Competitive Advantage of Libyan Business Environment

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Competitive Advantage of Libyan Business Environment"

Transcription

1 Economics World, ISSN May 2014, Vol. 2, No. 5, D DAVID PUBLISHING Competitive Advantage of Libyan Business Environment Salem Abdulla Azzaytuna University, Tripoli, Libya The economic development needs of developing countries require capital accumulation, which is no longer an easy task, even for industrialized countries. Although borrowing remains an important alternative, it has proved to be an expensive method in the long run. Consequently, to attract foreign direct investment (FDI), developing countries have been liberalizing their economies, which is expected to contribute to job creation and income generation. Libya declared its intention to liberalize its economy and to integrate into the global economy in order to achieve comprehensive development. This study investigates and explores the condition of the Libyan business environment in relation to foreign and joint companies, particularly in the nonoil sectors. This paper aims to investigate whether or not the Libyan business environment is appropriate to attract foreign companies, particularly in the nonhydrocarbon sectors. The method used in this paper is based on creating Porter model of competitive advantage of in relation to attract FDI. The paper reveals clearly that apart from substantial oil reserves, Libya is rich in other resources. Despite these positive advantages, there are numerous obstacles and shortcomings associated with the Libyan business environment. It discovered that the general structure and policies in relation to the Libyan business environment still require considerable attention to bring about the political and administrative stability, as well as the stability of laws and regulations. Furthermore, intensive media campaigns need to be launched with all the necessary legal and political guarantees for attracting FDI into the country. Keywords: competitive advantage, North African region, economic development, Libyan business environment, foreign direct investment (FDI) Introduction Libya occupies a significant geographical location as it lies in the centre of the North African region. It covers a vast area extending from the middle part of the Mediterranean coast in North Africa to the northern highlands of central Africa. From an historical perspective, this distinctive location has made Libya the confluence that links ArabIslamic cultures with African culture. Moreover, Libya has played a major role in the economic and political developments that have taken place in this part of the world since the early civilizations (Shernanna & Abdulla, 2007). Furthermore, Libya has numerous resources of oil and gas besides other natural resources such as the vast arable land, water resources, the climate, animal, and marine resources, not to mention its tourism potentials and the various mineral resources. The Libya, as the case with other developing countries, suffers numerous financial and economic problems such as a dependency on the oil and gas sector as the main source of the national income. In addition, the Salem Abdulla, Ph.D. in government and International Affairs, lecturer in Finance at Azzaytuna University, Tripoli, Libya. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Salem Abdulla, P. O. Box: 81589, Tripoli, Libya.

2 326 COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF LIBYAN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT limited capacity of its local market given its relatively small population acts as a constraint on economic growth. However, the huge potential of the hydrocarbon sector and the high levels of financial flows were generated from these resources that can provide a reliable source of capital, and the need to develop the country s infrastructure should make Libya a target for FDI. Such investment is promising for the simple reason that the use of the associated modern technology provides the ideal investment for the local natural resources. Foreign investment, particularly FDI, is not a new phenomenon in Libya. The first law in relation to FDI came into force in Libya on 30 January, This was followed by Law No. 37 of 1968, which was amended by Law No. 5 of 1997 with regard to the encouragement of the foreign capital, and which came to force on 29 May, 1997, sometime before the enforcement of its executive regulations (Retrieved from A further limited amendment was implemented by Law No. 7 of 2003, which made it possible for local business using capital in Libyan Dinars (LD) to participate in joint ventures with the foreign companies. This law is mainly concerned at encouraging foreign capital, particularly in relation to projects which benefit from the introduction of new technology, training of local staff, diversification of income, the development of local products to meet international standards or otherwise contributing to local development (Article One of Law No. 7). Moreover, the idea of attracting the FDI into the Libyan economy is not new as it started as early as the 1950s. Thereafter FDI played a major role in the discovery of the huge oil and gas reserves, which have contributed to increasing the foreign earnings for the state. These earnings have made it possible for the state to push ahead with its programmes of social and economic development across the economy for almost half a century (Laws and Regulations Related to Investment, 2008). However, despite the aforementioned advantages, FDI in areas other than the hydrocarbon sector has rarely been attracted to Libya. Furthermore, FDI has made little contribution towards increasing the rate of capital accumulation in the Libyan economy. FDI has not exceeded 1.99% of total investment in the 1980s and 1990s. In other words that ratio would indicate that only US$199 would become available for every US$10,000 of the total investment required for economic development in Libya. But as yet most of the FDI in Libya has been directed towards the oil and gas sector (Abdulla, 2013). The Libyan Investment Board (LIB) was established at the end of 1998 at a time when the business environment was particularly weak. As a result, FDI inflows in its early years were slow. However, with the positive political developments in the LibyanWestern relationships since the suspension of UN sanctions in 1999 and the government s policy to improve the business environment, FDI flows into the nonoil sector started from mid2003 (Abdulla, 2004). Method The method used in this paper is based on qualitative research. The primary data was collected through a survey conducted by using a questionnaire with representatives of the foreign and joint companies in order to discover their opinions in relation to the Libyan business environment. A structured interview technique was also used to gauge the opinions of the senior Libyan officials, whose jobs were related to FDI operations, with the objective of establishing the most important challenges facing the public administration in order to improve the business environment. After summarizing the findings of both methods and categorizing them as variables, the paper used these variables in creating Porter model of competitive advantage of Libyan business environment in relation to attracting FDI.

3 COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF LIBYAN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT 327 Results and Discussion By using data explained in Appendix 1, competitive advantage model of Libyan business environment was created. Figure 1 shows Porter s model in relation to competitiveness and the business environment (Porter, 1990). In terms of demand conditions, the Libyan economy has a strong financial position with high rates of economic growth especially in recent years. It also provides an easy access to African, Asian, and Europe markets. However, the economy is highly dependent on the oil sector which is subject to external variables such as production and prices. This dependence on oil is unreliable given the poor performance of the nonoil sector (Porter & Virgin, 2006). In the area of related and support industry, the Libyan business environment is characterized by the private SMEs and the smooth flow of capital into the country. However, a number of problems exist in relation to the organization of the markets of raw materials, which curtail the supply of these materials leading to price increases. Another weakness is the poor organization of labor markets and the consequent difficulties of importing foreign labor and the scarcity of skilled local labor. In terms of factor conditions characterized, human resource competencies, social stability and young and cheap labor are the main positive characteristics of the factor conditions. In terms of natural resources, Libya has a unique geographic location and a diversity of climatic conditions. In addition, apart from substantial oil reserves, Libya is rich in other resources such as minerals, fisheries, arable land, and animal resources. Despite these positive advantages, the physical infrastructure in Libya is weak apart from the transport and telecommunication sector which are relatively strong. Libya also lags behind in the area of information technology and research including inadequate business information. Context for Firm Strategy and Rivalry Factor (Input) Conditions A local context and rules that encourage investment and productivity A context of open and vigorous local competition, specially among locally based rivals Demand Conditions The efficiency, quality, and specialization of input available to firm Related and supporting Industries The presence of sophisticated and demanding local customers * Access to capable, locally based suppliers and firms in related fields * Presence of clusters instead of isolated industries Source: Figure The General 1. Competitiveness planning Council of the for business Libya,2006 environment. Source: The General Planning Council for Libya in In relation to firm strategy, structure, and rivalry, the policies aimed at encouraging FDI are the most important factors. Furthermore, in the past decade, policymakers have made great efforts to improve bilateral relations with all countries particularly with the Western and African countries. However, despite these efforts, the general structure and policies in relation to the Libyan business environment still require considerable

