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2 TABLE OF CONTENTS... 4 Preface Enterprise Development Overview Business Relationship Management Governance, Objectives and Communication Ecosystem Management Concept Development Project Portfolio Management Business Process Development Service Portfolio Management Enterprise Information Management Focus Areas Strategy and Governance Overview Business Relationship Management Governance, Objectives and Communication Strategy and Operating Model Organization and Competence Development Enterprise Architecture Security, Risk Management and Quality Assurance Financial Planning and Control Focus Areas Sourcing and Supplier Management Overview Ecosystem Management Concept Development Sourcing and Supplier Strategy Category and Technology Management Tendering and Sourcing Process Supplier Relationship Management Performance Management Focus Areas Project and Development Management Overview Project Portfolio Management Business Process Development Pre-Study and Business Case Planning and Commitment Design, Development and Validation Deployment and Training Business Benefits Realization PAGE 2

3 Focus Areas Service Management Overview Service Portfolio Management Enterprise Information Management Service Development and Design Service Integration and Quality Service Transition and Operational Readiness Service Operation and Support Self Service and Automation Focus Areas Tools & Standards IT Standard Deployment International IT Management Models and Standards Summary Summary PAGE 3

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5 1.1 Preface 1.1 Preface One often hears from business people that IT is very complex and hard to understand for anyone outside the IT world, and thus difficult to manage. (or IT Standard in short) has been developed to support decision makers both in business and IT to have a holistic picture of how IT should be managed in order to provide maximum value for business. Since the business needs should be the main driver in IT management, the emphasis in the IT Standard is on the cooperation between business and IT. differs from many other IT standards and frameworks because it is simple and written in everyday language. This makes it useful for everyone who wants to understand how IT functions should be governed in an organization. The basic framework illustration, called the grid, gives an overview of the five principle elements of IT management which are the following: Enterprise Development turns business development initiatives into operational actions in IT. Strategy and Governance defines how IT operates and creates value for the business. Sourcing and Supplier Management ensures that the company has the services that best fit its business purposes. Project and Development Management is essential for organizations to improve and create new solutions to succeed in competitive environments. Service Management offers business-aligned services that ensure efficient and uninterrupted business operations. The IT Standard collects the know-how of hundreds of individuals who possess extensive experience in the IT field. It has been developed with a community of IT professionals and business executives whose collaboration benefits the entire information society. It is an open source framework, available for everyone at and can be freely used to improve the company s IT. Training partners collaborating with the ICT Standard community can also offer certification courses on IT Standard for Business (Certified IT Standard Professional) and on IT Management (Certified IT Management Professional). For more information on further education and certification exams, please visit the community developing the IT Standard, ICT Standard Forum at The first edition of IT Standard was published in 2009 under the title of ICT Standard for Management. The development was done by an IT management advisory company called Sofigate. Since publication, the IT Standard raised a lot of interest and was taken into use in numerous Nordic companies. ICT Standard Forum was then established to develop the framework further and to ensure PAGE 5

6 1.1 Preface global visibility. Many renowned IT leaders took part in the development of the second version, which was published in This third version is an e-edition format published in 2015, which includes the results of the extensive development programs carried out with globally operating companies, such as, Fortum, KONE, Neste, Pöyry, Saab, Sanoma, and VR Group. In addition to the new models and best practices such as the new IT Operating model, business-focused Project Model and the five elements of Service Management, this version places special focus on the requirements of digitalization. Digitalization underlines the importance of professional IT management as it impacts each and every area of any business today. is one of the first widely used management frameworks that has been thoroughly renewed to fully support digitalization to its full extent. Even if the actual word digitalization is not found in the name any of the functions of the IT Standard grid, digitalization runs through the whole IT Standard and impacts every single function. We hope that helps organizations to better manage and develop their IT functions. In closing, we welcome all feedback, development ideas, and experiences on using the IT Standard. All new members are welcome to join the community at Juha Huovinen Chairman of the Board ICT Standard Forum Katri Riikonen Head of CIO Innovation Center Sofigate PAGE 6

7 1.1 Preface Acknowledgments The 2015 has been developed in cooperation with the Business and IT executives. The members of the IT Standard development community include: Editorial Team Sofigate: Juha Huovinen (Editor in Chief), Katri Riikonen (Managing Editor), Jari Andersson, Ari Nuutinen, Elena Van Leemput, Jarmo Jätyri, Lotta Deau, Erja Klemola, Jari Raappana, Jori Kanerva, Menno Huijben,Mikko Talsi, Tuomo Malinen Special thanks to the following individuals for development and editorial support: Caruna: Heikki Linnanen (CIO) City of Helsinki: Ilkka Kautto City of Vantaa: Antti Ylä-Jarkko (CIO), Hannu-Pekka Polttila Destia: Jaana Saarela (CIO) DNA: Janne Aalto (CIO), Tiina Moberg Fingrid: Kari Suominen (CIO), Marko Haikarainen Fortum: Pekka Eira (CIO), Eero Kukkola, Jukka Rautakallio, Matti Nurmi HKScan: Tero Lindholm (CIO), Christer Widegren KONE: Kati Hagros (CDO), Antti Koskelin (CIO), Galith Nabornik, Milla Saaristenperä Konecranes: Juha Pankakoski (CDO), Samuli Pahkala Lähitapiola: Mikko Vastela (CIO), Jari Koivumäki Neste: Tommi Tuovila (CIO), Esa Nykänen, Marko Mäki-Ullakko Pöyry: Vesa Erolainen (CIO), Andy Checkley Sanoma: Mikael Nurmi (CTO), Antti Kervinen, Turkka Ihalainen Sofigate: Sami Karkkila (CEO), Antti Glad, Aki Karhu, Ari Nuutinen, Eero Korhonen, Elina Pelto, Heikki Kylmäniemi, Jaana Nurmi, Jarkko Lommi, Jarmo Pyykkönen, Juha Kauhanen, Juho Pasanen, Jukkapekka Riikkilä, Jyrki Martti, Kaisa Ala-Jääski, Kare Piekkola, Kari Vääränen, Kimmo Koivisto, Lauri Kivistö, Liisa Korkiakoski, Miikka Salmi, Pasi Lahtonen, Pauli Lönnroth, Pavel Haimi, Peter Westerholm, Petri Havukainen, Pirjo Myyry, Sanna Suomela, Seppo Kainomaa, Tommi Selinheimo, Tuomo Koskenvaara, Valtteri Rantala Technopolis: Tommy Kankkonen (CIO) PAGE 7

8 1.1 Preface UPM: Turkka Keskinen (CIO), Jari Ilmonen, Mikko Wecksten, Timo Kaulio, Veikkaus: Reni Waegelin (CIO), Timo Paajanen VR (Finnish Railways): Jukka-Pekka Suonikko (CIO) PAGE 8

9 Introduction is an IT management framework that helps business and IT management to develop IT into a business enabling function in a company. Although IT Standard is written primarily for managers, such as CEOs, CFOs, CIOs, and other functions responsible for managing the IT operations, it is also good reading for anybody wanting to have an overview about IT management. IT Standard was created because there was a need for a holistic, but concise framework that can be used both by business and IT. Today, when digitalization is accentuating the importance of IT in every company, a simplified, straightforward and easily applicable IT management framework will help companies to quickly adapt to the changing business environment. The most established models such as ITIL, COBIT, PMBOK and PRINCE2 have been developed for specific purposes and operations, such as auditing, service management, and project management. While IT Standard recognizes the need for such models, when going deeper into the daily operations of IT, it proposes a less detailed model, written in everyday language, to be used for IT management and decision making. Figure 1.2 gives guidelines for IT Management decision making. PAGE 9

10 1.2 IT Standard aims to help IT management overcome the challenges faced by many organizations, especially in respect to the relationship between business and IT. Those challenges can include, for example the following: Corporate management has difficulties to grasp the overall IT landscape and understand how to manage IT so that it can bring more value to the company IT is not considered a strategic function within the organization and therefore, it is not developed with the same principles as other functions in the organization IT professionals often unnecessarily mystify IT and IT management, and make it too complex to be understood by non-it professionals Organizations often lack unified models for business and IT co-operation, decision making and responsibility sharing IT struggles to find a balance between fulfilling the business demands and supplying costefficient services to ensure the business continuity IT Standard provides the solution to these challenges by introducing models, best practices and tools for formalized, well-governed and effective IT management. For clarity reasons, IT Standard is written primarily from the perspective of the medium and largesized companies. However, the model also fits small and very large companies because the key management tasks remain substantially the same irrespective of the company size. At the end of each chapter in the e-edition, an example of the recommendations based on the company size. IT Standard can be used both by private and public sector organizations, although some specific IT management streams, such as Sourcing for example, may be impacted by some regulations and laws in the public sector and therefore, further application instructions may be necessary to complement the guidelines given by IT Standard. ICT Standard Forum Community That Develops the IT Standard ICT Standard Forum is a community of international IT and business professionals who develop the IT Standard for Business. The development work is done collectively by the community members and shared openly with all. Participating in the development projects and sharing the results with the whole community ensures that the developed practices and models are continuously improved and PAGE 10

11 1.2 updated. IT Standard is available at without registration. The international community, called ICT Standard Forum is found at providing additional materials and information such as articles, news and event information for the community members upon registration. PAGE 11

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13 2.1 Enterprise Development Overview 2.1 Overview Enterprise Development Definition and Objectives Digitalization is fundamentally changing every business and industry. Existing business boundaries are blurring as digital interconnections increase. Value creation and value destruction from digitalization are rapidly reshaping the whole ecosystem. The success of the business is increasingly dependent on how well IT succeeds in becoming a business enabler. Digitalization enables organizations to interact with their customers in a profound way. Digitalization changes how organizations relate to their customers, deliver products and services, do preventive maintenance and add totally new functions and features to their existing offerings. With IT, it is possible to boost the efficiency of operations, create cost savings, and build competitive advantage through new business models, products, and services enabled by technology. All this is done together with Business Development or the Chief Digital Officer (CDO) who is responsible for digitalizing customer and product processes with the support of Marketing and Business Intelligence. Creating a good customer experience and successfully utilizing the Internet of Things (IoT) requires analytics and a holistic use of Enterprise Information data. PAGE 13

14 2.1 Enterprise Development Overview Figure Enterprise Development responsibilities and ownership patterns. The illustration above helps clarify the responsibilities of IT and Business by showing their ownership patterns. The CDO looks after the best interest of the customer and develops the customer experience together with IT and Business. Business is responsible for leading the digitalization of the outer layers that interface with customers and other important interest groups. IT, on the other hand, is responsible for end user and business solutions that enable digitalization. PAGE 14

