility Method 1990 Formulation of the Action Program to Arrest Global Warming The central Policy/Plan government 1992 Enforcement of the Kawasaki City Basic Environment Ordinance The city Regulatory Framework 1993 Enforcement of Basic Environment Act The central government Regulatory Framework 1994 Formulation of the Kawasaki Basic Environmental Plan The city Policy/Plan 1999 Enforcement of Act on Promotion of Global Warming Countermeasures 2000 Enforcement of the Kawasaki Ordinance on Conservation of Life Environment such as pollution prevention The central government The city Regulatory Framework Regulatory Framework 2002 Revision of the Kawasaki Basic Environmental Plan The city Policy/Plan 2004 Formulation of the Kawasaki City Global Warming Countermeasure The city Policy/Plan Area Promotion Plan 2008 Formulation of the Carbon Challenge Kawasaki Eco-strategy The city Policy/Plan Note: Compiled by the Study Team based on various documents and sources. B-13

155 5 KEY TOPIC: KAWASAKI ECO-TOWN In 1997, the City of Kawasaki formulated The Kawasaki Eco-Town Plan, targeting the whole area of the Kawasaki Coastal zone (2,800 ha), and established a model town where environment and industry would coexist in harmony. It was approved by the Japanese government as the first Eco-Town area in Japan. In the Kawasaki Eco-Town, companies promoted the conversion of their activities to resource-recycling, especially of their products, and to reuse bi-products and industrial waste effectively as raw materials. The Eco-Town model took advantage of the concentration of variety of industries such as steel, chemical, petrochemical, cement and other industries, collaborative efforts among facilities and companies within the eco-town area result in the effective use and regeneration of energy and resources at a high level. The basic policy of the Kawasaki Eco-Town is as follows: (1) The Company Itself Promotes Eco-friendliness Eco-friendliness of the company itself is encouraged. For example, a high-grade company that is taking various measures to become an Eco-friendly plant, such as improving the environmental management system, achieving zero-emission of plant wastewater and zero-emission of wastes in the plant, constructing a transportation system with taking environment into account, etc. is introduced as a zero-emission model plant. (2) The Eco-friendliness of the Region is Promoted in Cooperation among Companies For the second step, companies under promoting Eco-friendliness join hands with one another to aim at achieving Eco-friendliness as a region or cluster. To achieve this, the City sets the environmental goal and lays down the regional environmental statement. The conception that serves as the core of the regional Eco-friendliness is to promote the Kawasaki Zero-Emission Industrial Park Refurbishing Project. In addition, the company will constructively wrestle with obtaining the certification of ISO Series, as well as positively involve with the joint resource recovery of paper, bottles, cans, PET bottles, etc. as joint recycling in the region and with using recycled products. (3) Carrying Out Researches for Achieving the Region that makes Sustainable Development with Special Stress Placed on the Environment Researches will be carried out for achieving the region or cluster that makes sustainable development with special stress placed on the environment. Researches will be conducted for the further sustainable development of the Eco-town. For the effective utilization of energy, plant waste heat will be used in cascades. Approaches will be also made to recycle regional materials and to construct a product recycling system for the commercialization. To promote the research and development type industry, joint research and development will be made on the Eco-friendly technologies by interchange of companies. (4) Computerize the Results of Activities of Companies and the Region in Order to make Contributions to the Society and Developing Countries The results of companies and the region will be computerized in order to make contributions to the society and developing countries. In order for companies and the region to achieve Eco-friendliness and computerize the Eco-Town including sustainable B-14

156 researches on Eco-friendliness, information such as Eco-friendly technologies, etc. will be provided, environmental performance will be evaluated, and the environmental information within the Eco-Town will be positively transmitted to the areas outside the region. The Eco-Friendly Hall which has the information transmission functions will be positioned as the place of interchange, learning, and providing environmental information. At the 7.7 ha site inside the Eco-Town, the Kawasaki Zero-Emission Industrial Park is planned, and 17 companies are planned to launch into the Park with the group-installed building construction project system of the Corporation of Environmental Conservation applied. It was developed as a state-of-the-art model facility of the Kawasaki Eco-Town Plan. It was fully operated in In addition to controlling waste generated by the business activities of individual companies, efforts are directed at maximizing resourcerecovery from waste and regeneration of energy in order to minimize the environmental burden. The followings are the major initiatives implemented by the Park. (i) Acquisition of joint certification of ISO14001 for the entire industrial park (ii) Setting of higher reduction targets than emission standards of the generated environmental burden (iii) Joint reception by the neighboring businesses of the electricity from the surplus electricity (iv) Effective use of sewerage water after advanced treatment as alternative for water for industrial use (v) Utilization of sewerage sludge ash as raw material in cement in nearby factories B-15

157 ANNEX C CASE STUDY 3: NAGOYA CITY

158 1 SUMMARY 1) Rationale for Being Selected as Case Study City The City of Nagoya is the largest and the central city in terms of political, economic and cultural arenas in the Chubu area. The population is about 2.26 million as of November The City of Nagoya has remarkable experiences in reducing wastes, effectively reducing its wastes by more than 20% in only 2 years in the context of conservation of biodiversity, specifically calling off of reclaiming the Fujimae tidal area. Recently, the city has formulated long-term strategies on climate change, biodiversity and water cycle, targeted on It is progressive and ambitious approach for a local government to have such long-term strategies. 2) Summary of Case Study The amount of waste treated by the city of Nagoya had been continuously increasing, and in 1998, the annual amount became close to 1 million tons and about to reach the limit of both incineration and landfill capacities. There was a plan to establish a landfill disposal site on the Fujimae tidal land, which was a significantly important area in biodiversity. However the mayor of the city of Nagoya decided to call off the plan in 1999 and announced The Waste Emergency Declaration. The city office had conveyed the emergent situation of waste treatment in Nagoya to citizens and companies, and declared to reduce 20%, or 200,000 tons of wastes in coming two years through collaboration among citizens, companies and the city office. After the declaration, the city office has implemented various measures and reduced 232,000 tons within two years and achieved the target in the declaration. In the City of Nagoya, after around 1965, its urban area had grown rapidly, decreasing farmlands and forests. In 2007, the percentage of forests accounted for only two percent of the total area of private land. There were nearly 6,000 species of living organisms in Nagoya, however, the development brought pollution, loss of green area and pond, and the living environment changed dramatically. The city office established Biodiversity Planning Office, and has implemented activities such as formulation of "2050 Nagoya Strategy for Biodiversity" and a review of the Red Data Book Nagoya. The amount of greenhouse emissions of the city of Nagoya was million tons-co 2 in 2007, a 0.4% increase from 2006, and a 1.6 decrease from Compared with 1990, the emissions from industries decreased by 23.8%, on the other hand the emissions from the sectors of residents, motor vehicles and offices increased. In 2009, the city formulated The 2050 Nagoya Strategy for Low-carbon City and has been implementing various measures to achieve large reductions of GHG (25% reductions in 2020, 80% reductions in 2050). With regard to the water cycle in the city of Nagoya, the surface covered with green and soil has significantly decreased with urbanization and industrial activities. As a result, the amount of rainwater and runoff into rivers and sewage has increased and more than doubled (from 27% to 62%) from 1965 to The amount of rainwater penetrating the underground became approximately one-third (36% to 12%) and evapotranspiration was about two-thirds (38% to 26%). In these situations, the city formulated The 2050 Nagoya Strategy for Water Cycle Revitalization to promote comprehensive and effective measures on revitalization of water cycle. C-1

159 3) Appreciation from the Eco 2 Initiatives (1) Ecological Cities as Economic Cities The City of Nagoya developed as the central city of the Chubu area. The amount of waste from Nagoya had been rapidly increasing due to urbanization and increased population. However, the plan to develop the waste disposal site in the Fujimae tidal area moved the citizens to call off the plan, and the mayor decided to reduce waste by 20%, or 200,000 tons for the next two years. And this goal was met. The City of Nagoya is active in conserving biodiversity and the 10th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP10) to the Convention on Biological Diversity was held in Nagoya. The city has promoted measures on environmental issues to harmonize environment and activities in larger cities. (2) Eco 2 Basic Approach 1: A City-based Approach The City of Nagoya has developed a city-wide approach for various environmental problems including wastes, climate change, biodiversity-promoting measures like preparing the city s original acts and plans. Recently, the city has formulated long-term strategies on climate change, biodiversity and water cycle, targeted on It is progressive and ambitious approach for a local government to have such long-term strategies. (3) Eco 2 Basic Approach 2: An Expanded Platform for Collaborative Design and Decision-Making Through activities in collaboration with citizens, companies and the city office, the City of Nagoya had significantly reduced the amount of waste in a short period. This collaboration has been a basic concept of tackling environmental issues such as climate change mitigation and biodiversity in the City of Nagoya. (4) Eco 2 Basic Approach 3: One-system Approach An attempt of the one system approach can be seen in the measures on long-term strategies on climate change, biodiversity and water cycle. The long-term strategy on biodiversity to conserve soil, water and green areas to ensure biodiversity in Nagoya is emphasized. These measures are consistent with the long-term water cycle strategy and the long-term low carbon strategy. It is also stated in the biodiversity strategy to promote to implement Eco-life utilizing the natural resources, and this concept is also consistent with low carbon strategy. The City of Nagoya can implement these three long-term strategies effectively and efficiently since cross-interactions with conserving biodiversity, low carbon society and water cycle are considered in these strategies. (5) Eco 2 Basic Approach 4: An Investment Framework that Values Sustainability and Resiliency In the city of Nagoya, issues such as the establishment of an investment framework to improve the city s sustainability and resilience are some of the issues for future consideration. However, there are some fund for activities for environmental issues, for example, in order to promote recycle activities by citizens, the Nagoya Recycle Fund was established, and implement activities such as awareness campaigns or environmental learning for children regarding 3R utilizing the returns of the fund. The fund is accumulated by sales of cans and milk cartons, subsidies of the city, and the donation by citizens and companies. C-2

160 4) Implications to the Eco 2 Initiatives One of the important actions in environmental issues in the city of Nagoya is measures on reducing wastes. The strong policy and initiatives by the mayor brought large reductions in waste, such as the 200,000 tons in only two years. A lot of regulatory frameworks and economic measures had combined to reduce the wastes in both households and companies. The important measures on environmental issues in more recent years are the long-term strategies on climate change, biodiversity and water cycle, targeted on It is progressive and ambitious approach for a local government to have such long-term strategies, and these approaches to formulate long-term strategies in a local government would also serve as a useful reference for the realization of Eco 2, because these are exactly the one system approach to consider conservation of water resources and ecosystem, and climate change mitigations together. C-3