4 328 COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF LIBYAN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT attention to bring about the political and administrative stability, as well as the stability of laws and regulations. Furthermore, intensive media campaigns need to be launched with all the necessary legal and political guarantees for attracting FDI into the country. Factor Conditions in the Libyan Business Environment Factor conditions are the situation in a region regarding the efficiency, quality, and specialization of inputs available to companies. These factors can be grouped into human, natural resources and infrastructure. It is important to note that each nation or region has its own particular set of factor conditions; hence, each country will develop those industries for which the particular set of factor conditions is optimal. Table 1 shows the most important factor conditions in the Libyan business environment. Table 1 Factor Conditions in the Libyan Business Environment Existing Situation (i) Human Development Factors A high performance in human development A young person s country (PAID, 2006) Well developed in social justice and the contribution of women A high level of social stability (ii) Geographical Factors An attractive location The climate is relatively diverse (iii) Economy Related Factors () Relatively poor agriculture resources A wealth of high quality fish Relative wealth of nonoil mineral resources Wealth of archaeological resources and nature tourism (iv) Infrastructural Factors () Weakness in the financial system but steps have been taken to reform it Transport and telecommunication services are improving () Poor tourism sector infrastructure () Weakness in infrastructure of industrial zones () Weakness in the electricity network () Poor quality of public water () Poor quality of waste disposal services () Postage and delivery service is based on P. O. boxes without using street names and GPS does not exist () Average quality of land transport with organizational problems for using roads () Weakness in airports capacities and facilities () Weakness in ports capacities and facilities () The capacity of the MMRP is still limited and intangible () A reasonable development in mobile service () A very limited water supply in areas which are suitable for agriculture () Delays in the implementation of the railway project (v) Information Technology and R&D Related Factors () Poor infrastructure in the area of information exchange () Lack of business information Demand Conditions in the Libyan Business Environment Demand conditions influence the shaping of particular factor conditions, which impact the pace and direction of innovation and product development. According to Porter (1990) demand conditions are determined by three major characteristics: high customer expectations for products, local customer needs, and unusual local demand in specialized segments that can be served globally. Table 2 summarizes the most important demand conditions in the Libyan business environment.

5 COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF LIBYAN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT 329 Table 2 Demand Conditions in the Libyan Business Environment Existing Situation A strong financial position Strong GDP growth in recent years () Highly dependent on the oil and gas sector () Weak performance in the agricultural sector: 3.5% of GDP in 2007 () Weak performance in the industrial sector: 5.0% of GDP in 2007 Easy market access to African and Arab countries In terms of demand conditions, the Libyan economy has a strong financial position with high rates of economic growth especially in recent years. It also provides an easy access to African and Arab markets. However, the economy is highly dependent on the oil sector which is subject to external variables such as production and prices. This dependence on oil is unreliable given the poor performance of the nonoil sectors. Related and Support Industries in the Libyan Business Environment According to the Porter Model, related and support industries help make local industry more competitive as firms can enjoy more cost effective and innovative inputs. This effect is strengthened when the suppliers themselves are strong global competitors. Table 3 shows the most important related and support industries in the Libyan business environment. Table 3 Related and Support Industries in the Libyan Business Environment Existing situation Economic activities are based on private SMEs () Unorganized natural resources market provides limited supply and high prices Ease of importing capital and accounting procedures () Difficulties in exporting funds and the auditing system () Unorganized labor market In the area of related and support industry, the Libyan business environment is characterized by the private SMEs and the smooth flow of capital into the country. However, a number of problems exist in relation to the organization of the markets of raw materials, which curtails the supply of these materials leading to price increases. Another weakness is the poor organization of labor markets and the consequent difficulties of importing foreign labor and the scarcity of skilled local labor. Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry in the Libyan Business Environment Firm strategy, structure, and rivalry include the local context and rules that encourage FDI in a context of open and vigorous local competition. Table 4 displays the most important firm strategy, structure, and rivalry in the Libyan business environment. Table 4 Firm Strategy, Structure, and Rivalry in the Libyan Business Environment Existing Situation (i) Country General Specific Infrastructural Issues () There is no constitution () Institutional and legislation instability is deteriorating () Instability in the administrative system () Multiplicity of laws and regulations () Idea of tribalism still exists

6 330 COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF LIBYAN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT Table 4 continued Existing Situation Crime rate and entry and exit visas are at acceptable levels (ii) Business Related Infrastructural Issues Tax exemptions and transfer of profit are at acceptable levels () Bureaucracy is the most significant obstacle but it is becoming complicated () There is no investment map () Problems of some land ownership () OSS is not activated (iii) FDI related Structural Issues () There is a strategy to attract FDI but it is not formalized Encouraging FDI from 1998 with the establishment of the LIB () Weakness in promotional campaigns () Guarantees provided are not sufficient In 2003 returned to international community Stock market launched in 2006 () Limited FDI projects licensed, only 128 companies in the period Encouraging the local private sector from 1986 () Lack of experience in dealing with multinational companies ()30 projects worth LD11.3bn (UK 6.0bn) were cancelled during the period Conclusions The paper examines whether or not the Libyan business environment is appropriate to attract foreign companies, particularly in the nonhydrocarbon sectors. From Porter model of competitive advantage of Libyan business environment, it is clear that despite the numerous obstacles and shortcomings associated with the Libyan business environment, Libya has many positive characteristics. Despite these positive advantages, there are numerous obstacles and shortcomings associated with the Libyan business environment, such as physical infrastructure in Libya which is weak apart from the transport and telecommunication sector, highly dependent on the oil sector, poor organization of raw materials and labor markets, lagging behind in the area of information technology. The general structure and policies in relation to the Libyan business environment still require considerable attention to bring about the political and administrative stability, as well as the stability of laws and regulations. Furthermore, intensive media campaigns need to be launched with all the necessary legal and political guarantees for attracting FDI into the country. References Abdulla, S. (2004). Globalization and developed countries: Case of FDI (in Arabic). Tripoli: The National Bureau of Research and Development. Abdulla, S. (2013). Toward a strategy to activate interinvestment for Arab development (in Arabic). Tripoli: Libyan Cultural Ministry. Economy Minister s Decision to Issue Executive Regulation of the Law No. 37 in 1968 (in Arabic). (2008). Retrieved from Laws and Regulations Related to Investment in Libya (in Arabic). (2008). Retrieved from PAID. (2006). Preliminary results of the general census of population in 2006 (in Arabic). Tripoli: PAID. Porter, M. E. (1990). The competitive advantage of nations. New York: MacMillan Free Press. Porter, M., & Virgin, D. (2006). Assess the competitiveness of the Libyan economy. Tripoli: General Planning Council. Shernanna, F., & Abdulla, S. (2007). Major ingredient for investing in Libya (in Arabic). Tripoli: Academy of Graduate Studies.