15 2.1 Enterprise Development Overview Enterprise Development is about planning objectives, prioritizing development initiatives, and developing concepts and processes for digitalization. Enterprise Development is related to Business Development, but is limited in scope to processes, solutions and data that enable business, while the latter has focus outside the organization s boundaries in markets and products that create business. Enterprise Development is the most important driver and control mechanism for the company s IT operations and their development. The objective of Enterprise Development is to implement company strategy and business goals by means of information and communication technology; to make decisions on projects, investments and development initiatives; and to ensure business continuity. In order for the cooperation between Business and IT to be functional and consistent, they must share a working governance model, a common language and communication methods. Key Objectives of Enterprise Development Implement the enterprise digitalization strategy and initiatives in cooperation between business and IT. Maintain a governance structure to gain commitment from Business and IT for common objectives. Develop business processes and concepts, decide on development priorities and investments, and ensure business continuity. Enterprise Development Roles and Competence Requirements Good collaboration between business and IT is the essence of effective Enterprise Development. Business executives have a key role in deciding on development initiatives. In accordance with their corporate governance roles, they are also key decision makers in Portfolio Management. For this reason, Project and Service Portfolio Management serve as the ultimate bodies for control and decision-making in Enterprise Development and IT operations. Business Engagement Managers (BEM), one for each major business or function, are responsible for business-it alignment from strategy to tactical management and for following up on operational actions. However, the collaboration has many more levels than a single contact person. A modern IT organization faces business in many ways and needs to carefully build a trusted partner status among various stakeholders (Figure How IT is seen by different stakeholders) PAGE 15

16 2.1 Enterprise Development Overview Figure How IT is seen by different stakeholders. IT must enable enterprise development. This requires close and active collaboration with all stakeholders. Key Partners in Enterprise Development and Digitalization 1. IT Steering Group 2. Project Portfolio Steering Group 3. Service Portfolio Steering Group 4. Chief Information Officer 5. Chief Digital Officer 6. Business Engagement Manager Enterprise Development connects the other four streams of the IT Standard with a focus on how IT creates value for the business, and how business can benefit from IT. All IT-related decision-making that has an impact on business must go through the governance bodies of Enterprise Development. The interface between Enterprise Development and the other streams of the IT Standard consist of the following functions: PAGE 16

17 2.1 Enterprise Development Overview Business Relationship Management Governance, Objectives and Communication Concept Development Ecosystem Management Project Portfolio Management Process Development Service Portfolio Management Enterprise Information Management PAGE 17

18 2.2 Enterprise Development Business Relationship Management 2.2 Business Relationship Management Group IT is organized as a matrix that spans the company s business units and seeks synergies across all functions. To maintain the specific focus of each business function, IT utilizes Business Relationship Management. The role of Business Relationship Management is twofold: 1. maintaining overall responsibility of IT to a specific business unit, and, 2. promoting IT, its services and development initiatives for the business. A person with this role is called a Business Engagement Manager, Business IT Director, or Head of Business IT. In their role, they are responsible for IT within their designated business unit(s) or group function. Business Engagement Managers report to the Group CIO, who has the overall responsibility for IT. Responsibilities of the Business Engagement Manager: Representing business in IT IT Management Team member with a business focus Responsible for coordinating business-specific development initiatives with a roadmap Representing business in governance bodies if there is no other business representative Representing IT for business Having an end-to-end responsibility for IT within a business IT representative in business management whenever decision topics relate to IT Execution of group IT strategy, initiatives and objectives within a business Digitalization sets high demands for mature IT operations, but also gives an opportunity for IT to create more value for the business. When a Business Relationship matures into a strategic PAGE 18

19 2.2 Enterprise Development Business Relationship Management partnership, the characteristics of the cooperation are Alignment of practices and procedures; IT and business meet at regular intervals Integration is seamless throughout the organization Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are set to measure the operational level of Business Processes rather than IT operations Innovation and collaboration are promoted together PAGE 19

20 2.3 Enterprise Development Governance, Objectives and Communication 2.3 Governance, Objectives and Communication Enterprise Development occurs on all levels of an organization, but control and decision-making falls upon the company s Enterprise Development steering group, called the IT Steering Group in short. The IT Steering Group must be a permanent function alongside the Project Portfolio Steering Group and the Service Portfolio Steering Group. The third steering body reporting to the IT Steering Group is the Change Advisory Board (CAB), which takes care of change management related to existing services. In addition, there should be project and program-specific steering groups. All major business operations must be represented in the IT Steering Group. The executive board member responsible for IT acts as the chairperson of the IT Steering Group. The agenda is prepared by the CIO. The IT Steering Group sets targets and objectives for IT and leads the communication between business and IT. The IT Steering Group is responsible for all initiatives pertaining to Enterprise Development. It also prepares and introduces proposals to the decision-making bodies specified in the company s corporate governance model. In practical matters, however, the IT Steering Group is the sole decisionmaking authority. Large and very large companies typically have steering groups that facilitate and support the running of IT operations. The chairperson of the Sourcing Steering Group is the Sourcing Director (or, in his/her absence, the CFO), and the agenda is set by the director responsible for IT sourcing. The company s Head of Development acts as the chairperson of the Project Portfolio Steering Group, and the agenda is introduced by the Head of Development Management Office (DMO) or Project Management Office (PMO). The chairperson of the Service Portfolio Steering Group is the COO, and the agenda is set by the Head of Services. The CIO supervises the IT Management Team, which is responsible for decision-making within the IT organization. PAGE 20

21 2.3 Enterprise Development Governance, Objectives and Communication Figure IT Governance Model. IT Steering Group The IT Steering Group is the highest IT decision-making body. It is responsible for approvals of strategy, architecture, annual action plans and other guiding principles. It also approves changes to the IT operating model and organizational structure. The IT Steering Group is chaired by a person who is responsible for IT in the executive board, and the IT Steering Group should have representatives from all major business units and/or functions. The IT Steering Group is supported by the IT Management Team that is responsible for preparing the topics approved by the IT Steering Group. The IT Management Team comprises the heads of the IT function and is chaired by the CIO. Project Portfolio Steering Group The Project Portfolio Steering Group commissions projects and directs them throughout their PAGE 21

22 2.3 Enterprise Development Governance, Objectives and Communication lifecycle, including Business Benefits Realization. It reviews the business alignment of the portfolio, decides the prioritization of initiatives, and resolves conflicts of interest in resource allocation. It follows up on the status of projects and approves or rejects project continuation at portfolio gate reviews. The Project Portfolio Steering Group is supported by a DMO/PMO that maintains an up-todate project portfolio dashboard with visibility on the scope, schedule and cost status of each project. Service Portfolio Steering Group The Service Portfolio Steering Group governs service development and the service lifecycle model. It reviews, approves or rejects initiatives for the development of new services or significant updates to existing services. The Steering Group ensures that 1. services have a good business fit and are aligned with IT strategy 2. performance of services is at the target level 3. new services are developed efficiently and 4. resources and costs are optimized. The Chairperson of Service Portfolio Steering should be the COO or another executive-level business representative. Change Advisory Board (CAB) The Change Advisory Board (CAB) is responsible for approving or rejecting requested changes. It is responsible for ensuring that operational quality is not compromised by changes that are loosely planned, poorly implemented or inadequately tested. The CAB is responsible for governing small and medium-sized changes to existing services, while the Development Management Office is responsible for large-scale changes delivered as releases and projects. The Change Advisory Board is chaired by a Change Manager and the members of the board are Key Users (representing business) and Service Owners. Project and Vendor Steering Groups PAGE 22

23 2.3 Enterprise Development Governance, Objectives and Communication The Project Steering Group is responsible for the follow-up and guidance of a single project. It is authorized to make project-related decisions according to the criteria defined in the Business Case (including, for example, scope, schedule and budget). Vendor Steering Groups represent the strategic level of vendor management and should be focused on the development of services to better fit business objectives and needs. Figure An IT management system communicates the essence of IT to Business Management. PAGE 23

24 2.4 Enterprise Development Ecosystem Management 2.4 Ecosystem Management Ecosystems are networks developed around a certain product or service, and are formed by companies that work together for a greater value to the business. IT should identify the naturally occurring ecosystems that most benefit the Business. Naturally occurring ecosystems are made up of vendors whose roles complement each other and in which cooperation is efficient and innovative. When making sourcing decisions, IT should consider ecosystems and their limitations. By choosing to work with vendors who operate in the same ecosystem, IT ensures a natural and effective cooperation. A vendor network built in this way is more efficient than a customer-specific network of vendors. In addition, it is essential that IT is aware of the life cycle of an ecosystem. The role of a declining ecosystem should be reduced and that of a developing one increased. Also, the role of the parties operating in the ecosystem should be identified. The same vendor can act as the main partner in one ecosystem and have a minor role in another. When sourcing, the strengths of the ecosystem and the roles of the service providers in it need to be evaluated, and not just the service providers as single players. PAGE 24

25 2.5 Enterprise Development Concept Development 2.5 Concept Development Concept Development studies and defines, in an easily understood format, new operational models and the technical solutions that support them. Concept Development may be triggered by new business needs, or by new solutions or innovations enabled by IT. Concepts define the best fit-forpurpose way to achieve the target(s). Characteristically, concepts are not easy to define and their impacts and interdependencies can be diverse. Concept Development always takes into consideration the costs and organizational impact of different solutions. Neglected or inadequate Concept Development often results in partial or insufficient optimization of sourcing, projects and services. In a globally digitalized environment, the development of businesses, products, and services must accelerate continuously. IT solutions can either become a bottleneck or enable change. Concept Development is based on two different approaches with related outcomes and objectives: 1. How can we streamline our business operations using common harmonized services across different business areas/functions? How can we improve work efficiency and the throughput time of our processes? 2. Can we innovate new business models, products and services that create new revenue? In most cases, the key to Concept Development is the digitalization of processes and services. Business and IT need to have a joint master plan covering gap analysis, strategic initiatives and allocated resources for digitalization over the entire strategic planning timeframe of the company. PAGE 25

26 2.6 Enterprise Development Project Portfolio Management 2.6 Project Portfolio Management Every company has to collect and prioritize their development initiatives. The decision to implement a development initiative as a project is made by Project Portfolio Management. The purpose of the portfolio is to maintain the big picture to avoid sub-optimization, double or overlapping development efforts and resourcing conflicts. The four cornerstones of Project Portfolio Management are 1. Common classification supporting prioritization and the balancing of risks. Classification helps direct resources to development initiatives of strategic importance. 2. A Common project phasing model makes for unified project steering and promotes understanding of the whole project portfolio. 3. Common reporting practices make it easy to follow all developments on the project, program and portfolio levels. 4. Common evaluation practices enable project-independent value appraisals. Typically, the project portfolio is managed by the PMO/DMO that is responsible for keeping the project portfolio up-to-date, managing project dependencies, and evaluating new project proposals. The development initiatives in the project portfolio should be evaluated and classified using common criteria and prioritization. The PMO/DMO supports the Project or Development Portfolio Steering Group in deciding which projects are started, stopped or postponed and where the focus in the project portfolio lies. An essential part of managing the project portfolio and Enterprise Development is assessing how appropriate the project portfolio is and making decisions on it regularly. Every project in the portfolio has to have a valid business justification, and all project dependencies must be identified. The projects in the portfolio often have different Project Managers, so it is very important to identify all project dependencies and communicate changes clearly. PAGE 26