161 2 INTRODUCTION OF THE CITY The City of Nagoya is located at the eastern edge of the Nobi Plain. The eastern area is hilly terrain and dotted with Satoyama green. The central and western part of the city is reclaimed land by drainage, and the west of the JR Tokaido Line spreads the area below sea level. In regard to water system, the Shonai River System, flowing down from the Tono region of Gifu Prefecture, poured into Ise Bay through Fujimae tidal land. In the area by type in the city zoning of 2006 are: urban area consists 90% of the total area, of which the residential area is 62%, the commercial area is 16% and the industrial area 23%. The commercial area is concentrated in the urban central area, and the residential area is spread around this area. The industrial area is located near the coastal port to Atsuta Shrine, and around the Shonai River further north of Nagoya Castle. Now the city area is km 2, and the population is 2.25 million. C-4

162 3 EXPERIENCES ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS 1) Waste Management The amount of waste treated by the City of Nagoya had been continuously increasing, and in 1998, the annual amount became close to 1 million tons and about to reach the limit of both incineration and land fill capacity. There was a plan to establish a landfill disposal site on Fujimae tidal land where significantly important area in biodiversity such as one of the nation's most popular stopovers for migratory birds, and the public opinion to call off the plan had been mounting. In these circumstances, the mayor of the City of Nagoya decided to call off the plan in 1999 and announced The Waste Emergency Declaration. The city office had conveyed the emergent situation of waste treatment in Nagoya to citizens and companies, and declared to reduce 20%, 200,000 tons of wastes in coming two years through collaboration among citizens, companies and the city office. Figure 3.1 Trends of the Amount of Treated Wastes in Nagoya 2) Bio-diversity Source: Nagoya waste report 2009 In the City of Nagoya, after around 1965, urban area had grown rapidly with decreasing farmland and forests. In 2007, the percentage of forests accounted for only 2% of total area of private land. Absorbing the influx of people into a metropolis of high economic growth, the land readjustment of the area in sub-urban area had been progressed, and the population has increased significantly. The land had been converted from farmland to residential area, and the development brought pollutions, loss of green area and pond, and the living environment has changed dramatically. Figure 3.2 Trends of Green Area in Nagoya Source: 2050 Nagoya Strategy for Biodiversity C-5

163 Figure 3.3 Trends of Farmland, Mountain Forest and Residential Area Source: 2050 Nagoya Strategy for Biodiversity Figure 3.4 Figure Images of Land Use Change in the City of Nagoya Western part 100 years before Current situation Central part Eastern part Source: 2050 Nagoya Strategy for Biodiversity There are nearly 6,000 species of living organisms in Nagoya, the region have a relatively large number of species in large cities in Japan. Among them, the endangered organisms are distributed mainly in the east. Among the precious organisms, 89% of plants and 64% of animals are inhabited in the east. The urbanized center of the city also has valuable organisms in its remaining green space. In the west side of the city, there remain habitat of waterfowl in Fujimae tidal land and many precious species of birds inhabited. C-6

164 3) Climate Change / Global Warming The amount of greenhouse emissions of the city of Nagoya is million tons-co 2 in 2007, and 0.4% increased from 2006, and 1.6 decreased from Compared with 2006, the emissions from resident and industries increased, on the other hand the emissions from motor vehicles decreased. Compared with 1990, the emissions from industries decreased 23.8%, on the other hand the emissions from the sectors of resident, motor vehicle and office have increased 27.1%, 32.7% and 48.3%, respectively. Figure 3.5 Trends of Gas Emissions in Nagoya Source: The result of survey on greenhouse gas emissions (outline) (August 2010, the city of Nagoya) 4) Water Environment (Circulation of Water) When rain and snow falls on the ground some evaporate and some penetrate into the ground. The amount that can not penetrate to the ground flows to the rivers and pour into the sea. In this way, water has circulated the globe in various forms. In our life and industries, we use water from this natural water cycle, and it is very important to maintain appropriate balance of water circulation. However, the storage and impermeability of rainwater has expanded with the progress of urbanization, and these have contributed to flooding, the heat island effect and deteriorating water quality in rivers and oceans. In 1965, most of the rainwater penetrated into the ground or evaporated, and the amount of rainwater flowing directly into rivers and sewage was only 27 percent. However, in 2001, the amount of rainwater runoff into rivers and sewage has increased and more than doubled (from 27% to 62%). In these 36 years, the surface covered with green and soil has been significantly decreased. As a result, the amount of rainwater penetrated to the underground becomes approximately one-third (36% to 12%) and evapotranspiration becomes about two-thirds (38% to 26%). Additionally, in 2001, the amount of intake of Kiso River significantly increased due to urbanization and industrial activities (68% to 93% of water equivalent to the amount of rainfall). C-7

165 Figure 3.6 Water Balance in Nagoya in 1965 and 2001 River (The Kiso River, etc) Water Intake Nagoya City Water Intake Rain Water Life/ Industry Rain Runoff Evapotranspiration River in the City Water flow originated from rainwater Water flow originated from intake water Groundwater Underground seepage Source: Summary of Plan to Mizu-no-wa (Water Cycle) Renaissance in Naoya Note: Each value in the figure shows water volume at each stage, if you set annual amount of rainfall at 100. Upper figure is as of 2001 and the lower is as of Annual amount of rainfall in 2001 was almost same as that in 1965, at 1,500 m 3. C-8

166 4 ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES OF THE CITY 1) Waste Management and Recycling (1) Outline In 1999, the City of Nagoya announced The Waste Emergency Declaration, and declared to reduce 20% or 200,000 tons of wastes in the next two years through collaboration among citizens, companies and the city office. After the declaration, the city office has implemented various measures including collection of plastic and paper containers, and reduced 232 thousand tons within two years to 765 thousand tons in 2000 and achieved the target in the declaration. Domestic General Waste Measures in The Waste Emergency Declaration Extension of the collection of bottles and cans from 9 wards to 16 wards Enhancement of the subsidy to the group resource collection Collection of the new materials, plastic and paper containers, for recycling Dedicated waste bags, etc Business General Waste Prohibition to bring used paper, bottles, cans, PET bottles, foam polystyrene into the municipal waste disposal facilities Prohibition of acceptance of industrial wastes at the municipal waste disposal facilities Charge for all the business wastes Dedicated waste bags, etc Source: Nagoya waste report 2009 Figure 4.1 Trends of Waste in Nagoya Source: Nagoya waste report 2009 (2) Policy/Plan (a) The Waste Emergency Declaration With the public opinion to call off the plan to reclaim Fujimae tidal land, the mayor of the City of Nagoya decided to call off the plan in 1999 and announced The Waste Emergency Declaration. The city office had conveyed the emergent situation of waste C-9

167 treatment in Nagoya to citizens and companies, and declared to reduce 20% or 200,000 tons of wastes in the next two years through collaboration among citizens, companies and the city office. (b) Nagoya City Fundamental Plan for Domestic Waste Management In accordance with The third Nagoya City Fundamental Plan for Domestic Waste Management formulated in 2002, the City of Nagoya promote 3R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) through collaboration and appropriate role allotments with citizens, companies and the city office, rather than the previous concept of the segregation and recycle. In 2008, the city office formulated The fourth Nagoya City Fundamental Plan for Domestic Waste Management and promoted measures focus on reducing the generation of waste. (3) Regulatory Framework (a) Collection of Materials and Resources The City of Nagoya collect bottles, cans, plastic and paper containers and PET bottles once a week for reducing waste and effective utilization of resources. The requirements of the submission of the waste reduction plan and the selection of management representative on wastes The owner of The large business building and The high waste emitter shall report to the mayor regarding the responsible person in the company who work for the reduction and recycle of wastes in the company. The owner of The large business building and The high waste emitter have to submit The waste reduction plan of the company, in regard to the situation of the amount of wastes and resources of the company, to the mayor. (b) The On-site Survey The city office carries out on-site survey at the company to confirm the content of the Waste reduction plan, the situation of waste reduction and recycle, and promotion of appropriate treatment of wastes. And also give advices and guidance to the company regarding problems and issues concerning wastes. (4) Economic Measures (a) Nagoya Recycle Fund In order to promote recycling activities by citizens, the Nagoya Recycle Fund was established, and implement activities such as awareness campaigns or environmental learning for children regarding 3R utilizing the returns of the fund. The fund is accumulated by sales of cans and milk cartons, subsidies of the city, and the donation by citizens and companies. The fund is established in the Nagoya Recycle Promotion Public Corporation. (b) Charging for Business Wastes In the City of Nagoya, companies have to pay for their business waste. The charge for collection, transportation and treatment is the maximum 50 Yen/kg if the company entrusts them to the waste disposer designated by the city. If the company brings the waste to the waste treatment facilities, the charge is 20 only Yen/kg. C-10

168 (c) Charging for Plastic Shopping Bags The City of Nagoya implemented the declaration not to use plastic shopping bags in 2002 and started to reduce the plastic shopping bags. In 2007, the city office started a model project on charging for the plastic shopping bags, and started charging in eastern 7 wards from 2008 and western 8 wards from Table 4.1 The Effects of the Charging for Shopping Plastic Bags in Nagoya Oct to Sep (Midori Ward) Oct to Mar (8 Wards) Apr to Oct (All the city) Reductions of shopping plastic bags (Upper: million bags, lower: tons) ,443 2,233 CO2 emission reductions (tons) 1,259 3,257 8,248 12,764 Source: Nagoya waste report ) Biodiversity (Outline) The City of Nagoya, where the COP10 was held, aims to realize a sustainable environmental city and work on the conservation of biodiversity. The city office established Biodiversity Planning Office, and the office formulated "2050 Nagoya Strategy for Biodiversity" and a review of the Red Data Book Nagoya. The "2050 Nagoya Strategy for Biodiversity" was formulated as a guideline for Nagoya to become a sustainable city striving to live in harmony with all living beings. The strategy aims to realize a rich and full life in Sustainable Nagoya City which is supported by diverse living things and ecosystems from the two perspectives of conserving and revitalizing the local environment, and transforming lifestyles. The strategy consists of four parts: Creating a healthy city supported by nature; creating lifestyles and businesses with low environmental burden; creating a culture coexisting with nature; and creating structures for preserving, nurturing, and utilizing nature. The city office published The Red Data Book Nagoya 2004 in 2004 to clarify the extent of the danger of extinction for wildlife species inhabited in the city of Nagoya, and to compile their distribution in the city and ecological characteristics. The book was revised in 2010 as The Red Data Book Nagoya The city office has been implementing various measures to conserve biodiversity with active participation of citizens such as research on creatures in reservoirs. Total C-11