7 COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF LIBYAN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT 331 Indicator Research Variable Appendix 1. A Summary of Research Database Human Resource Indicators Representatives have a positive attitude towards the quality of human resources There are many difficulties in terms of dealing with the local labor market, the most important of which is importing foreign labor to cover the scarcity of local skilled labor High performance in human development Well developed in social justice and the contribution of women A young person s country Unorganized labor market Foreign investors are satisfied with the specifications of the human resources Lack of experience in dealing with multinational companies Natural Resource Indicators 61.8% of foreign investors use local natural resources Limited material supplies and high prices An attractive location Arable land at rate of 3%, invested in agriculture is 1% A very limited water supply in areas suitable for agriculture A wealth of high quality fish The capacity of the MMRP is still limited and intangible Weak performance in the agricultural sector: 3.5% of GDP in 2007 Indictors The climate is a relatively diverse Research Variables Relatively wealth of nonoil mineral resources Weak performance in the industrial sector: 5.0% of GDP in 2007 Wealth of archaeological resources and nature tourism Poor tourism sector infrastructure Organizational and administrative problems in the tourism sector Lack of coordination between the public bodies to provide the infrastructure required for establishing industrial zones There is no clearly defined industrial strategy Lack of exploration studies Lack of coordination between the public bodies to build the investment map Problems of land ownership along the coastal strip Infrastructure Indicators Representatives of foreign and joint companies are not satisfied with financial, electricity, water and sewage, and disposal and solid waste services Representatives of foreign and joint companies are satisfied with telecommunication and transport infrastructure Densely populated counties suffer more than rural counties from the poor quality of infrastructure services except in water and sewage, and telecommunication services The agriculture and industrial companies are the most affected by the poor quality of infrastructure Indictors Research Variables Deterioration of infrastructure in the financial sector Water sewage, disposal and solid waste services are deteriorating Transports and telecommunication services are developing Weakness in the banking system but steps to reform the system have been taken Weakness in the capital and investment tools of insurance companies Stock market launched in 2006

8 332 COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF LIBYAN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT Appendix 1 continued Indicator Research Variable Weakness in electricity provision Poor quality of public water Poor quality of waste disposal services Postage and delivery services are based on PO boxes without using street names and GPS does not exist Reasonable development in mobile services Average quality of land transport with organizational problems of using roads Weakness in ports capacities and facilities Weakness in airports capacities and facilities Delays in the implementation of the railway project Poor infrastructure in the area of information exchange: limited number of internet users and subscribers Indictors Research Variables Political and Social Conditions Representatives of foreign and joint companies are not satisfied with institutional and legislation stability Representatives of foreign and joint companies are satisfied with low crime rate and entry and exit visas Institutional and legislation instability is deteriorating Good relations with the most countries, especially in Africa and Europe A high level of social stability Instability in political institutions Idea of tribalism still exists Economic and Financial Concerns Representatives of foreign and joint companies are satisfied with importing capital and accounting procedures Representatives of foreign and joint companies are not satisfied with exporting funds and the auditing system Strong financial position Strong GDP growth in recent years High dependency on the oil and gas sector Economic activities are based on private SMEs Indictors Research Variables Administrative Conditions Representatives of foreign and joint companies are not satisfied with the application procedure Bureaucracy is the most significant obstacle in the Libyan business environment Foreign companies are more affected by bureaucracy than others Bureaucracy is getting less complicated Instability in the administrative system OSS is not activated Limited number of FDI projects licensed, only 128 companies during the period Weakness in the promotional campaigns 30 projects worth LD11.3bn (about UK 6.0bn) were cancelled during the period Legal Conditions Representatives of foreign and joint companies are not satisfied with land ownership and nationalization guarantees Representatives of foreign and joint companies are satisfied with tax exemptions and transfer of profits There is no constitution Policies Towards FDI Economic liberalization and encouraging the local private sector from 1986 Establishment of the LIB, and from 2003 Libya has returned to the international community There is a strategy to attract FDI but it is not formalized

TAXATION AND AID FOR DOMESTIC RESOURCE MOBILIZATION (D.R.M.) AID: HELPING OR HARMING DOMESTIC RESOURCE MOBILIZATION IN AFRICA

TAXATION AND AID FOR DOMESTIC RESOURCE MOBILIZATION (D.R.M.) AID: HELPING OR HARMING DOMESTIC RESOURCE MOBILIZATION IN AFRICA TAXATION AND AID FOR DOMESTIC RESOURCE MOBILIZATION (D.R.M.) AID: HELPING OR HARMING DOMESTIC RESOURCE MOBILIZATION IN AFRICA My presentation deals with i. Definition and Importance of Domestic Resource

More information

TURKISH CONTRACTING IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET

TURKISH CONTRACTING IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET Brief overview TURKISH CONTRACTING IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET Construction plays a crucial role in Turkey s economic development, accounting for 5.9% of GDP and employing some 1.8 million people. When

More information

Chapter 14 How Economies Grow and Develop Macroeconomics In Context (Goodwin, et al.)