27 2.6 Enterprise Development Project Portfolio Management Figure 2.6 Changes impact processes and systems to different degrees. 1. Maintaining the Current State. If there is no real process or system development, the current state is maintained. Small changes might take place in both processes and systems. 2. Replacing Existing Technology. Changing a version of an application due to technical reasons is an example. Investing in hardware systems also belongs to this same category, unless it involves process changes. 3. Process Development Project. Business processes can be developed independently without system changes. However, in most cases, process changes require changes to systems as well. Development projects that consist of both process and system changes belong to category Business Development Project. Implementation projects for IT systems that support the company s core processes are Business Development Projects. For example, ERP systems and PAGE 27

28 2.6 Enterprise Development Project Portfolio Management CRM (customer relationship management) projects are included in this category. Project Portfolio Management can also be organized as a corporate-level function. In this situation, IT complies with the general company-wide principles of portfolio management. PAGE 28

29 2.7 Enterprise Development Business Process Development 2.7 Business Process Development The company operates via its processes. The quality of business derives from those processes. Efficient processes use as few resources (time, money, raw materials and labor) as possible and are predictable. Information systems are becoming ever more central in business process management, making it vital to keep the development of processes and information systems close to each other. Processes are typically developed either inside-out or outside-in. The inside-out way focuses on developing individual processes with single steps. The goal is to remove unnecessary internal work and waste of resources. Functional organizations focus on internal process efficiency. In a rapidly changing business environment, process development happens from the outside in. The goal is to analyze the needs of the market and see how the company can meet the needs via its processes. This typically requires some sort of matrix or process organization. PAGE 29

30 2.7 Enterprise Development Business Process Development FUNCTIONAL MATRIX PROCESS DRIVEN BUSINESS Functions have all power and responsibility. Requires a lot of coordination and resolving responsibility conflicts. Business relies on networked decisionmaking. Processes are transparent and fully accountable. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT Process development within each function. Business benefits can be realized faster with efficient internal processes. Process development across business functions. Focus on developing core processes. Customer satisfaction and quality drive development. Process development via networking. Innovative, adaptable operation models are combined from own, customers and partners processes. IT SYSTEMS Off-the-shelf solutions are in use for each function. Business needs driven application platforms. Network decisionmaking is enabled by service based end-toend service management systems. INFORMATION Funtion specific data standards. Common data standards among processes. Common master data. INTEGRA TIONCHALLENGES Integration of systems and processes throughout the company is complicated. Challenging to create data standards when integrating systems. Difficult to integrate services owned by several parties. Figure 2.7 Operational models, information systems and the integration of systems. PAGE 30

31 2.7 Enterprise Development Business Process Development Process development is a long-term effort and requires a strong process culture. This process culture is supported by the company s common process development principles. It is necessary to set goals and nominate owners for the main processes. The process owner is responsible for process evaluation and continuous improvement. PAGE 31

32 2.8 Enterprise Development Service Portfolio Management 2.8 Service Portfolio Management From the business point of view, it is essential that IT services are reliable and fit for their business purpose. Business-driven development initiatives require development of existing and new services. All these needs must be collected, evaluated and prioritized carefully so that limited resources and investments can be allocated optimally. Service Portfolio Management ensures that: 1. Business is provided with the right set of services 2. Services are fit for the business purpose and aligned with IT strategy 3. Performance of the services is at the right level 4. Service development is organized effectively 5. Resources and costs are optimized throughout the life cycle Service portfolio management should be deployed so that portfolio steering, major decisions on new services, and significant changes to existing services are carried out on the enterprise level by the Service Portfolio Steering Group. However, it is also useful to have a fast track for small changes that need to be done rapidly. PAGE 32

33 2.9 Enterprise Development Enterprise Information Management 2.9 Enterprise Information Management Enterprise Information Management describes how information is governed, classified and structured throughout the enterprise, and defines the structure for the Core Data of the enterprise. Core Data is all data that is considered crucial for managing cross-functional processes. Core Data links to the Core Architecture. The majority of the company s data, such as Master Data, Transaction Data, Reference Data, etc., can be classified as Core Data. Enterprise Information Management is the continuous development of people, processes, technology and operative work to manage information properly and to develop the value of that information. Therefore, it has a strong link to Enterprise Architecture. Business and IT together should ensure the following aspects concerning Enterprise Information: Ownership and responsibilities Structure and attributes of the data Access rights and data protection Maintenance of the quality of data Utilization of external information Respect for and protection of intellectual property rights While some parts of Enterprise Information are common to all functions of the company, others are strictly local. PAGE 33

34 2.9 Enterprise Development Enterprise Information Management Figure 2.9 Enterprise Information. Figure 2.9 presents the big picture of Enterprise Information. A company accumulates different types of data through many sources, e.g. Sales & Marketing, Production and Engineering. The Core Data consists of crucial information used in multiple company processes and information systems. It helps in integrating businesses as part of the Core Architecture. The second layer is data in enterprise applications such as ERP, CRM and PLM, which extend the Core Data to fulfill the needs of specific PAGE 34

35 2.9 Enterprise Development Enterprise Information Management business functions. The outer rim of the figure depicts data that is not likely to be part of Enterprise Information but is crucial in excelling in business. Such data can be aggregated and analyzed to become useful information for the company and can be used to increase revenue, cut costs, etc. This type of data comes in larger volumes and is also referred to as Big Data. The Internet of Things (IoT) will dramatically increase the amount of Big Data as it generates a large amount of operational data. Therefore, digitalization increases the importance of Data Management and adds the challenge for the company to store and analyze data in different volumes. The better organized the company s enterprise information, the more value can be gained from data. Enterprise Information Management is a harmonized and unified way of managing all data available for the organization to use. The goal is to create a procedure to keep information up-to-date and valuable for the business. Business must be able to trust its data warehouses and systems. Enterprise Architecture should be responsible for defining the Enterprise Information, while Services are responsible for maintaining and improving data together with business. The ownership of data should always be with business. PAGE 35

36 2.10 Enterprise Development Focus Areas 2.10 Focus Areas The focus areas of Enterprise Development are linked to the size and maturity level of the company. The focus areas for small companies are often related to getting basic IT services up and running and maintaining them. As the company grows, it becomes more important to manage Enterprise Development and to have a formalized way of executing tasks and measuring performance. Companies operating in IT-intensive sectors should adopt operating models that are more advanced than the size of the company would normally dictate. In IT-intensive companies such as financial institutions, IT is an essential part of core processes. Typical Focus Areas in Companies of Different Sizes Small Companies Net sales 10M, operating locally Digitalization opens new doors for each size of organization. In some cases, small companies are the quickest to react to business changes. Smaller organizations should focus on agility and quick time-tomarket with new solutions. Finding reliable IT service providers with a service offering that ensures business continuity is crucial for small companies. Business continuity involves both the availability of information processed and stored in the company, and the availability of IT services. It is challenging for small companies to perform this role effectively on their own. This is why finding a good IT service partner corresponding to the size of the company is recommended. Properly ensuring business continuity involves monitoring service delivery performance and managing risks actively (risk awareness, deciding on acceptable risk levels and risk mitigation). Small companies should strive for formalized decision-making in all projects and investments. This is important because even though decision-making is fairly straightforward and fast in a small company, decisions must match business realities (relevance of investment, return on investment, resource planning etc.). PAGE 36

37 2.10 Enterprise Development Focus Areas Medium-Sized Companies Net sales 100 M, decentralized operations Generally, a medium-sized company pursues growth, which is why these companies run several simultaneous projects involving different business areas. In order to obtain and maintain a realistic and up-to-date overview of the company s entire IT project landscape, projects need to be divided by Business Development and Digitalization and assigned to the agreed portfolios. Focused Project Portfolio Management greatly increases the operational efficiency of medium-sized companies. A medium-sized company should also monitor the fulfilment of the agreed service levels and make detailed demands regarding these to its IT service providers, whether external or internal. In particular, it is essential to ensure that the services and solutions are scalable as the company grows. When a company is on a growth path, it is time to start collecting, documenting and implementing IT management best practices. These practices form a solid foundation and baseline for the company s subsequent process development and will considerably accelerate it. By doing so, IT also enhances its own role as a significant profit enabler. Large Companies Net sales M, operating internationally A large enterprise provides its IT with clear objectives: IT must be one of the company s strategic functions and fully integrated with Business as a unified Business Development function. This is reflected in decision-making and commitment, as all development is attached to specific business areas and is thus owned by them. IT, in turn, undertakes project and development implementation in a responsible and measurable manner using a standardized Project Management Model. Large companies face the challenge of managing the increasing complexity of both business and IT operations. Consequently, within Business Development and Digitalization, the company must make a number of important and conscious decisions that affect the company s strategy and ways of working. These decisions include the company s general organization, harmonization of services, standardization of terminology, and cooperation with other players in the industry. PAGE 37

38 2.10 Enterprise Development Focus Areas Diversity can be managed only when Business Development and Digitalization are a permanent part of the company s structure and are operated in a fully formalized, organized and measured manner. Very Large Companies Net sales M, operating globally The greatest challenge facing IT management in very large companies is how to achieve and maintain efficiency. In order to survive and succeed in its respective size category, a very large company must continuously renew itself also in terms of IT. Renewal and efficiency are attainable goals as long as the company makes sure the following things are taken care of: The demands placed on IT support the company identity. Concept and process development is a monitored and accountable operation, performed under Business Development and Digitalization. Objectives are clear and concise. Using Enterprise Information management, companies are able to follow the business environment and justify transformation efforts. In very large companies, the need to manage the ecosystems that offer services and solutions is emphasized. The roles and responsibilities of the company and the ecosystems complement each other and cooperation is efficient and innovative. PAGE 38

39 2.10 Enterprise Development Focus Areas Figuer 2.10 The Enterprise Development focus changes with the size and complexity of the company. Enterprise Development is the principal and most important control mechanism for a company s IT operations. Enterprise Development integrates the other four streams and steers their objectives, ways of working and operational targets. Smooth business cooperation ensures that the implementation of the company s strategy and the strategic intent of business areas are supported by IT. PAGE 39