169 Figure 4.2 The Vision and Strategy of "2050 Nagoya Strategy for Biodiversity" Source: 2050 Nagoya Strategy for Biodiversity, March 2010, The city of Nagoya 3) Climate Change (outline) The City of Nagoya formulated the second action plan on climate change of Nagoya City in 2006 to achieve the 10% reductions of greenhouse gases (targeted on 2010 compared to 1990). In 2009, the city formulated the 2050 Nagoya Strategy for Low-carbon City and to challenge large reductions of GHG. The outline of the strategy is described as follows. City Development Quality Manufacturing Energy Social System Table 4.2 The Perspectives toward the Creation of a Low-carbon City Shifting toward a compact city in harmony with nature City with the latest environmental technology and wisdom Shifting from fossil fuels to natural energy sources Spread of low-carbon lifestyles and business practices Creating communities around stations (EKISOBA areas to live in) Creating a city that uses natural climate control systems instead of air conditioning systems, thus restoring the natural environment Shifting from vehicles to public transportation, walking, and cycling Upgrading all systems and vehicles for super energy conservation and fuel efficiency Promoting comfortable buildings with natural climate control Promoting next-generation transportation systems Using natural energy sources, such as solar light and heat Using an area energy network for the efficient use of energy Efficiently using under-utilized energy resources, such as waste and biomass Visualizing environmental activities throughout society Achieving wide-ranging cooperation among cities and the Ise Bay area Shifting toward low-carbon lifestyles by the active involvement of residents Source: The summary of The 2050 Nagoya Strategy for Low-carbon City, November 2009, The city of Nagoya The City of Nagoya will work toward the same long term target of reducing Japan s per capita GHG emissions in 2050 by 80% below 1990 levels. To reduce GHG emissions by 25% per resident in line with the mid-term target for 2020, Nagoya will actively create a more compact city and shift toward low-carbon lifestyles. C-12

170 Figure 4.3 The Reduction Targets of GHG in The 2050 Nagoya Strategy for Low-carbon City Source: The summary of The 2050 Nagoya Strategy for Low-carbon City, November 2009, The city of Nagoya 4) Water Cycle (Outline) The City of Nagoya clearly stated in the Ordinance on Environmental Conservation to ensure appropriate water cycle in terms of environmental conservation, and formulated "Guidelines on infiltration of rain water". The city also formulated The 2050 Nagoya Strategy for Water Cycle Revitalization to promote comprehensive and effective measures on revitalization of water cycle. The main objectives of the Plan are: (i) to restore the functions of the natural water cycle by increasing infiltration of rainwater and facilitating the evapotranspiration process; (ii) to undertake city planning while factoring in a people-friendly waterfront and green environment that is also beneficial to wildlife; and (iii) to revive the water cycle via partnerships based on mutual understanding of respective roles of stakeholders, and collaboration among the public, NGOs, private sector, and government. The plan aims by 2050 to increase the infiltration of water into the ground from the present level of 14.5% to 33.4%, and to reduce runoff levels from 61.5% to 35.6%. These are to be achieved through measures such as installation of rainwater harvesting and infiltration facilities, conservation of springs, effective use of recycled sewage water, conservation of green space, promotion of green space in household and companies, utilization of collected rainwater for watering, and conservation of farmland. C-13

171 Figure 4.4 An Image of Water Cycle in Nagoya (Upper: The current situation, Lower: The future situation) Source: Ito (2009) Nagoya biodiversity initiative (http://www.iclei.org/fileadmin/template/project_templates/localactionbiodiversity/user_upload/images/urban_nature_2009/talks/mr.ito_urban_n ature_nagoya.pdf) C-14

172 Figure 4.5 Present Conditions and Target of Water Balance in Nagoya (1965, 2001 and 2050) Source: Nagoya Strategy for Mizu-no-wa (Water Cycle) Renaissance in Naoya, 2009 C-15

173 ANNEX D CASE STUDY 4: YOKOHAMA CITY

174 1 SUMMARY 1) Rationale for Being Selected as Case Study City In the 1960s, as Japan entered into the era of rapid economic growth, Yokohama City started to experience urbanization at speed as one of the commuter towns in Tokyo metropolitan area. Fast growing population and following increasing demand forced a city to provide mass transportation infrastructure to connect with Tokyo, which could oppose the concept of a long-term and strategic urban development. In spite of such conditions, City of Yokohama had pursued its own urban development system and conducted advanced policies such as environmental strategies through solid partnership with citizens. It is now the biggest municipalities in Japan. Recently it has been identified as Eco-model City and launched a smart and low-carbon city strategy through city and citizen partnership. 2) Summary of Case Study Facing to the various urban problems, such as sprawling, pollution problems, traffic congestion, inundation and solid waste management, City of Yokohama identified its underlying cause in poor urban structure. With this understanding, it launched a strategy to strengthen its urban structure with six major projects, including rapid railway network, highway network, Bay-bridge, Kohoku New Town, reclamation of Kanazawa area, and strengthening of urban core. It has completed most of them in 30 years. City of Yokohama emphasized correlation between those six projects. In other words, mutual coordination can increase the overall impact and one project can create a wider range of spin-off effects on another project in future. As a result, City of Yokohama succeeded to build an intensive urban center on the reclamation lands, achieve transport-oriented-development, enhance coordination of land use and transport infrastructure and improve quality of life such as landscape and greenery. As for waste management, although City of Yokohama established its basic system for waste management in the mid 1980s, it is required to restructure its waste management policies as volume of solid waste has continuously increased. City of Yokohama integrated solid waste issues with environmental problems and resource and energy issues. It formulated a plan to reduce volume of general waste by 30% in 10 years or by It has a concept of role-sharing and close coordination of citizens, enterprises, and city authority to reduce generated volume of waste and to promote recycling by thorough segregation. As a result, with understanding and support of citizens and business sector, it has achieved reduction of generated waste by 42% in The greenery has continuously decreased in the city. In order to stop it and to inherit greenery environment to next generation, Yokohama Green Up Program was formulated. City of Yokohama newly established Yokohama Greenery Tax to secure stable funds to promote project to develop and enhance greenery areas, which have been identified in the above plan. After designated as Eco-model City, City of Yokohama promoted a smart and lowcarbon city strategy through city and citizen partnership, which including Yokohama zerocarbon life to reduce domestic GHG emission by 40%, renewable energy J-Curb strategy, zero-emission transport strategy, regional cooperation model against global warming. City of Yokohama has been also designated as a Demonstration City for Next Generation D-1

175 Energy and Social System, initiated by METI in Yokohama Smart City Project (YSCP) aims to experiment new generation technologies such as smart-grid and thus to reduce CO 2 emission and to revitalize regional economy, which shall be conducted jointly by a city authority and private sectors. Its demonstration experiment has commenced and will last for next 5 years. In this context, City of Yokohama took a long-term view of urban development since when it faced rapid urbanization. With strong partnership between a city, citizens and enterprises, it introduced and implemented advanced urban and environmental policies. As a result, it succeeded to be a self-independent and livable city. 3) Appreciation from the Eco 2 Initiatives (1) Ecological Cities as Economic Cities When City of Yokohama faced with serious urban and environmental problems, it took a long-term strategy to strengthen its urban structure toward a self-independent city. As a result, after 30 years, its urban structure has been mostly completed, where urban functions can accumulate and grow autonomously. Various other policies, such as refinement, redistribution, and regional management of land use, have also contributed to strengthen its urban structure. From now, based on the strong urban structure, City of Yokohama has entered a new stage to promote emerging environmental and energy issues through city and citizens partnership, as seen in G30 and Yokohama Greenery Tax, which can enrich people s life and revitalize regional economy. It also has started international cooperation to expand its experiences to developing countries. (2) Eco 2 Basic Approach 1: A City-based Approach City of Yokohama has adopted exactly a city-based approach. After it developed its own strategic vision of urban structure, it coordinated with country and prefecture to raise funds to implement the necessary projects. It was also actively involved in the projects of public corporation, such as highway network and residential area development, which has contributed to promotion of city s vision smoothly. City of Yokohama also made considerable achievement on environmental improvement, waste management, and greenery development, which are also based on the partnership of city, citizen and business sector. (3) Eco 2 Basic Approach 2: An Expanded Platform for Collaborative Design and Decision-Making In order to promote countermeasures against global warming forcefully, it newly established Climate Change Policy Headquarters within a city authority in 2008, which shall develop policies against global warming, implement necessary actions, and manage those progresses uniformly. It will be reorganized into an office headed by vice mayor and directly under the Mayor with fewer staff, in order to get strong leadership and conduct comprehensive coordination with all other offices of City of Yokohama. Such organizational structure can integrate opinions from all environment-related sectors, from planning to implementation, coordinate them integrally, and thus implement the projects comprehensively. D-2

176 (4) Eco 2 Basic Approach 3: One-system Approach City of Yokohama has successfully integrated each action at upper level, since its vision of urban structure and land-use plan is shared among a city, citizen and business sector and all environmental issues have been addressed through city-citizen-business partnership. The basic urban structure was harmonized with geographical conditions comprising of sea, river, flatland, and hills and traditional land use of Yokohama, based on which major infrastructure had been developed such as transport, water supply and drainage network. Recently comprehensive infrastructure management, such as recycling of wastewater, waste power station, and utilization of waste heat, where more advanced one-system approach has been adopted. (5) Eco 2 Basic Approach 4: An Investment Framework that Values Sustainability and Resiliency City of Yokohama has introduced beneficiaries-pay-principle and charged project cost for environmental challenges on its residents, such as its own greenery tax and additional charge on water bill. Although direct benefit of such investment cannot come out in a short-term, people become to accept additional cost sharing for urban sustainability and environmental creation for next generation. It is important to develop such policies with investment framework to value sustainability and resiliency of a city. 4) Implications to the Eco 2 Initiatives City of Yokohama decided future urban structure when it experienced rapid urbanization and spent 30 years to complete it. In other words, it successfully shared its long-term vision and urban structure for 30 to 50 years among city, citizen and business sector and continuously implemented the project toward its future vision. It can be an important lesson for cities in developing countries to launch the future vision and share it with citizens and business sector while they are growing, so that they can solve emerging urban and environmental problems through city-citizen-business partnership. D-3