Chapter 14 How Economies Grow and Develop Macroeconomics In Context (Goodwin, et al.) Chapter 14 How Economies Grow and Develop Macroeconomics In Context (Goodwin, et al.) Chapter Overview This chapter discusses theories of economic growth, highlighting the Solow growth model and the importance

More information

Explaining Russia s New Normal

Explaining Russia s New Normal Explaining Russia s New Normal Chris Weafer of Macro-Advisory This Op- Ed appeared on BNE.eu on September 11 2015 One of the slogans now regularly deployed to describe Russia s current economic condition

More information

Direct Investment Flows Between South America and Africa

Direct Investment Flows Between South America and Africa ISSN 2222-4823 Direct Investment Flows Between South America and Africa Katarina Pereira da Costa Con el apoyo de: SerieBrief # 98 Mayo 2015 Direct Investment Flows between South America and Africa Katarina

More information

Factors Affecting the Competitiveness of the Agribusiness Sector in Swaziland

Factors Affecting the Competitiveness of the Agribusiness Sector in Swaziland Factors Affecting the Competitiveness of the Agribusiness Sector in Swaziland Bongiwe P. Dlamini P. O. Box 7689, Mbabane, H100, Swaziland Johann F. Kirsten Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension

More information

CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS FOR NEPALESE CONSULTING BUSINESS: NEED OF CAPACITY BUILDING FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS FOR NEPALESE CONSULTING BUSINESS: NEED OF CAPACITY BUILDING FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS FOR NEPALESE CONSULTING BUSINESS: NEED OF CAPACITY BUILDING FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Mr. Hare Ram Shrestha Society of Consulting Architectural and Engineering Firms, Nepal Background

More information

Ouagadougou Action Plan to Combat Trafficking In Human Beings, Especially Women and Children

Ouagadougou Action Plan to Combat Trafficking In Human Beings, Especially Women and Children Ouagadougou Action Plan to Combat Trafficking In Human Beings, Especially Women and Children Introduction This booklet contains the Ouagadougou Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings, Especially

More information

EXPERT MEETING on. Geneva, 24-25 September 2007. Foreign Direct Investment in Vietnam. Ms. Le Hai Van

EXPERT MEETING on. Geneva, 24-25 September 2007. Foreign Direct Investment in Vietnam. Ms. Le Hai Van EXPERT MEETING on COMPARING BEST PRACTICES FOR CREATING AN ENVIRONMENT CONDUCIVE TO MAXIMIZING DEVELOPMENT BENEFITS, ECONOMIC GROWTH AND INVESTMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND COUNTRIES WITH ECONOMIES

More information

REVERSE INNOVATION: AFRICA S BIG OPPORTUNITY

REVERSE INNOVATION: AFRICA S BIG OPPORTUNITY RESEARCH PAPER BY RICHARD ATTIAS & ASSOCIATES PLENARY SESSION Scheduled for: August 29, 17.30 REVERSE INNOVATION: AFRICA S BIG OPPORTUNITY We have an abundance of genius; we just need trust and support!

More information

Reading the balance of payments accounts

Reading the balance of payments accounts Reading the balance of payments accounts The balance of payments refers to both: All the various payments between a country and the rest of the world The particular system of accounting we use to keep

More information

NATIONAL INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES STRATEGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN (2003-2012)

NATIONAL INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES STRATEGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN (2003-2012) NATIONAL INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES STRATEGY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN (2003-2012) Science and technologies are developing very fast. That s why we in Azerbaijan

More information

Vietnam displaces China as production hub Vietnam

Vietnam displaces China as production hub Vietnam Clark Financial Advisory Limited Vietnam displaces China as production hub Vietnam Investing in Vietnam complications and solutions Executive Summary Vietnam has become the most promising growth market

More information

THE ROLE OF THE CENTRAL BANK OF SUDAN IN DEVELOPMENT FINANCING

THE ROLE OF THE CENTRAL BANK OF SUDAN IN DEVELOPMENT FINANCING THE ROLE OF THE CENTRAL BANK OF SUDAN IN DEVELOPMENT FINANCING The Central Bank of Sudan commenced business in 1960. Its role, like that of other central banks, is set to include the achievement of monetary

More information

CASABLANCA FINANCE CITY THE PAN-AFRICAN ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL HUB

CASABLANCA FINANCE CITY THE PAN-AFRICAN ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL HUB CASABLANCA FINANCE CITY THE PAN-AFRICAN ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL HUB The creation of the Casablanca Finance City financial centre by the Kingdom of Morocco will encourage Africa s financial integration

More information

Existing Analytical Market Assessment Tools - Definitions

Existing Analytical Market Assessment Tools - Definitions Existing Analytical Market Assessment Tools - Definitions November, 2003 This list of market assessment tools was prepared by Development Alternatives Inc. (DAI) as an internal working document to support

More information

Presented by Prosper P. D. Asima Assistant Director of Immigra7on/PPMEU

Presented by Prosper P. D. Asima Assistant Director of Immigra7on/PPMEU Data, Migration Profiles and How to Evaluate Migration s Impact on Development the case of Ghana 7 th -8 th May 2012, Millennium UN Plaza Hotel, New York Presented by Prosper P. D. Asima Assistant Director

More information

State of Qatar. Ministry of Environment. Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) Report. November 19 th, 2015

State of Qatar. Ministry of Environment. Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) Report. November 19 th, 2015 State of Qatar Ministry of Environment Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) Report November 19 th, 2015 State of Qatar is pleased to submit its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions

More information

Chapter 2 Literature Review

Chapter 2 Literature Review Chapter 2 Literature Review Abstract This chapter systematically reviews the literature on business incubators and business incubation. Focusing on the primary research orientations i.e. studies centering

More information

Strengthening Economic Evaluation and Data for Large Scale Investments in Mozambique. April, 2010

Strengthening Economic Evaluation and Data for Large Scale Investments in Mozambique. April, 2010 Strengthening Economic Evaluation and Data for Large Scale Investments in Mozambique April, 2010 Mozambique: An Introduction Location: Southeastern Africa, 2.515 Km of coast line Population: 20 millions,

More information

Official English translation of the investment law. In the Name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. In the Name of the People

Official English translation of the investment law. In the Name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. In the Name of the People Official English translation of the investment law In the Name of God, Most Gracious, Most Merciful In the Name of the People President s Office - Kurdistan Region - Iraq Pursuant to legislation by the

More information

EIC Position. About EIC

EIC Position. About EIC EUROPEAN INTERNATIONAL CONTRACTORS Kurfürstenstrasse 129 D-10785 Berlin Germany Tel +49 (30)-2 12 86-244 Fax +49 (30)-2 12 86-285 eicontractors@compuserve.com www.eicontractors.de EIC Position on the Commission

More information

TOURISM CAN CONTRIBUTE EMPLOYMENT TO TRADITIONALLY DISADVANTAGED GROUPS

TOURISM CAN CONTRIBUTE EMPLOYMENT TO TRADITIONALLY DISADVANTAGED GROUPS TOURISM CAN CONTRIBUTE EMPLOYMENT TO TRADITIONALLY DISADVANTAGED GROUPS By Daniel Semberya The development of the full tourism value chain could have a significant positive impact on Tanzania s effort

More information

UNION AFRICAINE AFRICAN UNION UNIÃO AFRICANA !!!!