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41 3.1 Strategy and Governance Overview 3.1 Overview Strategy and Governance Significance and Objectives Strategy and Governance defines the guidelines for managing IT. Its significance increases in global companies and when the company faces a business transformation or aggressively pursues growth and development. Optimally, IT is a core function for implementing changes in a controlled manner. Whereas Enterprise Development selects development initiatives, Strategy and Governance defines how to execute them and IT Operations implements initiatives into solutions and services. IT Operations include Sourcing, Development and Services. Figure 3.1 IT Governance flow. Strategy and Governance sets several governing frames to guide the whole IT function in operations. The IT Strategy, IT Governance and IT Operating Model are the highest-level frames. IT Strategy defines the vision, mission and targets for the coming three to five years. It also incorporates an execution plan between as-is and to-be states. PAGE 41

42 3.1 Strategy and Governance Overview IT Governance defines how decisions are made and is therefore closely linked to Enterprise Development. The IT Operating Model defines how IT creates value for the business how development initiatives are transformed into reliable solutions and services that meet business needs. Strategy and Governance defines the organizational structure i.e. what is centralized, decentralized or sourced. It determines the Enterprise Architecture, which sets guidelines for solutions and their interoperability. It also provides policies and procedures for IT Security, Quality Assurance and Risk Management. Budgeting and cost control is one of the governing frames with the most impact. Key Objectives of Strategy and Governance Ensure that IT strategy, the operating model, and competence support the achievement of corporate objectives. Define and maintain mutually agreed principles, procedures and architecture. Make sure IT costs are well-managed and allocated appropriately, fairly, and transparently. Ensure that risks are under control, and that risk management is considered in all streams of the IT Standard. Strategy and Governance Roles and Competence Requirements The Chief Information Officer (CIO) is responsible for organizing IT and developing how IT creates value for the business. As digitalization and agile development gain ground, it is increasingly important for CIOs to create a culture of business-minded innovation and continuous improvement. The CIO ensures that IT management is performed in line with company strategy and good governance. The CIO can be accompanied by a Chief Digital Officer (CDO), who drives the company s digital development in customer products and processes. The role is sometimes given to the Chief Technology Officer (CTO). In addition to the CIO, the key roles in Strategy and Governance are those of Development Manager, Enterprise Architect, Information Security Manager and IT Controller. The roles are typically organized as a CIO Office. The Development Manager is responsible for developing the IT Operating Model and the related best practices and competence. As these define how IT creates value for the business, the Development Manager is one of the most important roles in the IT organization. Typically, the Development Manager is the head of the CIO Office. PAGE 42

43 3.1 Strategy and Governance Overview The Enterprise Architect defines the technology, applications and information (which together become solutions) required to execute business architecture and processes. The Enterprise Architect, together with business, defines the current and target state of architecture, and then steers the development of business capabilities towards the business strategy. The Quality Manager is responsible for the quality of IT solutions. In a digitalized world, user experience is one of the most important measures of solution quality, so each business solution must be easy to use, provide correct information and function properly. The Quality Manager is responsible for this throughout IT operations. The Information Security Manager ensures that solutions and information are available only for intended users and user groups. The Information Security Manager defines practices and policies for information security and oversees that these instructions are followed. The IT Controller is responsible for IT budgeting, financial planning and monitoring in cooperation with the company s financial and IT management. The IT Controller also takes care of internal invoicing and pricing, ensuring IT costs are allocated accurately. Strategy and Governance Functions Strategy and Governance, along with Enterprise Development, steers all IT activities. The stream of Strategy and Governance consists of the following functions: Business Relationship Management Governance, Objectives and Communication Strategy and Operation Model Organization and Competence Development Enterprise Architecture Security, Risk Management and Quality Assurance Financial Planning and Control PAGE 43

44 3.2 Strategy and Governance Business Relationship Management 3.2 Business Relationship Management The business-it relationship is bidirectional: IT adopts business needs and objectives to create and improve solutions and services, and business makes the best use of IT solutions and services. Many organizations fall short in the business-it relationship by excluding an IT representative from business steering, or by not having business-minded Business Engagement Managers as counterparts for the business management. Business Engagement Managers are in a key role in managing diversity and bringing business insights into Strategy and Governance. The more they contribute to strategy development, the more concrete and valuable the strategy, architecture and other guiding frames become. However, as there are conflicting interests between businesses as well as conflicts between short-term business objectives and long-term IT objectives, it is essential that the group CIO leads both Business Relationship Management and Strategy and Governance. PAGE 44

45 3.3 Strategy and Governance Governance, Objectives and Communication 3.3 Governance, Objectives and Communication IT should be managed and evaluated the same way as any business unit: IT and Enterprise Development need to have clear, measurable targets that are followed up. Targets are set separately for the entire IT function, each sub-function and organizational unit, as well as for each individual. Targets are based on IT strategy and business objectives. They are prepared by the IT Management Team and approved by the IT Steering Group. Measuring increases the transparency of operations and provides an incentive to reach targets. IT performance is measured in terms of customer satisfaction, cost-efficiency, and the realization of development targets. Customer satisfaction is usually measured through separate end user and decision-maker surveys. Decision-makers, more than end users, are expected to provide feedback on IT s capability to provide value to the business. IT needs to communicate clearly and frequently to interest groups about the achievements and upcoming activities in IT. Creating the Communication Plan and executing the tasks in it falls under the role of the CIO Office. The Communication Plan defines the objectives, target audience, means, schedules, and responsibilities of communication. A Communication Plan ensures that the messages are targeted and timed correctly, and at the same time the needs of different interest groups are taken into account. PAGE 45

46 3.4 Strategy and Governance Strategy and Operating Model 3.4 Strategy and Operating Model IT Strategy is a consistent set of plans and guidelines on how IT supports business strategy and objectives. As IT includes many relatively long-term elements such as architecture and core applications, the IT Strategy typically looks ahead three to five years in order to give sufficient perspective on changes. The IT Strategy is complemented by an Annual Execution Plan that gives a short-term perspective on strategy and business objectives. The IT Operating Model defines how IT creates value for the business all the way from decision-making to user experience. It illustrates how the decision-making in Enterprise Development drives solution and service development, and results in efficient services with a superb user experience. The key is to design business-focused value streams that operate according to the best practices and controls set by Strategy and Governance. Centralized service production promotes efficiency and cost savings. The dynamics of the IT Operating Model are 1. Unified practices, skillsets and procedures. Creating operating models that facilitate and promote the use of best practices will reduce risks and increase transparency. It will also lead to synergies across business units or domains while enabling measurability. (Control) 2. Business-focused solutions. Solutions need to be developed in entities that correspond to business structure. By selecting the correct partners and solutions, IT becomes agile and fast in its ability to meet expectations and change requests from the business. (Flexibility) 3. Centralized service production. IT-related assets and services should be purchased in large volumes to serve shared needs between business domains. However, striving for economies of scale must not override meeting business domain needs. (Efficiency) PAGE 46

47 3.4 Strategy and Governance Strategy and Operating Model Figure 3.4 The IT Operating Model increases digitalization and reduces operating costs. The Operating Model splits value creation into three management areas. Strategy and Sourcing are led by the CIO Office. Development is carried out under the control of the Development Management Office (DMO). The Service Management Office then delivers user experiences by managing the services. In shared services and consolidated operations, the emphasis is on cost-efficiency, while in solution development, the focus is on maintaining a fit to the business purpose. PAGE 47

48 3.5 Strategy and Governance Organization and Competence Development 3.5 Organization and Competence Development The targets of Organization and Competence Development can be divided in two: Forming an organization that executes the IT operating model efficiently Developing capabilities and competence in line with IT strategy and targets There are many ways to organize the IT function, depending on the company s structure, strategy, management style and business area. IT can be centralized, decentralized, or mixed. It may also be appropriate to outsource large parts of IT operations. In all alternatives, IT is organized into four functions (see Figure 3.5 The Elements of the IT Organization). The IT Steering Group, CIO, CIO Office and Portfolio Steering form the Governance function. The Business IT function is operated by the Business Engagement Managers and contributes to Enterprise Development. The Development function covers project and change-based solution development, while the Services function manages and continuously improves operational IT. In a modern and lean IT organization, Business IT, Development and Services functions have roughly the same number of people, as the majority of services and solutions are sourced. PAGE 48

49 3.5 Strategy and Governance Organization and Competence Development Figure 3.5 The Elements of the IT Organization. IT Competence Development must be based on developing and reinforcing the competence that are crucial to the implementation of the IT Strategy through the chosen Operating Model. As change accelerates, competence virtualization becomes one of the keys to success. Competence virtualization means scaling the organization based on the current actual need using standardized procedures, so that fast training and on-boarding is possible, and on demand resources can be used to address competence gaps or other shortcomings. PAGE 49

50 3.6 Strategy and Governance Enterprise Architecture 3.6 Enterprise Architecture Enterprise Architecture helps business management achieve its strategic goals. It supports the company in creating competitive advantage, reduces risks and enhances cost-efficiency and scalability. Mergers and acquisitions, outsourcing and major organizational changes all set additional demands on the flexibility of Enterprise Architecture. The purpose of Enterprise Architecture Management is to: Provide a long-term view and facilitate the development of the company s processes, systems and technologies as well as the execution of the business strategy Create, manage and develop a holistic, interconnected model of the enterprise that encompasses processes, information, applications and technology Ensure consistency and enable integration Create, develop and manage a holistic, high-level roadmap of engagements and projects that realize required solutions and to provide a clear path from current state to target state Enable lifecycle management of the solution portfolio Digitalization has a major impact on Enterprise Architecture, as businesses flow over enterprise boundaries and Business Infrastructures expand to cover customers and ecosystems as well. A traditional monolithic architecture becomes complicated to manage and limits creativity inside company boundaries. The presents an approach that gives more room for planning the digitalization by integrating business to different ecosystems. The modularity of this approach allows a more agile development of architecture for different business areas. PAGE 50

51 3.6 Strategy and Governance Enterprise Architecture Figure 3.6 The elements of Enterprise Architecture. The figure above presents the dynamics of an Enterprise Architecture. The Core Architecture consists of Information, Application and Technology Architectures that are common to all businesses and are essential in integrating Domain Architectures. A set of tightly interconnected business solutions each forms a separate Domain Architecture entity. Each entity has a set of common elements and guidelines called the Core Architecture. Typically, companies have four to six Domain Architecture entities, and this approach allows flexibility to design the architecture within these separately. The major focus of this approach is on the vision, future state and business development of the company, which fall under the Business Architecture layer. The Business Architecture integrates the various ecosystems, which reach as far as suppliers, customers and even competitors. PAGE 51