177 2 INTRODUCTION OF THE CITY Yokohama, celebrating 150 years anniversary of the opening port, has been rapidly developed as a place of origin for evolution of modern Japan. Yokohama has grown 3.67 million citizens today as the largest municipality in Japan. Despite rather high citizen s employment rate outside city, civil activities are active. For example, community association membership rate reached 80 percent, which is the second highest rate in major cities in Japan. The number of NPO in the city is large, comparable to the seventh prefecture in Japan. In other words, the largest municipality in population and the high public awareness of the citizens are important characteristics of Yokohama. So, city of Yokohama has developed the tradition to deal aggressively in a partnership with the public for the civic life-threatening problems. The basic approach keeping a partnership with citizens has been built also in environmental administration. For example, when factory smoke and other air pollution problems were serious in 1960 s, regulating and monitoring business activities were conducted in cooperation with citizens. Cooperation with citizens has also become basis for coming up the advanced environmental policies. For example, various guidance, regulations, policy guidelines and the agreement with companies to prevent pollution were put in force, which were called "Yokohama method for anti-pollution measures and preempted the Basic Law for Environmental Pollution Control of the country. Also citizens in Yokohama are conscious of efforts to preserve the regional landscape. For example the number of building agreement is top-level in Japan and the most of its have been transformed to district plans. Recently, it has been designated as city-based model program initiated by central government, including Eco-model City and Demonstration City for Next Generation Energy and Social System (Yokohama Smart City Project). General information of Yokohama City is shown below. (i) Population 3,672,985 (as of 2010), (ii) Number of household 1,582,149 (iii) Area km 2 (iv) GHG Emission (total) 19.8 million ton CO 2, (Per capita) 5.52t-CO 2, in ) Historical Trend of Population in Yokohama The population in Yokohama had reached 3.67 million in 2010 from 1 million in The population has expanded rapidly from 1960 to 1975 period of rapid economic growth. Thereafter, the growth rate has been gradually declining. The current population is seen as almost reaching a maximum population and is expected to continue to decline slowly since D-4

178 Figure 2.1 Population Change in Yokohama (estimated value since 2015) Source: City of Yokohama Figure 2.2 Future Population by 3 Age Categories in Yokohama (15 64 years old in blue, over 65 in red, 0 14 in green) Source: City of Yokohama D-5

179 3 EXPERIENCES ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS 1) Urban Development in Yokohama 1 In the 1960s, Japan entered the era of rapid economic growth. Yokohama City jumped at the opportunity for its own development by becoming a bed-town for the Tokyo Capital Region. Unfortunately, the demands and impacts of its rapidly increasing population ran counter to the pursuit of a sound and balanced city development. At the same time, a vital issue the city needed to address was how to respond to the tremendous requirements for transportation infrastructure to connect the city with Tokyo. Under these circumstances, Yokohama City explored its own system and leveraged its assets to realize major infrastructure projects with the best mix of resources from national public corporations and the central government. However, the most vital urban planning issue was not the need to construct economic infrastructure to integrate the city with Tokyo s economy, but, rather, to make the city independent of Tokyo. This paradoxical perspective has led to a number of unique policies and projects which the city carried out. For one, its locational advantage of being close to such huge business resources in Tokyo was optimized to realize a self-sustaining and uniquely functioning city. At the same time, in exploring practical measures to address the issue, the city s leaders and planners realized that local development should not be left in the hands of the central government: cities should be looked at as development partners of the national government, not its subalterns. Armed with this realization, they tackled national government policies and developed their own which are more responsive to Yokohama s unique and specific development needs. That realization and the subsequent actions that sprung from it were what fast-tracked the development of what was once a war-damaged city into one of today s most livable in Japan. The following figure shows the overall picture of Yokohama City s development mechanism through which the city planned and implemented major policies and key projects from the early 1970s to today. In this figure, five pillars are presented: (i) major projects which formed the basic spatial structure of Yokohama City and salient policies which the city has long pursued with special emphasis; (ii) non-city entities, including national agencies and stakeholder groups, which have been deeply involved in the city s major projects and key policies; (iii) major urban development projects carried out by the Yokohama City itself in order to improve its livability, competitiveness, and attractiveness; (iv) citizen groups which have been involved in community development and environmental improvement; and (v) administrative and legislative tools to manage growth and minimize disorderly private developments. This figure shows the interaction and interrelationships of the major elements of these five pillars which characterize Yokohama City s experiences. 1 This section is mainly based on Case Study: Yokohama, June 2010, Katsuhide Nagayama. D-6

180 Figure 3.1 Overall Mechanism of Yokohama City s Urban Development Source: Case Study: Yokohama, June 2010, Katsuhide Nagayama Regarding modal share by purpose, the highest rate of 61.4 percent share is the railway in commuting purpose trips, and the car has become 15.7% in second place. Over the last decade, the railway rose 8.5 percent, the car has fallen 9.9 percent. In all the trip purposes, the railway share rise and car share fall. Figure 3.2 Modal Share by Trip Purposes in Yokohama (1998 and 2008) Source: City of Yokohama D-7

181 2) Waste Management- G30 Program The total volume of solid waste in Yokohama City had continuously increased up to 2000 at a pace exceeding its population increase. Particularly the increase was contributed by industrial waste, while the domestic waste had been stable. City of Yokohama changed its policy on waste management to G30 or to promote 3R from its conventional policy to dispose waste after incineration. It set target to reduce the volume of waste by 30% in 2010 from the level of Figure 3.3 The Volume of Waste Collection in Yokohama Source: City of Yokohama Figure 3.4 The Volume of Waste Disposal in Yokohama Source: City of Yokohama The basic concept of the G30 program is for citizens, businesses, and government to collaborate to promote 3R (reduce, reuse and recycle of waste) activities in order to reduce the consumption of resources and energy and to achieve a recycling society with lower environmental load. It specifies the roles of each stakeholder as following: (a) Citizen: to make its lifestyle environmental friendly and to ensure segregation of waste (b) Business: to design and produce products which reduce the emission of waste and to promote collection and recycling of used products (c) Government: to formulate 3R systems, to conduct campaign, to provide and exchange information D-8

182 Since understanding and cooperation of citizens are inevitable to conduct G30 program, City of Yokohama conducted extensive campaign to explain about new rules for segregation of waste, including 11,000 times of briefing, 600 times of on-street campaign in front of the station, and 3,300 times of early-morning instruction. The city did not collect waste that is not sorted appropriately. Eco-education lectures were conducted at elementary and junior schools to explain about current conditions of waste management and demonstrate the waste segregation. More than 38,000 people visited incinerator plants in In order to reduce domestic waste, a variety of routes to collect recyclable waste have been formulated. It includes community-based collection of resources, installation of boxes for recyclable resources, recycling of pruned branches into soil conditioner at green compost plant, subsidy for garbage disposal or compost at residences in order to promote recycling of raw waste. As for industrial waste, the City restricted to install wooden waste and recyclable paper into incinerator plants and conducted inspection at incinerator plants and at enterprises. It also held a number of briefings to enhance understanding of enterprises and designated the excellent enterprises. (1) Impact of G30 Program G30 campaign has contributed to significant reduction of the volume of waste. The total volume of collected waste and disposed waste decreased by 34% and 44%, respectively, in 2008 from the 2001 level. As a result, City of Yokohama decided to close two incinerator plants. It reduced financial cost for future rehabilitation and annual operation cost about JPY 3.0 billion. It also contributed to reduce CO 2 emission at 870,000 ton by 2008 from the level of City of Yokohama continues to promote G30 program, including conversion of citizen s lifestyle to promote 3R and pilot projects of composting and gasification of raw garbage. City of Yokohama successfully conducted G30 program and achieved significant reduction of waste volume. It is a product of comprehensive approach on waste management and understanding and collaboration of citizens and business sectors. The City introduced integral management of general waste, industrial waste and recyclable resources, set target of reduced volume of incineration treatment and landfill disposal, formulate rules and platforms to promote 3R activities, and conducted intensive briefing for citizens to follow the rules. More importantly, citizens acknowledged it and followed the rules. G30 program is achieved since all stakeholders, citizens, business sector, government, and so on played the expected roles. With closure of two incinerator plants, the city can save the cost for its renovation and O&M, which shall bring in people s benefit eventually. D-9

183 Table 3.1 Overall Framework of Solid Waste Management before and after of G30 Before G30 (2001) After G30 (2009) Segregation into 5 categories and 7 items Segregation into 10 categories and 15 items Domestic waste Bulky waste Cans/Bottles/PET bottles Small metal items Used dry-cell batteries Recyclable waste Aluminum, Steel, Glass, PET bottle, Newspaper, Magazine, Paper cardboard Domestic waste (combustible garbage) Plastic containers and packaging Noncombustible waste Spray cans Used cloth Used paper (newspaper, magazines, other paper, cardboard, paper cartons) Bulky waste Cans/Bottles/PET bottles Small metal items Used dry-cell batteries Waste Volume (2001) Waste Volume (2008) Collected Waste 1,662,000 ton Collected Waste 1,105,000 ton (-34%) Domestic waste 901,000 ton Domestic waste 585,000 ton (-35%) Office waste 678,000 ton Waste from Business 335,000 ton (-51%) Recyclable waste 54,000 ton Recyclable waste 157,000 ton (+200%) Others 29,000ton Others 28,000 ton (-4%) Intermediate Treatment Incineration treatment 1,593,000 ton Intermediate Treatment Incineration treatment 940,000 ton (-41%) Landfill disposal 16,000 ton Landfill disposal 9,000 ton (-44%) Recycled 53,000 ton Recycling 155,000 ton (+192%) Incinerated Residue Landfill disposal 291,000 ton Incinerated Residue Landfill disposal 106,000 ton (-64%) Recycled 12,000 ton Recycled 22,000 ton (+83%) Waste Disposal Plant (2000) Waste Disposal Plant (2008) Incinerator Plants Kanazawa Plant (1,200ton/ day, operation from 2001) Asahi Plant (540ton/day, operation from 1999) Tsurumi Plant (1,200ton/day, operation from 1995) Tsuduki Plant (1,200ton/day, operation from 1984) Hodogaya Plant (200ton/day, operation from 1980) Sakae Plant (1,500 ton/ day, operation from 1976 Konan Plant (900ton/ day, operation from 1974 Disposal Site Minami-Honmoku Landfill Site (210,000m 2, capacity: 4,270,700m 3, duration: ) Sinmeidai Landfill Site (430,000m 2, capacity: 6,809,700m 3, duration, ) Prior Actions on waste Management before G Start of sorted collection of cans and bins in the whole city Designation of recyclable waste, aluminum and steel cans 1997 Charging to bulk waste and general waste from business activities Installation of boxes for recyclable waste (Act on Special Measures concerning Countermeasures against Dioxins) 2000 Installation of translucid bag for collection of general waste 2001 Increase of charges on installation of garbage into incinerator plants consignment of waste collection to enterprises (stop of public services on waste collection ) Collaboration with Citizens before G Provision of incentives for community-based collection of recyclable resources 1997 Strengthened instruction for business sector in line with charging for business waste Note: Compiled by the Study Team based on various documents and sources. Incinerator Plants Kanazawa Plant (same as of 2000) Asahi Plant (same as of 2000) Tsurumi Plant (same as of 2000) Tsuduki Plant (same as of 2000) Hodogaya Plant (used for transmission point for general waste ) Sakae Plant (closed in 2005) Konan Plant (closed in 2006) Disposal site Minami-Honmoku Landfill Site Sinmeidai Landfill Site Major Actions on Waste Management after G Yokohama G30 Program Restriction of installment of wooden waste and recyclable paper into incinerator plants 2005 Expansion of segregation categories and items (10 categories and 15 items ) 2007 put back revenue from collected resources to community 2008 Reduction of frequency of collection of domestic waste (for combustible waste: three times a week Ł twice a week, for recycled paper, etc: once a month Ł twice a month) Penalty on violators Collaboration with Citizens after G G30 eco-partner agreement with enterprises which voluntarily reduce packages and containers of the products 2009 Trilateral committee, Yokohama Challenge the Reduce (citizen, business, government) D-10