UNION AFRICAINE AFRICAN UNION UNIÃO AFRICANA !!!! AFRICAN UNION UNION AFRICAINE UNIÃO AFRICANA Statement by H.E Erastus Mwencha Deputy Chairperson of African Union Commission on the Occasion of Africa-Turkey Women Entrepreneurs Trade Bridge; 27 February

More information

India s Services Exports

India s Services Exports Markus Hyvonen and Hao Wang* Exports of services are an important source of demand for the Indian economy and account for a larger share of output than in most major economies. The importance of India

More information

The Economic Outlook of Hong Kong. in the Context of China s 12th Five-Year Plan

The Economic Outlook of Hong Kong. in the Context of China s 12th Five-Year Plan The Economic Outlook of Hong Kong in the Context of China s 12th Five-Year Plan A Speech by Dr Victor Fung to the Students and Professionals at Savantas Liberal Arts Academy 匯 賢 智 庫 學 苑 on 21 May 2011

More information

SPEECH FOR THE PANEL ON BUSINESS CLIMATE AND INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES, Support for Ukraine Conference, 28 April 2015

SPEECH FOR THE PANEL ON BUSINESS CLIMATE AND INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES, Support for Ukraine Conference, 28 April 2015 SPEECH FOR THE PANEL ON BUSINESS CLIMATE AND INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES, Support for Ukraine Conference, 28 April 2015 Ministers, friends, ladies and gentlemen, Ukraine has extraordinary potential. We all

More information

Liberia Leasing Investment Forum

Liberia Leasing Investment Forum Liberia Leasing Investment Forum Finance Leasing in Liberia: June 13-14, 2012 Monrovia, Liberia Leasing is both a source of affordable capital for small and medium-sized businesses and a catalyst for socio-economic

More information

CHAPTER 11 INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY AND ORGANIZATION

CHAPTER 11 INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY AND ORGANIZATION CHAPTER 11 INTERNATIONAL STRATEGY AND ORGANIZATION LEARNING OBJECTIVES: 1. Explain the stages of identification and analysis that precede strategy selection. 2. Identify the two international strategies

More information

ACCOUNTING FOR ASIA S NATURAL CAPITAL

ACCOUNTING FOR ASIA S NATURAL CAPITAL ACCOUNTING FOR S NATURAL CAPITAL DRIVING THE TRANSITION TO A RESOURCE-EFFICIENT GREEN ECONOMY Asia s rapid economic growth during recent decades has been accompanied by serious depletion of the region

More information

GHANA. www.dlapiper.com 01

GHANA. www.dlapiper.com 01 GHANA www.dlapiper.com 01 Introducing Reindorf Chambers and the Ghanaian legal environment Key information on Ghana Formerly known as the Gold Coast, Ghana is located in West Africa, and became independent

More information

BUSINESS FINANCING IN TANZANIA (CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES)

BUSINESS FINANCING IN TANZANIA (CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES) BUSINESS FINANCING IN TANZANIA (CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES) 1 The Agenda Why long term financing? The current status and existing alternatives Challenges of raising long term capital in Tanzania Capital

More information

PPP Basics and Principles of a PPP Framework

PPP Basics and Principles of a PPP Framework Note 1 May 2012 PPP Basics and Principles of a PPP Framework This note is the first in a series of notes on developing a comprehensive policy, legal, and institution framework for public-private partnership

More information

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS (Republic of the Marshall Islands: Public Sector Program)

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS (Republic of the Marshall Islands: Public Sector Program) Public Sector Program (RRP RMI 43321-1) A. Summary ECONOMIC ANALYSIS (Republic of the Marshall Islands: Public Sector Program) 1. The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) gross domestic product (GDP)

More information

TANZANIA REAL ESTATES INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES

TANZANIA REAL ESTATES INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES TANZANIA REAL ESTATES INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES Nehemiah K.M. CEO - CBAT Africa Economy 2007 Macro-economic Indicators 2007 GDP 2007 Inflation Forecast 7.8% 8.0% 6.5% 9.6% 6.5% 6.7% 7.3% 8.4% 5.2% 5.7%

More information

Life Insurance in Pakistan, Key Trends and Opportunities to 2016

Life Insurance in Pakistan, Key Trends and Opportunities to 2016 Brochure More information from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/2225320/ Life Insurance in Pakistan, Key Trends and Opportunities to 2016 Description: Synopsis The report provides in depth market

More information

COUNTRY OPERATIONS PLAN

COUNTRY OPERATIONS PLAN COUNTRY OPERATIONS PLAN Executive Committee Summary Country: Libya Planning Year: 2005 Part I: Executive Committee Summary (a) Context and Beneficiary Population 2005 Country Operation Plan: Libya Political

More information

Further Developments of Hong Kong s Offshore RMB Market: Opportunities and Challenges

Further Developments of Hong Kong s Offshore RMB Market: Opportunities and Challenges Further Developments of Hong Kong s Offshore RMB Market: Opportunities and Challenges Zhang Ying, Senior Economist In recent years, as the internationalization of the RMB has been steadily carrying out,

More information

2014 ECONOMIC SURVEY REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

2014 ECONOMIC SURVEY REPORT HIGHLIGHTS 2014 ECONOMIC SURVEY REPORT HIGHLIGHTS Presented by CABINET SECRETARY MINISTRY OF DEVOLUTION AND PLANNING 29 TH APRIL 2014 1 ECONOMIC SURVEY 2014 Outline International scene Performance of economic sectors

More information

BENEFITS & COMPENSATION INTERNATIONAL TOTAL REMUNERATION AND PENSION INVESTMENT

BENEFITS & COMPENSATION INTERNATIONAL TOTAL REMUNERATION AND PENSION INVESTMENT BENEFITS & COMPENSATION INTERNATIONAL TOTAL REMUNERATION AND PENSION INVESTMENT Compensation and Benefits in Iraq Mirna Charaf El Dinne Mirna Charaf El Dinne is a consultant with Hay Group in the Middle

More information

Oman 20/20 vision 16 Deloitte A Middle East Point of View Fall 2013

Oman 20/20 vision 16 Deloitte A Middle East Point of View Fall 2013 20/20 vision 16 Deloitte A Middle East Point of View Fall 2013 Once a middle-income economy heavily dependent on depleting oil resources, the Sultanate of Oman has been actively pursuing a development

More information

CURRENT ACCOUNT: THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENTS AND TRENDS

CURRENT ACCOUNT: THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENTS AND TRENDS CURRENT ACCOUNT: THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENTS AND TRENDS Prepared by Armenuhi Burnazyan and Arevik Aleksanyan In our project we tried to analyze Current Account (CA) balance trends for Armenia, Georgia and

More information

CHAPTER 7: TOURISM BUSINESS IN BELIZE

CHAPTER 7: TOURISM BUSINESS IN BELIZE CHAPTER 7: TOURISM BUSINESS IN BELIZE 7.1 Introduction Direct government investments are commonly undertaken to lead the private sector in a certain direction. In some instances the government opts not

More information

Bilfinger Berger in Libya Four Decades of Experience. Deutsch-Libyscher Wirtschaftstag, February 19, 2010, Berlin