52 3.6 Strategy and Governance Enterprise Architecture Enterprise Architecture must be steered with a clear governance process. Typically, governance is the main responsibility of the CIO Office, but the organization may also have a dedicated Enterprise Architecture Office (EAO). The general Enterprise Architecture policies and best practices, derived from the Operating Model, are the foundation on which the entire Enterprise Architecture is built. PAGE 52

53 3.7 Strategy and Governance Security, Risk Management and Quality Assurance 3.7 Security, Risk Management and Quality Assurance Securing information is a crucial task for IT and is, to some extent, also regulated by law. Information security, in this context, means protecting information, information systems and telecommunications from various threats and thus be ready to react promptly. However, information security is not only about technology, but also the working culture of company personnel. This presents a challenge to companies as information may be scattered in different systems. Within an ecosystem, information is generated by various vendors and utilized commonly by users and assets in critical business processes. Information may also be shared across ecosystems. To ensure business continuity and defend data against cyber threats in today s changing world, IT must be able to embed security into the operating model; taking into account IT architecture and implementing it as a part of roles and responsibilities in daily operations. This is sometimes referred as digisecurity. IT-related risk management must also be an integrated part of the company s overall management systems. Risk management means systematically recognizing and preparing for factors that cause uncertainty and threats to company objectives and operations. Since risks can never be entirely eliminated, management must define the company s acceptable risk level. Company management defines risk management policies, applicable methods, responsibilities and tasks for different parties as well as practices for monitoring and reporting. Business targets and uncertainty factors change over time, so risk management must also be treated as a continuous process. Quality assurance keeps IT operations in line with standards and best practices, and ensures that the quality requirements of IT are met. IT processes must be described and they must aim to produce the best user experience. Quality assurance needs to be integrated into all IT processes and services. Quality assurance is not only about the systematic measurement of operations, processes, and services, but also their continuous development and overall business performance assurance. Additionally, it means maintaining constant focus on the business value created by IT. PAGE 53

54 3.8 Strategy and Governance Financial Planning and Control 3.8 Financial Planning and Control Financial Planning and Control means proactive financial steering, such as budgeting and forecasting, that helps predict and prepare for the future investments and costs required by IT. It also supports steering and planning of IT and business operations as well as related decision-making. Financial Planning and Control ensures appropriate allocation of financial resources, monitors the profitability of investments and keeps track of the total costs of IT. Profitability and added value evaluation (value realization assessment) for projects, purchases and services is also an important part of this function. PAGE 54

55 3.9 Strategy and Governance Focus Areas 3.9 Focus Areas Strategy and Governance is becoming increasingly important in IT management. In recent years, the demands on IT have evolved from a mere support function into a full business enabler with operating models and processes. To meet these growing demands, it is essential that IT management is aligned with business strategy. The focus areas for Strategy and Governance differ with the size of the company according to the company s objectives. The importance of IT strategy, governance models and reporting grows along with the company. Diversity management, harmonizing and synergy become more essential for larger companies. Typical Focus Areas in Companies of Different Sizes Small Companies Net sales category 10 M, operating locally In small companies, IT management must be well-organized: the roles and responsibilities of personnel must be described, and the decision-making model needs to be clear. Basic documentation on IT strategy, information security and architecture ensures that IT development focuses on achieving the company s objectives. Small companies must also understand their IT costs. It is essential for small companies to find the right balance between internal and purchased services. The amount of purchased services increases with company growth. This emphasizes the role of competent sourcing with good cost awareness. Medium-sized Companies Net sales category 100 M, decentralized operations Selecting the appropriate centralization/decentralization model for IT is a key priority for Strategy and Governance in medium-sized companies. Usually, centralized Strategy and Governance is the best option. PAGE 55

56 3.9 Strategy and Governance Focus Areas When a company has several subsidiaries, the development of an IT strategy, governance model and reporting grows in importance. In addition, a scalable architecture, strategic technology choices and quality assurance have each an important role. Large Companies Net sales category M, operating internationally Diversity management together with increasing operational efficiency through harmonization and consolidation are the focus areas in an internationally operating company. Large companies should strive to deploy IT processes and unified information systems that support these processes. IT needs to invest in adequate competence to support the development of business models and processes, for example in Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Customer Relationship Management (CRM), as well as in Enterprise Architecture development. Very Large Companies Net sales category M, operating globally Various types of matrix organizations are typical for very large companies. In such organizations, the focus is on keeping procedures efficient and benefiting from group-level synergies. Strong Enterprise Architecture competence are a must and can come from inside or outside of the company. PAGE 56

57 3.9 Strategy and Governance Focus Areas Figure 3.9 Strategy and Governance focus changes with the size and complexity of the company. IT strategy steers the implementation of the IT-related part of the company s strategy, while providing the direction for IT management. Governance ensures that the operation and development of IT support the achievement of targets specified in the IT strategy. PAGE 57

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59 4.1 Sourcing and Supplier Management Overview 4.1 Overview Sourcing and Supplier Management Significance and Objectives Sourcing and Supplier Management ensures that a company has the services that best fit its business purposes. The marketplace, however, is constantly evolving, and suppliers have to adopt technical innovations and create new services that must be provided with higher quality and lower prices. By actively seeking out new opportunities and following market trends, a company can ensure that the quality and price level of the services provided by suppliers stay competitive. The other option is to acquire services and solutions via a tendering process. Digitalization has also set in motion new trends that affect the marketplace, such as: consumerism, which pushes for better user experience and easiness of use for business solutions, because the end users use the same devices (laptops, tablets and phones) and applications for both business and consumer purposes. virtualization, which enables sharing the same computing and data storage capacity between a very large number of users which, in turn, leads to greater storage capacity at lower costs provided by large data and computing centres called clouds. In order to keep up with market trend requirements and to ensure the business purpose fit and costefficiency of services, companies often prefer to source services instead of providing them in-house. PAGE 59

60 4.1 Sourcing and Supplier Management Overview Figure The relationship between development and sourcing. Sourcing strategy is defined based on the company s business requirements. Companies may choose to outsource their IT services partially or in full, or in rare cases, decide to run IT as an in-house function. In all these cases, Sourcing and Supplier Management should have clear goals and a longterm perspective, and operate in a close relationship with the supplier ecosystem. Well-managed sourcing benefits both the buyer and the supplier. A healthy balance of supply and demand leads to a PAGE 60

61 4.1 Sourcing and Supplier Management Overview more sustainable and productive collaboration, in which Sourcing is the strategic coordinator. Sourcing has two principal roles: the sourcing role refers to acquiring suppliers, solutions and services as specified by Service Portfolio Steering. The development role refers to finding and evaluating the emerging technology opportunities and solutions introduced by suppliers that may evolve into new business concepts. Adequate involvement of Sourcing in supporting or development roles ensures that no opportunities will be missed, and that serious flaws that could be challenging and costly to correct at later phases in Project or Service Management are avoided. On the operational level of supplier management, Sourcing interacts with Service Integration within the Service Management function. The contribution from Service Integration to Sourcing can include, for example, the following: providing reports on operational performance levels to Service Managers and Sourcing assisting suppliers in optimizing their service delivery and improving their quality monitoring the service contract and performance management, especially in multi-sourcing environments When deciding on the sourcing of IT, the following points need to be considered: the company s general sourcing principles with respect to service and quality requirements; the scope of operations; enterprise architecture; service scalability and flexibility regarding future plans; continuity; and total costs. Active cost and performance control is mandatory, not only at the sourcing stage, but throughout the life cycle of the service. Key Objectives of Sourcing and Supplier Management Analyse the market and bring major technology innovations and opportunities for business and service development. Organize and manage the supplier relationship with other stakeholders, such as Service Management, to continuously improve the cost level and quality of services. Source services and solutions efficiently, appropriately, and timely from suitable suppliers, while actively maintaining quality and cost levels, a strong negotiating position, and market price awareness. PAGE 61

62 4.1 Sourcing and Supplier Management Overview Sourcing and Supplier Management Roles and Competence Requirements Typically, the person responsible for Sourcing is a Sourcing Manager, CIO, Category Manager, IT Manager or Service Manager. Related to sourcing, the responsibilities of this individual include the following: Bring out new technological or commercial opportunities Plan, facilitate and steer the sourcing process Review new contracts Participate in all major sourcing decisions Define and follow up on sourcing models and principles Master the supplier ecosystem In practice, the role requires expertise, negotiation skills and active participation to ensure that tendering and contracts are managed professionally and are in line with agreed principles. Even though the role includes defining these sourcing principles, the decision-making responsibility belongs to the Service Portfolio Steering, as defined in the company s responsibility assignment matrix. Sourcing and Service Management need to work together to regularly evaluate suppliers service levels, supplier-related risks, and future service needs. Generally, either the Sourcing or Service Manager is responsible for tactical supplier relationships, but in wide-ranging partnerships, it is often necessary to appoint a dedicated Supplier Relationship Manager. The Legal Counsel, together with the Sourcing Manager, ensures that contracts and sourcing principles protect the interests of the company from a legal point of view. When necessary, Legal Counsel also participates in negotiations. ICT jurisprudence requires special expertise and is thus typically outsourced. Key Roles in Sourcing and Supplier Management Sourcing Manager Service Manager Supplier Relationship Manager Legal Counsel PAGE 62

63 4.1 Sourcing and Supplier Management Overview In the IT Standard, sourcing is described as part of IT. However, the roles described above may also appear as a part of the company s general sourcing function where IT constitutes a category within the centralized sourcing organization. Sourcing and Supplier Management Functions Sourcing and Supplier Management cover the entire life cycle of sourced services. Sourcing organizes the tendering process for purchases, negotiates terms and conditions, and supports the daily management of projects and services, for example, through supplier benchmarking. The Sourcing and Supplier Management stream consists of the following functions: Ecosystem Management (part of Enterprise Development) Concept Development (part of Enterprise Development) Sourcing and Supplier Strategy Service Architecture Tendering and Negotiation Process Supplier Relationship Management Performance Management PAGE 63

64 4.1 Sourcing and Supplier Management Overview Figure IT services require seamless cooperation between Business, Sourcing, Project Management and Service Management. PAGE 64

65 4.2 Sourcing and Supplier Management Ecosystem Management 4.2 Ecosystem Management Ecosystems are supplier networks built around a specific service, technology or system. Natural ecosystems should be preferred, as they are more efficient and innovative than partnerships formed around a company s sourcing function only. Management and development of ecosystems is a prerequisite for successful sourcing that supports business needs. Ecosystem Management is discussed in more detail in Chapter 2, Enterprise Development. PAGE 65