184 3) Water Supply Yokohama as a birthplace of modern water supply in Japan has operated water supply for 120 years since the inception in The water supply in Yokohama had overcome the ravages of war and earthquake disaster. Corresponding to the increase water demand due to rapid growth of population and development of the city, City of Yokohama has ensured a steady and safe water supply to the customer by developing water resources and facilities. However, the days have changed from economic growth period which had been since the war to the non-economic growth period. Furthermore, Japan has reached the days of declining population due to declining birthrate and a growing proportion of elderly people. Growing into the serious global environmental problems, it is needed that we have to be required to consider the conservation of environment and resource in order to coexist with the natural environment. Thus the days are changed significantly, the review of social system assuming the growth and expansion are needed in the various fields in social system. Water services are also no exception. Water services in the future are to assume that a decrease in water demand and fee income, the following are required to make a sustainable business operation, namely (i) massive update of key facilities such as the water treatment plant which have been constructed in high economic growth period, and (ii) to prepare measures for largescale earthquake disaster, and (iii) improvement of water quality to meet customer needs for safe and tasty tap water, and (iv) strengthening of the financial basis for implementation the measures and technical performances. Waterworks owns 2,873 hectares of water conservation forest in Doushi Village in Yamanashi Prefecture. The Doushi River as Yokohama s sole and exclusive water source is flowing in the village. The area of the forest is amount to 36 percent of total village area of 7,957 hectares and approximately same to the area of Tsuzuki-ku of 2,789 hectares. Water conservation forest is called "green dam". The forest has the function to absorb rainwater, control the flood, purify the water quality as well as groundwater remediation and prevent drought. In order to meet citizen s needs on safe and tasty Tap Water, measures to conserve the environment in water sources are needed. in order to improve water quality, City of Yokohama has implemented the following measures: (i) Measures against the eutrophication of Lake Sagami and Lake Tsukui implementing purification plant equipment and facilities for aeration; (ii) Subsidies for regional sewerage and wastewater treatment projects in the village Doushi; (iii) Collaboration with citizen volunteers on forest preservation; (iv) In order to prevent decrease of water quality in distribution network, implement the direct water supply system without receiving tank and improvement project for lead water pipe. The water usage was continuously increased until around 1995, turned to decrease after Since 1995 the population is slowly increasing, household water consumption is nearly constant and slightly decreasing in business water consumption. D-11

185 Figure 3.5 The Volume of Water Consumption by Purpose in Yokohama Source: City of Yokohama D-12

186 4 ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES OF THE CITY 1) Eco-Model City Yokohama Smart City Project (YSCP) "Next Generation Energy and Social System Demonstration Project" is positioned as a business effort to create and export Japanese technologies on smart grid in Strategy for becoming an environment and energy power through green innovation of national growth strategy. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) has selected in April 31, 2010 Yokohama, Toyota, Kyoto Prefecture (City Keihanna) and Kitakyushu as "Next Generation Energy Society Demonstration Area". The demonstration is to conduct in the next five years. Yokohama Smart City Project (YSCP) is the demonstration project of smart grid (next generation grid) and the related technology aiming CO 2 emission reduction and revitalization of regional economy in collaboration with the private sector and city of Yokohama. City of Yokohama and five private companies (Accenture, Toshiba, Meidensya, Nissan, Panasonic) are planning to the various initiatives to improve the efficiency of energy use in the region. Initially, the technical demonstration will be conducted intensively in the Minato Mirai 21 district, and then the project will be expand to built-up areas such as Kohoku New Town (Tsuzuki-ku) and coastal areas such as Kanazawa ward where is the designated area of Yokohama Green Valley Initiative. Applicability to other region and effect of broad use will be examined in the project. The major components of the project are described as below. (i) Large-scale introduction of renewable energy (27,000 Kw of photovoltaic power) (ii) Introduction of smart house and building (4000 households) (iii) Regional collaborated energy control - create a mutually complementary relationship between large scale networks and electricity and heat produced in the district (iv) Dissemination of next-generation transportation system (the next generation of 2,000 vehicles spread) (v) Lifestyle innovation through visualization of energy use (vi) Strengthen the promoting organization by the establishment of consortium In the demonstration project, NEC and Meidensya jointly develop the Building Energy Management System (BEMS) using lithium-ion batteries. Hitachi, Nissan and Orix jointly develop the energy management system using electricity vehicles corresponding to the discharge electricity. The BEMS combine the large-capacity electricity storage systems used in EV batteries using the NEC lithium-ion battery technology and Meidensya s technical know-how about BEMS. Some hundreds of kwh storage large-scale battery set up to large office buildings and factories. The power supplied from the power company and electricity generated by own buildings are managed and controlled to be able to consume effectively. The efficient use of electricity helps to reduce CO 2 emissions. EV-board storage battery is utilized effectively in the home and community as one of the social infrastructure that can store electricity in the future. In the project, each company develops the following technologies: (i) "Eco-charge system" using photovoltaic generation and storage battery and, (ii) Energy management system collaborating EV (Hitachi), (iii) Discharging system from EV-board storage battery to homes and buildings including a communication controller (Nissan), (iv) EV sharing system to reserve and D-13

187 assign vehicles in conjunction with charging stand and control centre (Oryx) 2) Yokohama Green-up Program (1) Greenery Development In Yokohama City, the ratio of green coverage, or the total amount of green, has continuously decreased along with urbanization. About 100 ha of greenery area, including forest and agricultural land, have disappeared annually from 2004 to 2009, most of which are located in the private land. The survey research on people s attitude conducted in 2008 showed that 58% of respondent want to increase green and 40% want to keep the current level. Only 1% of respondent answered loss of greenery area is unavoidable. In other words, there is a great need to increase or sustain the volume of greenery. In response to such citizen s demand, the City decided to promote new development and expansion of greenery area and formulated Yokohama Plan to Increase Greenery. This plan aims to stop the loss of greenery within Yokohama City and to inherit green and clean Yokohama to the next generation. The plan is composed of 3 core actions, namely to preserve forest area, to preserve agricultural land and to develop greenery. Figure 4.1 Historical Change of Greenery Ratio and Population Green Coverage (%) population (10,000) 1970 (50%) 1980 (40%) 2004 (31%) Source: City of Yokohama Actions to preserve forest area include expansion of designated preservation area under greenery protection system by twice in the next five years from the current level of 830 ha in order to preserve two-thirds of forest, which need to be preserved. It also includes operation and management and utilization of preserved forest area through close cooperation with citizens. Secondly, actions to preserve agricultural land include the acquisition of prime agricultural land and conventional support for farmers to keep their D-14

188 lands in order to preserve agricultural land of 50 ha for five years. Private farmland shall be also developed in order to promote citizens participation for agriculture. Actions to develop greenery are composed of greenery development in private lands and public facilities with 1km of planting fence and 10 ha of greenery area for five years as well as community-based greenery network development. In order to secure stable financing sources to promote the Yokohama Plan to Increase Greenery, City of Yokohama established Yokohama Greenery Tax, which shall be topped up equally on residential tax on individuals and corporate bodies. Yokohama Greenery Tax shall be saved as Yokohama Greenery Fund and managed separately from the general account. As of 2009, the total amount of project cost of the Yokohama Plan to Increase Greenery is estimated at JPY7,187 million, of which 14.8%, or JPY1,064 million, shall be secured from Yokohama Greenery Fund. Some of particular actions include management and utilization of forest area and agricultural land, acquisition of greenery area, training of farmers, community-level greenery development, and so on. D-15

189 5 URBAN CENTER DEVELOPMENT, MINATO MIRAI 21 Minato Mirai is being built as the urban redevelopment in waterfront aiming to regeneration of city centre area of Yokohama. Until the 1980s, there were Yokohama shipyards of MHI, Takashima yard of JNR Takashima line, east Yokohama Station (freight station) and Takashima wharf Because this area was located between two city centre of Yokohama, namely Kannai / Isezakichou and Yokohama station, in order to regenerate and unite city centre through redeveloping the area, city of Yokohama is redeveloping the area as "downtown enhancement project" targeting 190 thousand working population (currently 6.3 million people in 2008) and 10 thousand residential population. The measures aimed to increase the daytime population and workforce. As a result, "a bedroom community in Tokyo" will be to improve the situation, and community and regional economic will be revitalized. In the transition from the age of capital concentration to assign capital functions to nucleus city in Tokyo metropolitan area, City of Yokohama aim to encourage the attraction of corporate headquarters from other cities, and support new business as the result of agglomeration of enterprises. Development of the Minato Mirai has been intentionally pre-determined by the basic guidelines and developed aimed futuristic 21st century city. The subway was introduced in the center of the area, which is formed from a safe and comfortable pedestrian network from the two new stations. The trees were planted in all streets and buildings are being built in white having uniform scenery. In addition, water and sewage pipes, communication lines (optic fiber), power lines, medium pressure gas pipe, and district heating and cooling pipes are buried together in the common duct. Moreover for the goods supply facility in emergency, earthquake resistant domestic berth and water tank underground were built to enable to supply fresh drinking water to 500 thousand people in three days. Figure 5.1 Minato Mirai 21 (before and after) Source: City of Yokohama D-16