Bilfinger Berger in Libya Four Decades of Experience. Deutsch-Libyscher Wirtschaftstag, February 19, 2010, Berlin Bilfinger Berger in Libya Four Decades of Experience Deutsch-Libyscher Wirtschaftstag, February 19, 2010, Berlin Agenda 1. Bilfinger Berger Group 2. Bilfinger Berger Civil 3. Bilfinger Berger in Libya

More information

City Survey MONTREAL CANADA September 2014 Survey

City Survey MONTREAL CANADA September 2014 Survey Quality of Living City Survey MONTREAL CANADA September 2014 Survey Prepared and published by Mercer LLC. Reproduction and transmission in any form without prior permission is prohibited. 2015 The information

More information

Statement on G7 Topic Trade and Supply Chain Standards

Statement on G7 Topic Trade and Supply Chain Standards Statement on G7 Topic Trade and Supply Chain Standards Together, the G7 states produce 32 per cent of the global gross domestic product. A large number of companies located in the G7 countries are active

More information

Macroeconomic Influences on U.S. Agricultural Trade

Macroeconomic Influences on U.S. Agricultural Trade Macroeconomic Influences on U.S. Agricultural Trade In addition to the influence of shifting patterns of growth in foreign populations and per capita income, cyclical macroeconomic factors associated with

More information

GRADUATE PROGRAMME BARCELONA 2015/2016

GRADUATE PROGRAMME BARCELONA 2015/2016 GRADUATE PROGRAMME BARCELONA 2015/ GRADUATE PROGRAMME Barcelona 2015 / The University of Barcelona s Graduate Programme in Business has been developed for students who intend to pursue an international

More information

China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone. Consulate General of P.R. China in Toronto

China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone. Consulate General of P.R. China in Toronto Officially launched on 29 September 2013 The first of its kind on the Chinese mainland Three years to build to meet international standards What is FTZ? Why is it now? How is it? What kind of business

More information

As Powerful as Water

As Powerful as Water As Powerful as Water With enhanced power by accumulating strengths and taking advantageous terrain, water occupies a leading position when it runs from the peak. Strategy of Maintaining a Leading Position

More information

Busiest ports. Asian Tiger. Business friendly. Highest Trade/GDP Ratio. 4 th biggest financial centre

Busiest ports. Asian Tiger. Business friendly. Highest Trade/GDP Ratio. 4 th biggest financial centre Busiest ports Business friendly Asian Tiger Highest Trade/GDP Ratio 4 th biggest financial centre Singapore economy at a glance: Singapore is a global trading power. Its strategic geographical location,

More information

BENDEKOVIC, J. & SIMONIC, T. & NALETINA, D.

BENDEKOVIC, J. & SIMONIC, T. & NALETINA, D. IMPORTANCE OF MARKETING STRATEGY FOR ACHIEVEMENT OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF CROATIAN ROAD TRANSPORTERS BENDEKOVIC, J. & SIMONIC, T. & NALETINA, D. Abstract: Much attention was not given to marketing and

More information

Ministerie van Toerisme, Economische Zaken, Verkeer en Telecommunicatie Ministry of Tourism, Economic Affairs, Transport and Telecommunication

Ministerie van Toerisme, Economische Zaken, Verkeer en Telecommunicatie Ministry of Tourism, Economic Affairs, Transport and Telecommunication SME Policy Framework for St. Maarten May, 2014 Department of Economic Affairs, Transportation & P. 1 of 16 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. SME Developments in St. Maarten 2.1 Definition 2.2 Government

More information

The Public Participation Process in Cyprus

The Public Participation Process in Cyprus The Public Participation Process in Cyprus Priority Actions Programme Regional Activity Centre Split, February 2007 Table of Contents 1. Introduction... 1 2. Benefits of Public Participation in Decision

More information

QUÉBEC DECLARATION ON ECOTOURISM

QUÉBEC DECLARATION ON ECOTOURISM QUÉBEC DECLARATION ON ECOTOURISM In the framework of the UN International Year of Ecotourism, 2002, under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Tourism Organization

More information

R. JAYARAJ, M.A., Ph.D.,

R. JAYARAJ, M.A., Ph.D., Analyzing the international business environment and identifying key factors for international business operations R. JAYARAJ, M.A., Ph.D., 1-1 What is International Business All commercial transactions

More information

Northern Dimension Policy Framework Document (effective as 1 January 2007)

Northern Dimension Policy Framework Document (effective as 1 January 2007) Northern Dimension Policy Framework Document (effective as 1 January 2007) 1. Introduction 1. The Northern Dimension covers a broad geographic area from the European Arctic and Sub- Arctic areas to the

More information

A case of Timor-Leste: From independence to instability or prosperity?

A case of Timor-Leste: From independence to instability or prosperity? MPRA Munich Personal RePEc Archive A case of Timor-Leste: From independence to instability or prosperity? Di Wang and Dong Wang and Weiren Wang 28. December 2012 Online at https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/43751/

More information

I am pleased to represent the World Bank Group on this important and critical occasion.

I am pleased to represent the World Bank Group on this important and critical occasion. Burundi Development Partners Conference October 29-30 Geneva, Switzerland Session: Interventions by the Sponsors of the Conference Remarks by Philippe Dongier Country Director: Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda

More information

Overcoming network logistic complexities in emerging markets

Overcoming network logistic complexities in emerging markets Overcoming network logistic complexities in emerging markets When carrying out supply chain network modelling projects in emerging markets, there are a number of challenges to be considered and managed.

More information

Growth promotion through industrial strategies in Zambia

Growth promotion through industrial strategies in Zambia Growth promotion through industrial strategies in Zambia 1. Introduction and summary This brief provides a summary of the findings of a study investigating the current and potential opportunities for growth

More information

PRIVATE EQUITY IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD

PRIVATE EQUITY IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD PRIVATE EQUITY IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD Aditi Kapoor, Reed Smith LLP Type: Published: Last Updated: Keywords: Legal Guide June 2012 June 2012 Private Equity, Funds, Investors This document provides general

More information

CHAPTER 11: The Problem of Global Inequality

CHAPTER 11: The Problem of Global Inequality CHAPTER 11: The Problem of Global Inequality MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The claim that poverty is unethical is essentially a. Normative c. political b. theoretical d. scientific 2. Self-interest is an important

More information

Tumi Law Firm CV. In-house Public Notary for notarizing contracts and the constitutional documents for the Joint Venture companies.