66 4.3 Sourcing and Supplier Management Concept Development 4.3 Concept Development Concept development refers to the process of planning and defining new solutions or services for the business. Emerging business needs, such as digitalization, may justify and trigger new technologies based on concept development. Concept development, in fact, triggers the entire Sourcing function by introducing various alternatives for implementation and utilization. Concept development is discussed in more detail in Chapter 2, Enterprise Development. PAGE 66

67 4.4 Sourcing and Supplier Management Sourcing and Supplier Strategy 4.4 Sourcing and Supplier Strategy The primary objectives of Sourcing and Supplier Strategy are high satisfaction and increased productivity experienced by end users, in addition to low total cost of ownership. To succeed in attaining these goals, Sourcing must achieve, maintain and utilize a strong negotiating position towards the supplier(s). Disciplined Sourcing and Supplier Strategy helps reduce supplier dependency. Figure 4.4 The primary objectives of Sourcing. Multi-sourcing is one of the possible strategies. Multi-sourcing refers to the creation of a manageable group of suppliers and/or internal providers that can provide all the required services, and that may PAGE 67

68 4.4 Sourcing and Supplier Management Sourcing and Supplier Strategy be substituted for one another if necessary. Sourcing is responsible for setting and following the selection criteria for suppliers. To manage risk, a company should choose reliable and solvent suppliers and join ecosystems that are able to deliver services, systems and products with solid business continuity. In addition to monitoring financial and operational stability, Sourcing needs to ensure that supplier organizations follow other relevant company policies such as those related to corporate responsibility. PAGE 68

69 4.5 Sourcing and Supplier Management Category and Technology Management 4.5 Category and Technology Management Sourcing should categorize services in order to have a better understanding about volumes in each subcategory. Printing is one example of a subcategory and may be present in many different formats: centralized printing services, special printing in business and personal printers in management offices, for example. While the first one is under the control of the Service Management function, the next two may be non-existent from the Service Management point of view. However, Sourcing should be aware of the total volume of printing with the support of Financial Planning and Control. In other words, Category Management helps organizations source services in their full scale and scope. While Category Management views things from the inside out, Technology Management has the opposite perspective, looking at things outside-in. The task of Technology Management is to follow the technology trends in the marketplace with the help of technology and service providers. The key objective is to support Service Management in continuous service improvement by promoting new technology opportunities, and by ensuring that there are no contractual issues prohibiting the development. Technology Management proactively monitors, discovers and evaluates emerging technology opportunities. Therefore, initiating the sourcing process to acquire solutions and services for new business concepts often falls into Technology Management s task list. PAGE 69

70 4.6 Sourcing and Supplier Management Tendering and Sourcing Process 4.6 Tendering and Sourcing Process Service Portfolio Steering authorizes Sourcing to evaluate solution alternatives based on a Business Case which is about comparing the end-user benefits and savings provided by the service with the overall cost of sourcing and producing the service over a defined period. After that, Sourcing can be authorized to initiate the sourcing process that includes tendering and negotiation processes. A successful tendering process requires clearly described business needs and requirements. Business, with the support of Business Engagement Managers, is responsible for defining the requirements, whereas Service Managers typically take care of the formalized specifications and documentation. Sourcing is responsible for tendering and evaluating the alternative solutions. During tendering, Sourcing is responsible for documenting conversations and open topics for later use in negotiations and contract preparation. Figure 4.6 Tendering and Negotiation Process. Sourcing helps Business consider dependencies and compliance issues and to choose the best alternative. The purchasing decision is made by the Business Owner together with Service Portfolio PAGE 70

71 4.6 Sourcing and Supplier Management Tendering and Sourcing Process Steering, but Sourcing typically manages IT-related contracts with the support of Service Integration. A successful negotiation process requires a clear negotiation strategy and pre-defined roles for the assigned tasks. Sourcing sets negotiation targets and leads the discussion during the negotiations. The business representatives bring in their expertise related to business needs, whereas Legal Counsel evaluates jurisprudence, terms and conditions, and the protection of assets. If the purchase involves relocating or re-assigning of personnel, a Human Resources representative also takes part in the negotiations. The result of a successful negotiation process is a contract that satisfies both parties. When the contract is made, it should cover all aspects of the agreement, as only what appears in the contract is included in the agreement. For example, the following should be clearly stated: Risks, responsibilities and the governance model: One major risk in a customer-supplier relationship is that the service will not be developed according to the business needs. Therefore, it is important to have a governance model that emphasizes the strategic and tactical development rather than the operative follow-ups. Penalties: The compensation by the supplier in case of failure to meet the agreed service levels, and the terms for contract termination need to be agreed. Expiry: The details related to contract expiry are registered in the contract expiry plan, which is a document that is updated throughout the entire contract period. After reaching an agreement, Sourcing ensures that the project and service organizations are made aware of the conditions of the contract. Sourcing is also responsible for evaluating the results of the negotiations. PAGE 71

72 4.7 Sourcing and Supplier Management Supplier Relationship Management 4.7 Supplier Relationship Management Sourcing is responsible for developing and managing successful supplier relationships by adopting a clearly defined and structured approach to supplier collaboration. Together with Service Management, Sourcing maintains supplier relationships with regular meetings that address not only present services, but also emerging opportunities brought forth by service development and potential new applications. Sourcing maintains a list of the company s IT suppliers and identifies the key suppliers amongst them. It is strategically important to understand whether a supplier is critical, strategic, tactical or operative. Additionally, based on the individual supplier s impact and value to the business, an adequate level of collaboration and performance management should be determined for each supplier. The list should include information such as the supplier s line of business, profile, contract information, and the extent of cooperation as well as its monetary value. Sourcing also creates and maintains the company s IT contract portfolio. The contract portfolio comprises all contracts, including electronic versions with attachments, as well as location references for the originals. Sourcing is responsible for the timely initiation and execution of contract revisions. It informs the Service Managers and Service Portfolio Steering about expiring contracts. These, in turn, authorize Sourcing to renew contracts and/or initiate tendering. Sourcing ensures that supplier cooperation runs according to the agreed governance model on the strategic, tactical and operational levels. PAGE 72

73 4.7 Sourcing and Supplier Management Supplier Relationship Management Figure 4.7 Supplier importance for business. PAGE 73

74 4.8 Sourcing and Supplier Management Performance Management 4.8 Performance Management Performance management consists mainly of managing certain key elements to improve the focus and efficiency of supplier collaboration. Firstly, Sourcing creates a performance management strategy and a pattern to define the service levels required for the sourced services. Secondly, Sourcing defines the accurate metrics to measure performance. These metrics need to be reevaluated and adjusted continuously, especially whenever changes to the service level agreement (SLA) occur. Thirdly, in collaboration with Service Management, Sourcing monitors and manages supplier performance regularly by utilizing service automation based dashboards effectively. Finally, continuous evaluation and benchmarking is necessary to ensure that, at a minimum, the quality and cost level of the sourced services is equal to market alternatives. Benchmarking reports are provided according to procedures agreed with the supplier. PAGE 74

75 4.9 Sourcing and Supplier Management Focus Areas 4.9 Focus Areas Properly managed Sourcing gains in importance as business environments and service models evolve, company structures and supply chains become more complex, and competitive pressures mount in an increasingly global market. These factors create a genuine demand for sourcing skills within IT. Depending on the selected Sourcing and Supplier Strategy, IT may either centralize or decentralize its sourcing. In any case, the goal is to discover the most appropriate combination of the basic sourcing criteria: service content, quality levels, availability, flexibility, and competitive price. Typical Focus Areas in Companies of Various Sizes Small Companies Net sales category 10 M, operating locally IT operations are based on contracts. The contract management is centralized. In small companies, it is important to ensure that the number of suppliers is under control. Small companies must be careful in selecting suppliers that support the company s growth and in avoiding ones that may compromise business continuity. In small companies, sourcing typically consists of oneoff occasions for purchasing in which success is best ensured by acquiring assistance from external experts. Medium-sized Companies Net sales category 100 M, decentralized operations Supplier management is centralized and contracts are based upon a mutual set of terms and conditions. The Sourcing and Supplier Strategy provides guidelines for supplier selection. A medium-sized company should consider centralizing purchases to a few carefully selected suppliers, thus strengthening its role as a key customer. The most productive cooperation is often established between two companies of similar size. A medium-sized company has limited possibilities to receive the best possible service from large IT service providers. On the other hand, the suppliers PAGE 75

76 4.9 Sourcing and Supplier Management Focus Areas capacity and service offerings for small companies would no longer be adequate for a medium-sized company. Therefore, a medium-sized company may face challenges in finding appropriately scaled services and suitable service providers. Large Companies Net sales category M, operating internationally Centralized sourcing is the key to leveraging the volume advantages of a large company. Furthermore, requirements specification, tendering and evaluation become all the more important as business needs increase. Well-functioning partnerships with strategic key suppliers should be established and maintained, so that the suppliers are able to provide a comprehensive range of services for the entire business. Large companies may also be able to influence the development of the ecosystems they use. Organizing sourcing as a continuously operating function is essential. Very Large Companies Net sales category M, operating globally In very large global companies, IT sourcing is an integral part of corporate-level sourcing. Therefore, it is important to define well-functioning cooperation models between sourcing and IT. Improved management of operational models and supplier risks is the method to preserve agility. This presents a challenge for companies operating in several time zones and in a multicultural environment. A very large company may prepare framework agreements to secure its interests and use its strong negotiating position to demand that all service providers follow them. If needed, a very large company may even create its own ecosystems and have a strong influence in their development. PAGE 76

77 4.9 Sourcing and Supplier Management Focus Areas Figure 4.9 Sourcing focus varies depending on company size. Sourcing acquires the best services and solutions as specified in the IT strategy and IT development plan. Sourcing is well acquainted with the new opportunities offered by vendors, organizes the tendering process for purchases, negotiates terms and conditions, and supports the daily management of projects and services. When organized professionally, Sourcing enables operational efficiency of IT and helps IT to support business. Sourcing and Supplier Management covers the entire life cycle of services. PAGE 77

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79 5.1 Project and Development Management Overview 5.1 Overview Project and Development Management Significance and Objectives Continuous and effective development is essential for every competitive organization. Saving costs in operations and investing in development enables the organization to create new business solutions required especially by digitalization. If an organization is able to save 20% in service costs through Sourcing and Service Management, it can as much as double its investments in new solutions and services. If these new solutions replace legacy applications and simplify architecture, the organization is able to achieve further savings, and as a consequence, afford the investments required by digitalization. Figure Development actions introduced by digitalization. PAGE 79