190 ANNEX E CASE STUDY 5: TOYAMA CITY

191 1 SUMMARY 1) Rationale for Being Selected as Case Study City Most cities in developing countries have simultaneously experienced economic growth and motorization. It has caused suburbanization and dispersed urban areas, particularly in regional cities, as major transport mode shifted from buses, motorcycles, to passenger cars. They usually have difficulty in developing public transport due to financial constraints. The City of Toyama is a typical regional city in Japan with wide flat areas. As its population increased due to economic growth, it experienced suburbanization and evolved into widely dispersed urban areas. As a result, it has the highest level of car ownership and gas consumption per household in Japan with high dependence on passenger car. However, as it has entered into a depopulation stage and aging society with fewer children, the city must restructure its urban structure to be a sustainable and livable city. In this context it has launched a vision of Public Transport Oriented Compact City. Since it is very unique to put public transport as a core of urban development in regional cities, the city has been designated as an Eco-model City. The experiences of City of Toyama can be lessons for cities in developing countries as well as regional cities in Japan. 2) Summary of Case Study The volume of CO 2 emission has increased by 29% from 1990 to 2003 in Toyama city, which is double to that of the average in Japan. Particularly CO 2 emission in transport sector has grown along with growing car ownership and travel distance of passenger cars. In order to reduce CO 2 emission in a mid-to-long term in the city, it was inevitable to reduce CO 2 emission in the transport sector. The basic concept of Public Transportoriented Compact Urban Development was launched to achieve CO 2 emission through collaboration between the government, citizens, and business sector. A public transport oriented urban development strategy included an LRT development which was converted from existing railway, ring road development of tramway, strengthening of accessibility to urban center, agglomeration of urban facilities in urban center, and provision of subsidy to promote residences along urban transport corridors, toward a compact city. With a series of policies, it set a target to reduce CO 2 emission by 30% in the transport sector and 10% in the residential sector by It further targets to reduce it by 50% in the transport sector and by 20% in the residential sector by 2050 with continuous efforts toward compact city development. 3) Appreciation from the Eco 2 Initiatives (1) Ecological Cities as Economic Cities After being designated as a New Industrial City, Toyama City experienced industrialization from early on. With its affluent natural resources, it has grown to be one of the leading cities on the Sea of Japan side. Although it has big potentials both on environment and economy, it is required to be environmentally and economically sustainable along with the change of industrial structure, depopulation, aging society with fewer children, and global warming. City of Toyama has just made a first step toward sustainable urban development. E-1

192 (2) Eco 2 Basic Approach 1: A City-based Approach In order to revitalize its public transport system, the City of Toyama actively coordinated with the central government, the prefectural government, railway operators, administrator of public facilities, and citizens and proposed a concept of public-built and privateoperation and two-tiered system. It also made a commitment on cost sharing. It also launched a comprehensive approach on compact city development, including provision of subsidy on purchasing of houses and improvement of public transport services in the city center. It intends to improve urban services and functions in the city center and differentiate it from suburban areas, which cover commercial, social welfare, cultural, education sector. In this way, City of Toyama is taking a city-based approach through city and citizen s partnership. (3) Eco 2 Basic Approach 2: An Expanded Platform for Collaborative Design and Decision-Making A concept of public transport-oriented compact city development is positioned as a core policy in a city s comprehensive development plan together with countermeasures against global warming. Therefore it provides a platform for a city to incorporate its concept into other various plans and projects. (4) Eco 2 Basic Approach 3: One-system Approach Toyama s approach toward a compact and low-carbon city is exactly an integrated one, which cover every aspects of urban administration. It includes reform of its urban structure, revitalization of its economy, and conduct of various projects. On the other hand, there is a possibility for a city to actively incorporate its rich natural environment, such as the Zintsu River, Toyama Bay, Tateyama mountains, and agricultural and forest area, into urban development and thus to mitigate global warming. It can broaden its integral approach furthermore. (5) Eco 2 Basic Approach 4: An Investment Framework that Values Sustainability and Resiliency Conventional project evaluation method, such as cost-benefit analysis, easily judged public transport development projects in regional cities as financially non-feasible. However, it is required to consider sustainability and resilience and thus to incorporate long-term and regional benefit into the feasibility study of the project, in addition to the short-term criteria on return of investment, although it is difficult to be quantified. City of Toyama has applied comprehensive assessment on qualitative social and economic benefit together with actual investment amount from a long-term point of view on sustainability, which was used for investment decision-making. Public transport development shall produce significant impact for a long-term once it succeeded to reform into a compact urban structure. 4) Implications to the Eco 2 Initiatives A city-based approach to promote shift from passenger car to public transport use can be a strong policy tool against global warming. However, it is difficult to implement it. Rather most regional cities experience a shift from public transport to passenger car, which is correlated with expansion of urban areas. In order to tackle such issues, City of Toyama launched a compact city development strategy with a strong leadership and decided to revitalize public transport infrastructure from a long-term point of view, which was E-2

193 supposed to be abolished. Based on public transport development as a core for urban development, it also launched various comprehensive policies toward a compact city structure. It is very notable and leading feature as a regional city in Japan. Such approach of City of Toyama can be modified and applied to cities in development countries in line with the local conditions. E-3

194 2 INTRODUCTION OF THE CITY Toyama city is located from the center to southeast part of Toyama prefecture. The city is surrounded by Toyama Bay in north where rich seafood are fostered in, grand Tateyama mountains in east, hills and mountain villages in west, and good country scenery and forests in south. Large rivers such as the Jinzu River and the Joganji River and the other small rivers flow in the city. Those rivers formed river linked traditional culture area. From Toyama Bay to 3,000 meter-high mountains forms first-class views of the world. The City of Toyama is one of the regional cores in Japan, which has a population of 420,000 and very wide area of 1,242 km 2. Toyama City is famous of "community of medicine". The city is making effort to develop the environment, biotechnology and ITrelated industries in recent years. The city is also trying to develop tourism using sightseeing resources such as Tateyama mountain and summer festival called Etsutiyuu Owara Kazeno Bon. The city is developing Toyama station area looking the open of Hokuriku Sinkansen in 2014, revitalization of city centre and the other measures utilize local characteristic by collaboration with city government and citizen. E-4

195 3 EXPERIENCES ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS 1) Overall Description With its high dependence on passenger cars and its flat geographical conditions, the expansion of urban areas accelerated, resulting in the lowest urban density among all prefectural capitals in Japan. The vehicle ownership of Toyama is still increasing and the petrol consumption per household is about JPY93,000, which is 1.4 times of national average or second highest among all prefectural capitals. As a result, the total volume of GHG emission is 4.5 million-ton CO 2 and annual GHG emission per capita is 10.7 ton CO 2 in On the other hand, the population of Toyama city started to decrease in 2005, and it faced rapid aging and low birthrate. The City of Toyama is a typical regional city which highly depends on passenger car transport and faces depopulation in the aging society with fewer children. Figure 3.1 Demographical Change and Trend of Modal Share of Toyama Expansion of Urban Area and Population Density (Area: km2) (pop. Density: pax/ha) Modal Share (all purpose) DID Area DID Pop Density Walk 2-wheel Car Bus/Tram Rail Source: City of Toyama 2) Emissions of GHG The emission of CO 2 in Toyama City increased by 29% in 2003 from 1990 equivalent to twice in growth rate of national average. The transport sector's CO 2 emissions were also increasing as car ownership and vehicles driving distance were still continuing to increase. In order to reduce CO 2 emission significantly in the city, as a middle- to long-term target, reduction in the transport sector is a major issue. Therefore, the city of Toyama has developed and set the reduction target by million ton CO 2 in 2010 in "New Energy Vision (2006) " and "The vision for Energy Efficiency (2007)", comparing to 19 percent increase in Table 3.1 The Increasing Rate of CO 2 Emission from 1990 to 2003 National Average (%) Toyama City (%) Domestic / Business Domestic / Household Transport Industry 0 23 Total Source: Ministry of Environment E-5

196 Figure 3.2 CO 2 Emission in Toyama City Source: City of Toyama E-6

197 4 ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES OF THE CITY 1) Compact City Development Strategy The City of Toyama has launched a basic strategy called the "Public Transport Oriented Compact City Development" through coordination of a city authority, citizens, and private sector. It aims to restructure the city into a compact city and to make a livable city without dependence on passenger cars, and by activating public transport including railway and accumulate the major urban functions along public transport corridors such as residences, commercial and business. It aims to increase the percentage of population in public transport corridors to 40% from the current level at 30%, to shift from passenger car to public transport, to shorten travel distance, and to promote move from detached house to apartment houses. With these actions, it set a target to reduce CO 2 emission by 30% in transport sector and 10% in residential sector by It further targets to reduce it by 50% in transport sector and by 20% in residential sector by 2050 with continuous efforts toward compact city development. With this strategy, it has been designated as Eco-model City by the Cabinet Office. Figure 4.1 Compact City Strategy Framework of City of Toyama Concept of Reform of Urban Structure with Public Transport <Present> < Future > Future Population Framework < Percentage of population in the area with good access to public transport> pop. 421,239 Pop. 389,510 30% 40% Present 20 years later Pop. Density High Low Railway Service High Low Bus Service High Low Walkable area from Station/ Bus stop Pop. in the current PT area 1) Existing Pop in the expanded PT area Migrant into the existing and expanded PT area Source: Proposal of Eco-model City, City of Toyama 1) PT area refers to the area with good access to public transport Table 4.1 CO 2 Emission Reduction Target of City of Toyama Sector Measures Transportation Promoting activate Public Transportation Vitalization of city centre and Transport oriented integration of urban function Home Promoting Eco-Life integrated with compact city development Business / Industry Promoting Eco-Business integrated with compact city development Source: City of Toyama Midterm Target (2030) Reduce by 30% from the level of 1990 Long-term Target (2050) Reduce by 50% from the level of 1990 E-7