Tumi Law Firm CV. In-house Public Notary for notarizing contracts and the constitutional documents for the Joint Venture companies. Tumi Law Firm CV Tumi Law Firm, hereinafter referred to as TLF or the Firm, has been established since 1990 and is now the largest law firm in Libya. The firm deals with foreign and multinational companies

More information

Economic Planning in China by Gregory C. Chow, Princeton University CEPS Working Paper No. 219 June 2011

Economic Planning in China by Gregory C. Chow, Princeton University CEPS Working Paper No. 219 June 2011 Economic Planning in China by Gregory C. Chow, Princeton University CEPS Working Paper No. 219 June 2011 Economic Planning in China Gregory C. Chow This paper provides an up-to-date study of economic planning

More information

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Overview of solid waste management in developing countries Solid waste management is becoming a major public health and environmental concern in urban areas of many developing

More information

Public Information Notice (PIN) No. 01/94 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE September 19, 2001 International Monetary Fund 700 19 th Street, NW Washington, D. C. 20431 USA IMF Concludes 2001 Article IV Consultation

More information

CUBAN FOREIGN INVESTMENT LEGISLATION

CUBAN FOREIGN INVESTMENT LEGISLATION CUBAN FOREIGN INVESTMENT LEGISLATION Decree Law 50 of 1982 ( Decree Law 50 ) was Cuba s first foreign investment act authorizing the formation of international joint-ventures with foreign investors. In

More information

BANK OF UGANDA. Remarks by Prof. Emmanuel Tumusiime-Mutebile, Governor, Bank of Uganda, To members of the Uganda Manufacturers Association

BANK OF UGANDA. Remarks by Prof. Emmanuel Tumusiime-Mutebile, Governor, Bank of Uganda, To members of the Uganda Manufacturers Association BANK OF UGANDA Remarks by Prof. Emmanuel Tumusiime-Mutebile, Governor, Bank of Uganda, To members of the Uganda Manufacturers Association At Lugogo Show ground Thursday July 02, 2015 Page 1 of 5 The Depreciation

More information

Foreign direct investment

Foreign direct investment OECD Cluster Focus Group Workshop Utrecht, May 8-9 2000 IRISH ICT CLUSTER Roy Green National University of Ireland, Galway roy.green@nuigalway.ie Summary: Ireland has one of the highest concentrations

More information

NGIS in Korea. National Geographic Information System in Korea

NGIS in Korea. National Geographic Information System in Korea NGIS in Korea National Geographic Information System in Korea 1. Background of the NGIS Master Plan / 4 1) Circumstances 2) Background 2. Major Achievement of the First NGIS Master Plan / 6 3. The and

More information

Ghana Fiscal Guide 2013/14 kpmg.com

Ghana Fiscal Guide 2013/14 kpmg.com TAX Ghana Fiscal Guide 2013/14 kpmg.com 1 Ghana Fiscal Guide 2013/2014 INTRODUCTION Ghana Fiscal Guide 2013/2014 Ghana Fiscal Guide 2013/2014 2 Income tax Business income Generally, residents are taxable

More information

ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH Online Open Access publishing platform for Management Research

ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH Online Open Access publishing platform for Management Research Online Open Access publishing platform for Management Research Copyright by the authors Licensee IPA Under Creative Commons license 3.0 Research Article ISSN 2229 3795 Indian life insurance industry changing

More information

PhD Quality Enhancement Project

PhD Quality Enhancement Project PhD Quality Enhancement Project Research Project Report Executive Summary (full text available only in Georgian) Ilia State University 2014 Ketevan Gurchiani - research group leader Group members: Tamar

More information

Thomas Malthus Economist in the late 1700s-early 1800s felt Europeans will not be able to eat if population increased

Thomas Malthus Economist in the late 1700s-early 1800s felt Europeans will not be able to eat if population increased European Population doubled (1850-1914) Thomas Malthus Economist in the late 1700s-early 1800s felt Europeans will not be able to eat if population increased After World War II, Europeans and other industrial

More information

Kiel. Policy Brief. The Importance of Investment Income and Transfers in the Current Account: A New Look on Imbalances. Rolf J.

Kiel. Policy Brief. The Importance of Investment Income and Transfers in the Current Account: A New Look on Imbalances. Rolf J. Kiel Policy Brief The Importance of Investment Income and Transfers in the Current Account: A New Look on Imbalances Rolf J. Langhammer No. 48 May 2012 Institut für Weltwirtschaft Kiel Kiel Institute for

More information

Pilot Free Trade Zone Shanghai

Pilot Free Trade Zone Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone Shanghai Shanghai s first Free Trade zone was launched in September 2013, targeted to make Shanghai an international trade and finance hub. It was established on the strategic decision

More information

Globalization and China: Impact on the Economy and People s Quality of Life

Globalization and China: Impact on the Economy and People s Quality of Life Globalization and China: Impact on the Economy and People s Quality of Life Tao (Tony) Gao, Ph. D. Zarb School of Business Hofstra University University 1 APEC Economic Leaders' Declaration Shanghai, China;

More information

4. Why Choose Dubai as Investment Location. 5. Reasons For Doing Business in Dubai. 6. Setting up a Business in Dubai

4. Why Choose Dubai as Investment Location. 5. Reasons For Doing Business in Dubai. 6. Setting up a Business in Dubai 1. Introduction to Fasttrack Business Center 2. About Dubai 3. Dubai Economy 4. Why Choose Dubai as Investment Location 5. Reasons For Doing Business in Dubai 6. Setting up a Business in Dubai 7. Visa

More information

The World Bank & the Ocean. A Healthy & Productive Ocean to Help Reduce Poverty

The World Bank & the Ocean. A Healthy & Productive Ocean to Help Reduce Poverty The World Bank & the Ocean A Healthy & Productive Ocean to Help Reduce Poverty Why oceans matter to the World Bank NUTRITION Seafood provides 16% of the world s animal protein 1 billion people in developing

More information

R. LITVINOV, PhD student in Law, Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs,

R. LITVINOV, PhD student in Law, Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs, R. LITVINOV, PhD student in Law, Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs, SOCIAL SECURITY SYSTEM IN THE USA: GOOD OR BAD EXPERIENCE FOR UKRAINE? Analyzing the process of implementation of the pension

More information

THE PORTER`S THEORY OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE PAUL LAURENŢIU FRĂSINEANU

THE PORTER`S THEORY OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE PAUL LAURENŢIU FRĂSINEANU THE PORTER`S THEORY OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE PAUL LAURENŢIU FRĂSINEANU Keywords: competitive advantage, diamond, determinants. Paul Laurenţiu FRĂSINEANU, PhD student University of Craiova Abstract: In

More information

CHINA S DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY: THE KNOWLEDGE AND INNOVATION PERSPECTIVE. Carl Dahlman Jean-Eric Aubert World Bank Institute 2000

CHINA S DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY: THE KNOWLEDGE AND INNOVATION PERSPECTIVE. Carl Dahlman Jean-Eric Aubert World Bank Institute 2000 I. MAIN ISSUES CHINA S DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY: THE KNOWLEDGE AND INNOVATION PERSPECTIVE Carl Dahlman Jean-Eric Aubert World Bank Institute 2000 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY China has made great progress since it opened