80 5.1 Project and Development Management Overview Development is a coordinated set of actions to capture requirements based on business needs, to implement a feasible solution, and to deploy it to users. All these actions need to be done according to agreed development practices within the given scope of time, resources and value creation expectations. Development can be a continuous flow of changes or, in larger and more complex cases, project-based. Development is coordinated by the Development Management Office (DMO), which also sets and promotes development practices for company-wide control, visibility and consistency. DMO has the mandate to classify and prioritize development initiatives to be approved or rejected by Development Portfolio Steering. DMO has control over resources, dependencies and the performance of major development initiatives, while providing the required support and consultation to maximize business benefits creation and minimize risks. Many organizations have a Project Management Office (PMO) that handles all the same tasks as the DMO, but just for projects. As more and more development takes place beyond projects, it is recommended to have a full-scope DMO to replace the PMO. Projects vary greatly in terms of targets, duration, budget, staffing and difficulty. Consequently, not all development initiatives require a project and they can be classified as a change. In all development, excluding a straightforward change, the following topics need to be managed: Business Case validity Goals, scope and constraints Timetables and costs Tasks and deliverables Workloads and needed resources (internal and/or external) Compliance with Enterprise Architecture Quality and risks Key objectives of Project and Development Management Improve and create new solutions to succeed in competitive environments. Manage the scope, schedule, costs, resources, and value creation of large-scale development initiatives. Support agile and release-based development practices in environments, where the majority of development of existing solutions is incremental, or requires fast time-to-market of new PAGE 80

81 5.1 Project and Development Management Overview solutions. A project or change can also be part of a bigger business-driven initiative called a program. Programs are derived directly from strategic initiatives and are formed in situations where the change is rolled out to many business units as sub-projects. The program manager manages the program with the aid of project organizations. Project and Development Management Roles and Competence Requirements As large organizations continuously run several simultaneous development efforts, Development Portfolio Steering is established to evaluate and prioritize opportunities with the support of the DMO. It maintains a list of all major development initiatives and manages their dependencies. The DMO also validates the Pre-Study and the Business Case for Portfolio Steering, which authorizes Conceptualization and Planning. After Planning, Portfolio Steering authorizes execution. Some smaller changes may fall directly to service delivery, in which case they are handled as change requests under the Service Management Office (SMO). Read more about service delivery and the SMO in the Service Management Stream. PAGE 81

82 5.1 Project and Development Management Overview Figure The Development Management Office and Different Formats of Development. Projects are governed by their nominated steering groups, which report to Portfolio Steering at Gate Review Meetings. A Project Steering Group consists of representatives of the business and project organizations. The duties of the Project Steering Group, with the support of the DMO, include ensuring that the project creates value for the Business; providing the project organization with guidelines, decisions, and support; and ensuring that the targets of the project are met. The Project Steering Group approves changes to the schedule, budget and scope of the project. The members must have adequate decision-making and resourcing authority as well as sufficient subject knowledge. The Project Steering Group must also escalate decision-making when needed. Project roles The Project Owner is typically the head of the business unit or a Process Owner. The Project Owner is responsible for the project s progress and quality towards business and is usually the chairperson of the Project Steering Group. The Project Owner is also responsible for approval and endorsement of the project deliverables. Furthermore, the Project Owner carries the main responsibility for executing and tracking the realization of business benefits. PAGE 82

83 5.1 Project and Development Management Overview Figure Value-Driven Approach to the Steering Group. Project Manager is responsible for daily project management and ensures that the project produces the agreed deliverables at the appropriate level of quality. Moreover, the Project Manager has the responsibility of ensuring that the project is implemented on schedule and within budget. The Project Manager also handles project-related changes and escalations to the Steering Group. PAGE 83

84 5.1 Project and Development Management Overview Project Manager is a role and not a title. A role means a set of responsibilities, functions and authorizations, which are given to a person or a group of people based on their competence. One person or a group can have several roles. However, this role requires dedication and time, and some organizations have a precondition that the Project Manager has to dedicate at least 80% of his or her time to the role. Project Manager is responsible for project management communication. The role reports the project status to the Steering Group and acquires the needed decisions. To ensure that the project runs smoothly, the Project Manager must have adequate authority for minor project-specific changes. Business Lead is someone with the authority and ability to be the project s face towards business. The Business Lead s main responsibility is to consult during Project Planning and to ensure that the designed and developed solution addresses the initial needs as specified by the respective line of business. The Business Lead usually executes the Rollout stage together with the Training Manager. Other key roles typically included in a project team are an end-user representative (Super User, Key User), a technical lead, process owners as well as those responsible for testing and quality assurance. People responsible for communication, competence development and training must also be involved. The roles and responsibilities are defined at the latest in the Planning stage. Key Roles in Project and Development Management Project Owner Process Owner / Solution Owner Project Manager Business Lead Steering Functions in Project Development Management Project Steering Group Development Management Office Project Management Office The Essentials of Good Project Management Each project is classified based on criteria that suit the organization. These criteria may include the size of the budget, the complexity of the solution, its organizational effects, effects on Master Data or integrations, solution visibility to end users and customers, as well as impact on currently known procedures. The bigger and more complex the project, the more attention it requires. Small projects PAGE 84

85 5.1 Project and Development Management Overview may require fewer review meetings, resources and deliverables. Each project has an appropriate Steering Group and Management Model. The Project Plan describes the project organization s roles and responsibilities, project management methods, owners and other stakeholders, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), Must-Have Deliverables and documentation methods, as well as follow-up and reporting practices. Each project has an experienced goal-oriented and business-minded Project Owner and Project Manager, who are capable of inspiring and motivating people. All projects face challenges that the Project Steering Group must handle to minimize the negative impact on the project outcome. The role of the Project Owner is to ensure that the project fits the need of the organization, whereas the Project Manager ensures that the project deliverables meet the requirements and standards set in the beginning. A project has an up-to-date Business Case and Project Plan. The Business Case defines whether the project still has business justification and is thus validated at each gate or decision point. The project plan is validated and revised according to the Business Case. The plan displays project phases as well as the status of deliverables and project tasks together with their schedules and resources. The Project delivers a future-proof Solution that meets short and long-run business needs and is based on reliable and easily configurable applications that are fit for the business purpose. The Services required by the solution are planned and implemented professionally and are under the control of Service Management processes. Change management, communication and training are required for the company to benefit from the outcome of the project. Organizational change impact is one of the Project Proposal s core issues and is therefore addressed even before the project is established. It is important to consider the scale and direction of change together with personnel attitudes towards change. The project owner is together with the project organization responsible for implementing the change and delivering benefits to the business. Project and Development Management Functions and Phases In a fast-moving business environment, the time from opportunity identification to the finalized solution must be short. In many cases, development can be implemented by a consistent set of changes to processes, solutions and services without a project. In more complex cases, the PAGE 85

86 5.1 Project and Development Management Overview development initiative should be classified as a project and appropriate management procedures should be taken. This section describes the project flow from opportunity to business benefit realization. Project management models are often seen as complex and unwieldy. This is why we introduce a practical Project Model that is largely based on PMBOK and PRINCE2, but the Phases and Stages create a concrete step-by-step guide to run a successful project. Agile methods and the Scaled Agile Framework are favored solution implementation practices. They enable iterative, continuous development as well as quick learning and reaction to changes. Figure Project and Development Management Functions. PAGE 86

87 5.2 Project and Development Management Project Portfolio Management 5.2 Project Portfolio Management Project Portfolio Management qualifies projects to be taken into a portfolio, follows up their status and sets priorities in case of conflicts of interest. Project Portfolio Management is a responsibility of the DMO and Project Portfolio Steering. Project gate review is carried out at the portfolio level in the beginning and end of the Initiation phase, and before and after the Rollout stage. These are the gates at which project continuity and the Business Case are verified at the portfolio level. In addition to this, projects report their status to Portfolio Steering, which has portfolio review meeting six to twelve times per year. Figure 5.2 Project Governance Model. PAGE 87

88 5.3 Project and Development Management Business Process Development 5.3 Business Process Development Process development is about improving an organization s way of working by identifying and creating the most efficient processes that bring the best results. It has several goals: making more efficient use of resources (time, money, raw materials, and work); improving the quality of products, services and data; and serving the needs of the markets. The best-performing organizations strive for continuous process improvement with the aid of Key User and Process Owner Networks. Some organizations prefer to talk about business capabilities rather than processes. Business Capability is a wider term and includes processes, applications, services (together with solutions) and competence. For more information about Business Process Development, see Chapter 2, Enterprise Development. PAGE 88

89 5.4 Project and Development Management Pre-Study and Business Case 5.4 Pre-Study and Business Case Before any idea can be classified as a project or a change, the opportunity needs to be examined in more detail. The formalized ways to present the evaluation are the Business Case and the Pre-Study. The Business Case is a calculation of the project s expected business benefits and assumed financial costs, and it often includes a graphic illustration of the return on investment. The Business Case analysis is necessary to make sure that the proposed project is economically viable. However, since any scenario always includes uncertainties, the Pre-Study is used to give more detail and describe the different opportunities. The Project Owner presents the business case to the Portfolio Steering Group, which classifies and authorizes the project in addition to granting funding for the next Phase. The Development Portfolio Steering Group can either reject or approve the project after considering the Project Proposal, Business Case, financing and the project s impact and interdependency on other projects. The execution method, priority and timing of projects are also decided based on this assessment. PAGE 89

90 5.5 Project and Development Management Planning and Commitment 5.5 Planning and Commitment A decision to initiate a project is followed by a Conceptualization stage in which the Pre-Study is turned into a feasible concept or business process. Business commitment is often gained during workshops and when the concept is approved by the Project Steering Group. The concept is also the basis for the Business Requirements used by the solution designers. In the Initiation Phase, the project proposal is turned into a Project Plan. In order to create a project plan, Project team and Steering Group must consider the way the project is delivered (choose a methodology) organizational readiness for the change resourcing, costs and dependencies with other projects risks and requirements for risk mitigation must-have deliverables, which correlate with the classification a realistic schedule based on all of the above To enable efficient monitoring and management, the project s must-have deliverables are determined and the acceptance criteria are agreed upon. Each project phase ends with a Gate Review Meeting, at which the Business Case is validated, Deliverables are checked and future needs are evaluated. Project Steering Meetings concentrate on the actual status of the project, while the Gate Review Meetings assess the quality and validity of the project. Gate Review Meetings also give guidance and manage the resourcing for the next Phase. PAGE 90

91 5.5 Project and Development Management Planning and Commitment Figure 5.5 The Dynamics of Project Meetings. As a result of the planning process, the project cost estimate and organizational change predictions become more accurate. The change estimates include role description changes as well as changes to current processes and systems. The project receives appropriate follow-up metrics (KPIs) as well as plans for communication and the management of quality and organizational change. While the Conceptualization Gate 0 (G0), can be approved by Project Steering Group, the Planning Gate 1 (G1) is further validated by Project Portfolio Steering. Portfolio Steering grants funding and determines decision-making limits for the rest of the project based on all of the information available. Recurring management tasks throughout the various phases of a project include change management and communication, quality assurance, risk and readiness assessment, and architecture reviews. PAGE 91