198 Figure 4.2 The Measures for Development of Compact City in Toyama City Source: City of Toyama 1) Forming 26km long of city tram network revitalizing the existing railway lines 2) Promotion of residences along public transport 3) Revitalization by high frequency service in arterious railway and installation of new station 4) Revitalization of high frequency arterious bus lines (13 lines) 5) Move from house in suburb to apartment building in city centre 6) Promotion of Eco-Life by energy saving house, reduction of waste and installation of environmental familiar equipments. 7) Energy recovery from wastes in Eco-town 8) Conservation of forest in countryside hills by forest volunteer 9) The various measures for revitalization of city centre such as city centre residence and development of shopping core 2) Development of LRT Network Aiming to build a public transportation oriented compact city, the City of Toyama is promoting the formation of LRT network in the city by the revitalization of about 26 km long of the railway in the city to develop public transport oriented compact city. The measures for the strategy are as follows: (1) Improve Existing Toyama Port Railway Line to LRT Introducing the idea of public build and private operation, the City of Toyama brought the state-funded local JR line back to the nation's first full-scale LRT incorporating the total design of tram vehicles and tram stops and significant increase in the number of runs. Since the opening in April 2006, the passengers are increased by 2.5 times, 10% of which has been confirmed a shift from passenger cars. The efforts to improve the services and increase the number of passengers will be kept on as the leading project of development of 19 axis of public transportation. E-8

199 (2) Improve Existing Tram Line to Circle Line In order to revitalize the city centre and strengthen the walking network, the city of Toyama extends the existing tram line and forms the circle line as the national first the separation of operations from infrastructure project. (3) Integrate Tram Lines of Southern Section and Northern Section of Toyama Station The surrounding areas of Toyama Station were developed to coincide with the improvement to elevated station. The Toyama Light Rail and existing tram network in the city are connected at the same time. As the result, tram network in the South and North of the city are integrated. (4) Improve Existing Local Railway to LRT The City of Toyama studied the feasibility of access of trams to Uetaki Railway Line at Minami-Toyama Station and improvement of the railway to tram. Figure 4.3 The Measures for Forming LRT Network in Toyama City 1) Toyama Port Line (convert to tram) 4)The North and South tram integration 1) Toyama Port Line (rail to tram) Double tracking 2) Circle line of tram 3) Access tram to Uetaki Line 2) Circle line of tram Source: City of Toyama 4) The North and South tram integration E-9

200 5 KEY TOPICS 1) Key Topic 1: Toyama Portrum (LRT Network Development) A core project of Public Transport Oriented Compact City Development strategy is LRT network development. The City of Toyama converted a conventional railway, Toyama Port Line, into LRT and has commenced another project to expand the LRT network. The LRT development project converted from Toyama Port Line, which the first LRT in Toyama and in Japan, was decided based on the vision toward sustainable development of Toyama, where wider socio-economic benefit was considered in addition to the operational viability. The first LRT line, Toyama Port Line (7.6 km) was converted from existing railway operated by JR-west, of which operation was started by a quasi-public corporation, Toyama Light Rail in April The cost of this conversion project was about JPY5.8 billion, which comprises JPY1.85 billion for new seven-coach LRT, JPY1.55 billion for construction of new rail, JPY2.5 billion for upgrade of existing rail. Railway infrastructure was transferred to City of Toyama from JR-west without charge, together with contribution of JPY1.0 billion from JR-west. In FY 2009, operating revenue and expenses of Toyama Port Line was JPY320 million and JPY420 million respectively, where about JPY100 million was subsidized by City of Toyama to cover the deficit. In order to continuously operate LRT network in spite of the operational deficit of each year, it is inevitable to gain public understanding to provide financing on LRT toward a compact city and also necessary to make them to use it. Figure 5.1 LRT Line and Connection with LRT and Bus Source: City of Toyama E-10

201 2) Key Topic 2: Toyama Centrum As the shrinkage of tram network, the circle operation of tram ended. But the city of Toyama has realized the revival of circle operation by build new tram line partially. The circle line was opened in This is the national first project to introduce The law for revitalization of local public transportation which enables the separation of operations from infrastructure in the LRT development. With a two-tiered system of public-built and private-operation, the city has built the tramway and tram stops, purchased and possessed the tram vehicles in the newly built section, while Toyama Local Railway Corp. operates the line. Project budget of the city is 2.6 billion Yen (USD30.6 million) and the maintenance cost is also paid by the city. Figure 5.2 LRT Network and Toyama Centrum Source: City of Toyama E-11

202 ANNEX F CASE STUDY 6: KOSHIGAYA CITY

203 1 SUMMARY 1) Rationale for Being Selected as Case Study City City of Koshigaya is a typical suburban city of Tokyo, which experienced rapid urbanization and received increasing migration into Tokyo metropolitan area. City of Koshigaya has promoted various urban infrastructure development and environmental measures and pollution control through coordination with a country, prefectural government, public corporation and citizens. It is a typical experience of a middle-size city in the suburb of a metropolitan area in Japan of 50-year after rapid economic growth. Koshigaya Lake Town project was developed base on such experiences of Koshigaya City on urban environmental improvement. Since Koshigaya City has been developed as a bed town for Tokyo, its urban environmental issues are mainly related to residential and business sector, rather than industrial one. City of Koshigaya has focused on those sectors in its environmental actions on wastewater and waste management. As well for global warming, which is becoming more important, City of Koshigaya needs to focus on residential and business sector. It is the most difficult to reduce CO 2 emission in those sectors as experienced in the whole country. In this context, various projects in Koshigaya Lake Town such as a district-level CO 2 reduction project and actions toward energy efficiency in the commercial facilities can be a symbolic challenge to reduce CO 2 emission of those sectors. While conventional environmental issues are directly related to point sources such as factories and business places, emerging environmental issues such as global warming requires involvement of various stakeholders including individuals and companies. Experiences of Koshigaya Lake Town can extract lessons on environmental actions in the residential and business sector. 2) Summary of Case Study City of Koshigaya had provided residences for migration into Tokyo Metropolitan Area from all over the country as a bedroom town. Rapid population increase had stimulated its economy but caused various urban problems simultaneously. City of Koshigaya had been pressed by continuously increasing population. For example, in response to the sprawling of urban areas, it promoted railway development, strengthened zoning and conducted land readjustment projects. It tightened regulation on intake of groundwater and developed domestic and industrial water supply in order to stop land subsidence. It also conducted river improvement and retention pond development in response to inundation problems and road development in response to the increasing traffic accidents. Facing with lack of school and medical facilities, it promoted construction of those facilities. After entering into the stable growth period, population increase also started to slow down. Instead, City of Koshigaya started to develop various facilities and policies to promote leisure activities such as sports and cultural activities. As population increase has slowed down and urban facilities have been well developed, Koshigaya city has shifted from a growing city to a grown-up city. People put more priority on rich and varied city with healthy and safe life, affluent greenery resources, and symbiosis with nature. In this context, Koshigaya Lake Town is being conducted as a new urban development project. F-1

204 (1) Koshigaya Lake Town Koshigaya Lake Town, smart and sustainable urban life with the lake, aims for a selfindependent city far beyond a bedroom town of Tokyo with various urban functions including commercial, business and information. It took advantages of its geographical conditions, on a lowland swamp on the river plain, as a local identity. Lake Town project was formulated as a land readjustment project collaborated with regional infrastructure development such as river improvement and Eastern Saitama Road. The major three components of the projects are urban area development around a station which was newly established, large-scale retention pond, and advanced energy-efficient technologies, which made Koshigaya Lake Town as Eco-city. It is expected to apply to next urban development projects in Koshigaya city. 3) Appreciation from the Eco 2 Initiatives (1) Ecological Cities as Economic Cities Koshigaya City has experienced rapid increase of population as a bedroom suburb for Tokyo during the economic growth era. Since urban development was conducted based on the railway corridors, all of its Urbanization Promotion Areas (UPA) are located within 2 km from the railway stations. It succeeded to formulate a compact city with population density of the whole UPA is only 90 person/ha. Although Koshigaya City had highly relied on Tokyo for its economy, it gradually increases economic independence with a trend toward service economy and agglomeration of large shopping center. It has also launched a local-rooted strategy of balanced development of economy and environment, by revitalizing polluted river and utilizing them as important urban environmental resources. (2) Eco 2 Basic Approach 1: A City-based Approach Urban Renaissance, a prime developer of Koshigaya Lake Town, made a comprehensive coordination among sectors or stakeholders, which enabled city-based integrated development of urban infrastructure and environment. A variety of policies are conducted simultaneously for development, architecture, and lifestyle, which revolved from Koshigaya Lake Town to other areas of the City. (3) Eco 2 Basic Approach 2: An Expanded Platform for Collaborative Design and Decision-Making Koshigaya Lake Town project was a product of collaboration of country, public corporation, city, road administrator, river administrator, large-scale commercial facilities, house makers, manufacturers of energy-saving equipment. All stakeholders capitalized on their own strength and contributed development of low-carbon society. It is the big appealing point of Koshigaya Lake Town. (4) Eco 2 Basic Approach 3: One-system Approach In the Koshigaya Lake Town, urban district is strategically designed to integrate with regional road infrastructure and regional water environment such as river and retention pond. Such integral approach has enhanced sustainability of both regional infrastructure and urban environment. F-2

205 (5) Eco 2 Basic Approach 4: An Investment Framework that Values Sustainability and Resiliency Sustainability and resiliency of Koshigaya Lake Town has not been reflected in the financing scheme, where conventional urban development scheme has been applied as a whole, namely land readjustment project related to regional road infrastructure. Contribution of administrators of public facilities such as river and road are used for investment on integrated development of urban area, regional road network, and river environment. Economic incentive has been provided to promote low-carbon technologies, such as CO 2 reduction program by 20% at district-level. 4) Implications to the Eco 2 Initiatives During rapid economic growth period, a city is required to develop industrial infrastructure and urban facilities and conduct pollution control simultaneously, in response to the increasing population and growing demand of industries. Pollution control should be conducted to supplement regulations on national government. Regional infrastructure requires coordination with central and prefectural government. Urban infrastructure development also requires coordination with higher level government to secure financial sources and coordination with citizens. In order to proved all of them at the same time, cooperation and coordination among all stakeholders are inevitable, which a city is supposed to make. F-3