More information

THE ROLE OF BUSINESS SCHOOLS IN THE MENA REGION: A VITAL PARADIGM SHIFT

THE ROLE OF BUSINESS SCHOOLS IN THE MENA REGION: A VITAL PARADIGM SHIFT DR MAJID KAISSAR EL GHAIB ESCA ECOLE DE MANAGEMENT (CASABLANCA, MOROCCO) 5TH PRME MENA FORUM NOVEMBER 11-12 IN AMMAN, JORDAN THE ROLE OF BUSINESS SCHOOLS IN THE MENA REGION: A VITAL PARADIGM SHIFT DR MAJID

More information

UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA TANZANIA INVESTMENT CENTRE INVESTMENT CLIMATE AND OPPORTUNITIES IN TANZANIA

UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA TANZANIA INVESTMENT CENTRE INVESTMENT CLIMATE AND OPPORTUNITIES IN TANZANIA UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA TANZANIA INVESTMENT CENTRE INVESTMENT CLIMATE AND OPPORTUNITIES IN TANZANIA PRESENTATION TO THE CDM WORKSHOP DAR ES SALAAM INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE CENTRE 21 ST JANUARY,2008

More information

INVESTING IN SAINT LUCIA SPECIALIZED INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR SMART BUSINESS

INVESTING IN SAINT LUCIA SPECIALIZED INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR SMART BUSINESS INVESTING IN SAINT LUCIA SPECIALIZED INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR SMART BUSINESS PRESENTED BY: McHale Andrew CEO INVEST SAINT LUCIA SAINT LUCIA - Country Profile 2 Source: Central Statistics Office ECONOMIC

More information

POLISH INFORMATION AND FOREIGN INVESTMENT AGENCY R&D SECTOR IN POLAND

POLISH INFORMATION AND FOREIGN INVESTMENT AGENCY R&D SECTOR IN POLAND POLISH INFORMATION AND FOREIGN INVESTMENT AGENCY Foto: AA+W Fotolia.com R&D SECTOR IN POLAND The R&D sector in Poland characteristics and possibilities of support Characteristics of the Polish economy

More information

Strategy and Strategic Planning: Learning from Commercial Fisher Small Businesses Eric Perez MBusResearch, USC, BCom, GU, BBehSc, GU

Strategy and Strategic Planning: Learning from Commercial Fisher Small Businesses Eric Perez MBusResearch, USC, BCom, GU, BBehSc, GU Strategy and Strategic Planning: Learning from Commercial Fisher Small Businesses Eric Perez MBusResearch, USC, BCom, GU, BBehSc, GU Executive Officer Queensland Seafood Industry Association Good strategy

More information

The 2013 Amendment to the 1980 Arab League Investment Agreement

The 2013 Amendment to the 1980 Arab League Investment Agreement The 2013 Amendment to the 1980 Arab League Investment Agreement A step towards improving the region s attractiveness to investors NOTE: This draft brochure responds to a request of the League of Arab States

More information

Business Climate and Good Governance

Business Climate and Good Governance Business Climate and Good Governance Abstract Msc Besmira Manaj European Delegation, Albania This paper consists of three factors, namely: Good Governance, Business Climate and Corruption. How they affect

More information

Environmental criminal law enforcement in The Netherlands: institutional aspects and experiences

Environmental criminal law enforcement in The Netherlands: institutional aspects and experiences Environmental criminal law enforcement in The Netherlands: institutional aspects and experiences Gustaaf A. Biezeveld, co-ordinating environmental public prosecutor (The Hague) Mr. president, ladies and

More information

Setting up your Business in UAE Issues to consider

Setting up your Business in UAE Issues to consider The UAE has a vibrant free economy, a significant proportion of its revenues arising from exports of oil and gas. The establishment of free zones has been an important feature of a diversification policy

More information

CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF CAPE VERDE

CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF CAPE VERDE CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF CAPE VERDE SUMMARY FOR POLICY MAKERS panoramio.com 1 Ministry of Environment, Housing and Territory Planning B.P. 115 Praia Cape Verde http://www.governo.cv United

More information

Dialogues for creating a collective platform of business cooperation between Brazil and Nigeria.

Dialogues for creating a collective platform of business cooperation between Brazil and Nigeria. Photo by Alexandre Lopes 13-15 AUGUST, 2013 Everest Rio Hotel Ipanema. Brazil Dialogues for creating a collective platform of business cooperation between Brazil and Nigeria. Organized by Partners PRESENTATION

More information

INTERVENCIÓN DEL MINISTRO DE INDUSTRIA, TURISMO Y COMERCIO SESIÓN INAUGURAL DE LA CONFERENCIA SPAIN US BUSINESS SUSTAINABILITY CONFERENCE

INTERVENCIÓN DEL MINISTRO DE INDUSTRIA, TURISMO Y COMERCIO SESIÓN INAUGURAL DE LA CONFERENCIA SPAIN US BUSINESS SUSTAINABILITY CONFERENCE INTERVENCIÓN DEL MINISTRO DE INDUSTRIA, TURISMO Y COMERCIO SESIÓN INAUGURAL DE LA CONFERENCIA SPAIN US BUSINESS SUSTAINABILITY CONFERENCE Nueva York, 17 de Marzo Your Highness the Prince and princess of

More information

Cyprus Citizenship-By-Investment Programme

Cyprus Citizenship-By-Investment Programme Cyprus Citizenship-By-Investment Programme CYPRUS / YIANNOS TRISOKKAS July 2015 Cyprus Overview Main Concerns? How fast can my citizenship get approved? Is residency required prior to my citizenship approval?

More information

Liberia Leasing Investment Forum

Liberia Leasing Investment Forum Finance Leasing in Liberia: Unlocking Accelerated Market and Business Development GROWING COMPETITIVE AND EFFECTIVE LEASING MARKETS Collins David-Ikpe Past chairman, Equipment Leasing Association of Nigeria

More information

Finance, Mining & Sustainability. The Gamsberg Zinc Project South Africa

Finance, Mining & Sustainability. The Gamsberg Zinc Project South Africa Finance, Mining & Sustainability The Gamsberg Zinc Project South Africa Project Summary Discovered in 1971 Anglo American purchased 33% interest in 1974 and increased interest to 100% in 1998 Feasibility

More information

Ghana s Legal Framework for Secured Transactions

Ghana s Legal Framework for Secured Transactions Ghana s Legal Framework for Secured Transactions M A R E K D U B O V E C M D U B O V E C @ N A T L A W.C O M Organization of the Presentation 1) Current Substantive Legal Framework 2) Assessment against

More information

Economic Change in India

Economic Change in India Adam Cagliarini and Mark Baker* India has become an increasingly important part of the global economic landscape over the past decade. Its economy has become more open to international trade, its workforce

More information