206 2 INTRODUCTION OF KOSHIGAYA CITY City of Koshigaya is located in the south-eastern of Saitama prefecture, from km from center of Tokyo with a total area of 60.3 km 2. On the river plain of the Nakagawa River interbedded by the Omiya Highland and the Shimouwa Highland, several small tomedium-sized rivers and agricultural waterways are running in the city. While lowland was used as a rice field, residential areas were developed on the natural levees. Figure 2.1 Location of Koshigaya City Source: City of Koshigaya Population of City of Koshigaya started to increase when it was directly connected with center of Tokyo by public transport, Hibiya Line. It increased from 50,000 in 1962 to 300,000 in 1996 and 330,000 at present. Figure 2.2 Population Change of Koshigaya City 18.1% in 1967 the highest Population Growth Rate over 300,000 In 1996 over 200,000 In 1976 over 100,000 In Source: City of Koshigaya F-4

207 3 ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES OF THE CITY From when its population exceeded 100,000 in the late 1960s, it faced various urban environmental problems. Residential areas were disorderly expanded into the agricultural lands, land subsidence due to overuse of ground water, inundation due to inadequate drainage system, water contamination due to inflow of untreated wastewater into the river, increasing traffic accidents, lack of urban facilities such as school and medical facilities. In order to solve such problems, City of Koshigaya have promoted various urban infrastructure development and environmental measures and pollution control through coordination with a country, prefectural government, public corporation and citizens. It is a typical experience of 50-year since rapid economic growth of a middle-size city in the suburb of a metropolitan area in Japan. Koshigaya Lake Town project was developed base on such experiences of Koshigaya City on urban environmental improvement. 1) Water Environment (1) Land Subsidence and its Challenges Since City of Koshigaya is located on the river plain with soft ground, it faced serious land subsidence due to overuse of ground water mainly for drinking water and industrial water supply. In 1972, groundwater extraction was regulated under the Pollution Control Ordinance and the city started to supply water with surface water of the river. All of the water-wells in the factories within a city are also regulated under the prefectural Ordinance for Protection of Living Environment and reporting obligations are mandated for other water-wells under the City s Environmental Ordinance. A series of above actions has decreased dependence on groundwater and slowed the progress of ground sinking. Figure 3.1 Historical Change of Land Subsidence (Senryu Town) (Taisei) (SengenDaito) (Hirakata) (Shimomakuri) (Koshigaya) (Location Name) (Yaei Town) Source: City of Koshigaya (2) River Water Contamination and its Challenges Rapid urbanization and entering of factories had caused water contamination of the rivers in a city, evaluated as the worst in water quality among all first-class rivers by MLIT. F-5

208 (a) Countermeasures against Factory Effluent In order to improve water contamination, in addition to the regulation on factory effluent by central government such as Act on Water Quality Pollution Control and by prefectural government such as the Ordinance for Protection of Living Environment, City of Koshigaya has conducted on-site inspection on the quality of discharged water and operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment facilities at the factories. If the quality of discharged water exceeds the standard, the City issues an order to improve and to ensure compliance with emission standards. (b) Countermeasures against Domestic Wastewater As for domestic wastewater, the city has developed public sewerage and promoted to connect them with individual houses as well as installed septic tanks. (c) Regional Water Environmental Improvement The City also developed raw water transmission with a maximum capacity of three tons of water per second from the Arakawa River to the Ayase River in order to improve the water quality of the Ayase River. City of Koshigaya conducted research and workshop on the water quality of the Ayase River jointly with other city authorities along the river, where the Immediate Action Program for Better Water Environment of the Ayase River was formulated in Monitoring survey of water quality and cleaning of the river are also conducted every year together with citizens. A round of challenges, including regulation on discharged water, development of sewerage and installment of septic tank, and related campaign activities, have gradually improved water quality of the river. Figure 3.2 Historical Change of Average BOD (the Ayase River) Source: City of Koshigaya (3) Inundation Due to Poor Drainage Since 1982, City of Koshigaya had been frequently flooded since poor drainage capacity could not catch up with rapid urbanization. In addition to development of sewerage systems including drainage network and pumping stations, it also developed two retention ponds, which have a capacity of 400,000 and 1.2 million m 3 respectively, to solve inundation problems. F-6

209 2) Waste Management While the total volume of solid waste continuously increased up to 2003, it has gradually decreased since then. Historical challenges of waste management of City of Koshigaya are as following: (i) 1958: Commencement of individual collection (ii) 1985: Opening of disposal site (closed in 2002) (iii) 1995: Start of operation of the first incineration plant, which has daily capacity of 800 ton and is equipped with electric generation of 24,000 kw. (iv) 2002: Opening of new disposal site (v) 2006: Start of operation of a recycling facility, Recycle Plaza Start of sorted collection into 15 items. (vi) 2007: Establishment of PR facilities to promote waste reduction and recycling in Recycle Plaza Figure 3.3 Trend of the Volume of Waste Collection (Domestic) All Waste Burnable Un-burnable Recyclable 3) Eco-diversity Source: City of Koshigaya City of Koshigaya has conducted toward preservation of eco-diversity from early on. Taking advantage of its natural water environment, it promoted community-based water environmental improvement activities. The overview of actions relate to eco-diversity is as below. (i) (ii) 1986: Designation of environmental preservation area, the Saitama Duck Park and its surrounding and Hisaizu Shrine and its surrounding 1987: Establishment of Association to Grow Up Firefly in Koshigaya (iii) 1989: Restoration of Tosuke Gashi Site on the embankment after river improvement (iv) 1992: Commencement of project to preserve and grow up boneset, in danger of extinction (v) : Designation of bird sanctuary area (vi) 1997: Formulation Disaster Prevention Plan of Koshigaya (vii) 1999: Development of river disaster prevention station, attached to the community center (viii) 2003: Development of biotope space (ix) 2008: Development of biotope space and heritage parks in Koshigaya Lake Town F-7

210 4 KEY TOPIC: KOSHIGAYA LAKE TOWN 1 1) Overall Description of Koshigaya Lake Town Koshigaya Lake Town Project (land readjustment project) commenced by Urban Renaissance in 1999 and partly opened in It is urban development project of 226 ha, which plan to develop 7,000 houses and accommodate 22,400 populations. It is characterized with a large-scale retention pond, with an area of 40 ha and regulatory volume of 1.2 million m 3. It has been developed integrally with urban infrastructure in the land readjustment project in order to improve area-wide flood control. Its extensive water surface not only improve flood control in the area but also prevent heat island as a cool spot. With passive design 2, a wind from the wate surface of the retention pond and waterway are actively brought into the residential areas. With a retention pond as a core of community development, Koshigaya Lake Town is a comprehensive urban development toward symbiosis with water environment. This concept has been extracted from the experiences of City of Koshigaya to tackle on various water environmental problems, such as land subsidence, water contamination, inundation and so on. Based on the past coordination between city government and citizens, plan to use the retention plan has been formulated through public participation, which contributed to enhance environmental awareness of the citizens. Other notable actions toward a comprehensive environmental City of Koshigaya Lake Town include condominium buildings with the largest solar- heating system in Japan, commercial facilities with photovoltaic system, urban development with ecosystem, rainwater harvesting system and so on. New station has been developed on the existing JR line in the middle of Koshigaya Lake Town to improve accessibility. All areas of the town can be within 1 km from the station, where people can access the station on foot or by bicycle. Figure 4.1 Future Image of Koshigaya Lake Town Source: Urban Renaissance 1 Koshigaya Lake Town was received Golden Award of LivCom Award, 2009 (project award). The LivCom Awards were launched in 1997 and are endorsed by the United Nations Environment Programme. LivCom is the world s only Awards Competition focusing on best practices regarding the management of the local environment. The objective of LivCom is to improve the quality of life of individual citizens through the creation of liveable communities. 2 Passive Design is planning method to take advantage of local natural conditions such as solar, wind, and water, and thus to achieve comfortable town and lifestyle. F-8

211 2) Whole-district 20% CO 2 Reduction Project, Daiwa House Daiwa House conducted integral development of 132 detached houses and condominiums with 500 apartments in Koshigaya Lake Town. It is one of the model projects of urban development harmonized with natural environment promoted by Daiwa House, which shall effectively utilize the wind, the solar, and the water. It has been designated as the first Whole-district 20% CO 2 Reduction Project by MOE. The low-rise residential area is designed as wind can easily pass through from the water surface of retention pond in the center of the town, in order to ease the load of cooling and heating system. Passive design is also applied in each house, which allocates living and dining room in the well ventilated zone so that wind can come into the house. In the highrise residential area, solar heating system was introduced for heating and hot water, which is the largest in Japan. 3) Low Carbon Actions in the Large-scale Shopping Center EAON shopping center in Koshigaya Lake Town is one of the largest ones in Japan. It has been attracting much attention with its various and up-to-date environmental technologies, which can reduce CO 2 emission by 20%, or at 90 million ton compared to that of same-scale. Its primary technology is Japan s first hybrid gas system, which is expected to reduce CO 2 emission of 6,500 ton. Lighting is the second largest contribution to the CO 2 reduction at 1,000 ton. It includes lighting control system according to the time slot and introduction of LED light. A huge solar panel with a total area of 4,000 m 2 has been also introduced, which is the largest among all commercial facilities in Japan. With annual electric-genarating capacity at about 410,000 kwh, it is expected to reduce CO 2 emission by 175 ton per year. This solar panel can be clearly seen from the Koshigaya Lake Town Station. Some of the benches are equipped with small-size solar panel, which is used for its lighting at night. EAON also applied a concept of Eco into transportation. It provides shuttle bus services with hybrid vehicles, connecting the Koshigaya Lake Town station to the distant building. High-speed battery charging stations for electric vehicles are developed outside of the shipping center, which is the first in all shipping centers in Japan. Figure 4.2 Breakdown of CO 2 Emission Reduction (9,000 CO 2 ton) Source: Nikkei BP Note: (1) Heating System including hybrid gas system, (2) Lighting system including lighting control, sunshine control, and LED introduction, (3) Air conditioning including cooling with outside air. F-9

212 EAON Lake Town is also incorporated in the Whole-district CO 2 20% Reduction Project of MOE. It intends to promote a concept of Eco in the whole Koshigaya Lake Town, where some of the experimental trials have been introduced. Solar panel of more than 4,000 m 2 is more to show the stance of EAON to actively tackle on environmental issues, rather than to get economic merit by saving energy cost. It is same with charging system of electric vehicles. Visitors can use it at free in the meantime. EAON has no intention to get revenue from the charging fee. EAON Lake Town is equipped all the environmental technologies that can be applied in commercial facilities, which include recycle use of rainwater for watering as well as huge investment such as solar panel and hybrid gas system. F-10

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