92 5.6 Project and Development Management Design, Development and Validation 5.6 Design, Development and Validation The purpose of the Execution Phase is to design and develop a solution that meets business needs. In this phase, the solution is designed by the developers and concept owners, developed according to the design, and validated from the functional and end-user perspectives. The execution method should be determined based on the complexity, restrictions and dependencies of the project. However, Agile methodology should be favored, as it gives possibilities for fast reaction to changes, enables better visibility on delivery and results in faster time-to-market. The Design stage includes gathering the final list of Business Requirements, as well as ensuring the design is in line with the Business Case and that it doesn t have functional or technical gaps. The solution may be a new system or a new business process description, but development still follows the same logical stages. While the solution is being built, the readiness of the organization is also promoted by engaging people in decision-making, gathering feedback, and involving the full organization in making the change happen. The Development stage is equally important, as it is at this stage that organizational readiness is finalized through continuous involvement. At the Development stage, the solution is built according to the Design Specification. At the end of the phase, the solution is ready for testing. If the project is managed with a waterfall methodology, the stages are executed in sequence. Agile projects consist of sprints, each of which produces a deployable intermediate solution. In the case of system development, the Validation stage is commonly divided into System and User Acceptance Testing, where the solution is validated and training material is finalized. The execution and reporting responsibility of User Acceptance Testing usually rests on the business. After the validation phase, the system is ready for piloting in the production environment. From the business continuity point of view, the transition to production is the most critical project phase, as it may include retiring old solutions while rolling out the new one. This phase is critical also from the enduser point of view, as users need to adapt to new ways of working. During the execution phase, the Project Steering Group must be aware of any changes in the Business Environment. PAGE 92

93 5.6 Project and Development Management Design, Development and Validation Figure 5.6 Agile Development with Gate-based Project Model. Because projects are by nature in a continuous state of change, they have many more uncertainties than continuous operations. The uncertainties are often followed by needs for change to which professionally run projects apply well-defined methods. Costs resulting from project changes are subject to the rule, meaning that the cost will be multiplied, depending on whether the change is made at the Planning (1 unit) or Development stage (10 units) or at Transition to production (100 units). In large projects and multi-project programs the importance of managing risks, requirements and resources increases; hence, the Business Case must be validated at each Gate. PAGE 93

94 5.7 Project and Development Management Deployment and Training 5.7 Deployment and Training The Deployment Phase includes Piloting and Rollout which include training of the stakeholder groups. In this phase, the organizational change is brought to life and monitored closely by surveys, through Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), and by gathering feedback from users. The aim of Piloting is to make sure that everything works in production with real users, Master Data and integrations. Piloting is done to increase readiness and to finalize the system before the full-scale Rollout. This Gate 5 is usually approved by Portfolio Steering due to its importance for everyday Business Operations. If Piloting is for some reason omitted (for example, due to the project s small impact on the business organization), the previous stage, Gate 4 (Validation) may be escalated to the portfolio level. Training and Rollout are phases at which the actual benefits from the project begin to materialize. During Piloting, the project s deliverables are transferred to the Service Organization by integrating them into continuous operations (see Service Management Stream). Preparations for this stage begin already at the Planning stage to ensure that all parties have a common understanding of the solution, its readiness, quality and organizational impact. There are three approaches to Rollout, and all of these can also be combined. Figure 5.7 Rollout Stage Methods. PAGE 94

95 5.7 Project and Development Management Deployment and Training After the Rollout, the project is closed. Project completion includes an evaluation of how well the targets were met, approval of project deliverables, and documentation of any further development ideas and unresolved issues. Deliverables and post-project service responsibilities and warranty periods are recorded in the Service Handover Documentation. In addition to preparing the actual final report, it is important to conduct a feedback survey across stakeholder groups as well as to document the lessons learned and experiences gained during the project. PAGE 95

96 5.8 Project and Development Management Business Benefits Realization 5.8 Business Benefits Realization The Project Manager is responsible for project completion until the end of the Rollout stage. Some of the Business Benefits may be achieved before this happens, but most usually they materialize at some point in the future. For this reason, the Business Benefits Plan is one the most important deliverables of the Rollout stage. Follow-up of the Realization is the responsibility of the DMO and Project Portfolio Management. After the project deliverables have been in use for a while, Business Benefit Tracking is conducted to see if the originally targeted business benefits were realized; whether the project produced some other value; and whether the investment was worthwhile. If necessary, a proposal for further development can be made based on user experiences. PAGE 96

97 5.9 Project and Development Management Focus Areas 5.9 Focus Areas In Project and Development Management, the classification of development initiatives helps to select the appropriate steering and execution model. The DMO is in charge of defining and maintaining this classification scheme depending on the needs of the business environment. The Pre-Study phase with the resulting project proposal and the first business case ideas give sufficient input to apply the classification. The projects are then prioritized based on their value to the business and the availability of resources. The focus areas of Project Management vary greatly among IT organizations in companies of different sizes. Establishing projects and creating a project culture are the top priorities in small companies. Large corporations struggle with other challenges: the larger the company, the greater the number of projects and, consequently, the greater the importance of processes and the effective management of project resources. Project management challenges also change when business impact increases. Projects that are confined to a single unit are typically easier than projects spanning multiple units. Usually, larger projects also require wide-ranging changes to corporate culture and tools. This puts additional pressure on project managers. In such cases, the project organization must have participants also from HR and communications. Typical Focus Areas in Companies of Different Sizes Small Companies Net sales category 10 M, operating locally In the IT organizations of small companies, the same individuals are typically responsible for both continuous services and development activities. To avoid never-ending projects, the first priority of Project Management is to turn strategic development tasks into projects. When developing a project culture, it is important to establish the minimum standard of Project Management. All projects must have well-defined targets, a project plan, an owner, a project manager and a regular reporting practice. Furthermore, each project must have a clear end point that is preceded by the integration of project deliverables into continuous operations. External expert help is a way to ensure project success. PAGE 97

98 5.9 Project and Development Management Focus Areas Medium-sized Companies Net sales category 100 M, decentralized operations As the size of a company and the number of stakeholders grows, so does the importance of project business cases as well as proper prioritization and preparation. When the operating environment expands, increasing attention must be paid to project steering, execution and rollout. Moreover, the importance of well-established project management models increases. In medium-sized companies, there are many projects ongoing at all times, requiring a shared project management culture. Large Companies Net sales category M, operating internationally Large companies have numerous active projects running simultaneously, and their project culture is well established. A Project or Development Management Office (PMO/DMO) is often set up to organize project activities and to develop uniform project management models and practices. Programs are prioritized and resourced with the help of a project portfolio to achieve the most beneficial outcome for the company s business. Due to the size and diversity of the operating environment, training and well-managed transitions to production are of particular importance. All projects strive for maximal business value and common operational models. Very Large Companies Net sales category M, operating globally In very large companies, the focus of project management is on the effective management of project resources. In addition to personnel, the project resource pool includes experts from external partners. PAGE 98

99 5.9 Project and Development Management Focus Areas Typically, very large companies have a dedicated function for managing project resources. The management of business strategy takes place with the help of a project portfolio. The project portfolio is a tool for management. The balance and maximal value of the project portfolio as well as its alignment with business strategy are taken into account in decision-making. Figure 5.9 The focus of Project Management changes with the size and complexity of the company. The aim of projects is to deliver current or new practices, systems and services for the purpose of achieving the targets defined in the company s business strategy or IT strategy. In the absence of business demand and steering, justification for a project ceases to exist. Projects are managed so that they achieve the specified goals on schedule, within budget and with the required level of quality. PAGE 99

100 PAGE 100

101 6.1 Service Management Overview 6.1 Overview Digitalization impacts on Service Management, adds speed and agility to reliability and scalability as the key business drivers. This can sometimes result in favoring cloud-based applications that require no IT management at all. This approach, however, does not take into account that there is a need for integration and compliance with corporate data and security policies. The role of Service Management is to address the business needs and be able to combine agility with reliability. Figure Service is more than what you see. One of the most important tasks of IT is to provide services that efficiently support the business. There is a direct link between the quality of IT services and business efficiency, since more and more business processes are supported by IT services. The production of services typically forms up to 70 90% of total IT spending in a company. The quality of IT services is a business enabler that helps the business to achieve its targets, lower its costs and increase competitiveness. Service Management is a set of processes, competence and tools to align the delivery of services with the needs of the enterprise. The primary objective of Service Management is to offer business-aligned services that ensure efficient and uninterrupted business operations. This requires a reliable and well- PAGE 101

102 6.1 Service Management Overview documented service environment, efficient operational models, strict compliance with governance processes, as well as adequate skills and capabilities. The services offered by IT must conform to the continuously changing requirements and needs of the business. Service Management is responsible for the continuous improvement and development of services, while, at the same time, it needs to constantly manage and monitor performance in order to ensure the business purpose fit and quality of services. Service Management consists of the following key functions: Service Portfolio Management Enterprise Information Management Service Development and Design Service Integration and Quality Service Transition and Operations Self-Service and Automation Key Objectives of Service Management Continuous development of services with effective utilization of digital opportunities and service automation. Ensure service continuity for business operations. Produce the agreed services cost-efficiently and according to the service promise. Service Management Roles and Competence Requirements The person(s) responsible for Service Management should have adequate technical knowledge combined with good communication skills, business understanding, and a genuinely service-oriented mindset. PAGE 102

103 6.1 Service Management Overview Figure Service Management. Service Management consists of two main elements: service development and service operations (see the picture above). Service Owners have an end-to-end responsibility for the services. They have a good understanding of business needs and are in charge of developing and maintaining the service development roadmap. Service Owners define the required service levels in operations and ensure operational performance. Service Manager is a very common role name and is used to describe various functions, but typically it refers to service ownership at lower levels. A Service Manager is responsible for developing services and plays a key role in projects as well as product releases. The primary objective of the Service Manager is to provide better services at a lower cost. The quality of operations is assured by the Service Management Office (SMO), staffed by Service Integration Managers. The SMO together with the Service Desk executes Service Integration and Management (SIAM) over all services. The Service Desk is the front-end taking care of users, while SMO is the back-end function taking care of suppliers and processes. PAGE 103

104 6.1 Service Management Overview Business steering is organized into two functions: Service Portfolio Steering is the highest-level service governance body responsible for approval of major development initiatives, while the Change Advisory Board (CAB) governs changes. The Service Owners, supervised by the Head of Services, are responsible for managing the Service Portfolio and for maintaining the service roadmaps for Service Portfolio Steering. The Chairperson of Service Portfolio Steering should be an executive-level business representative. The Change Advisory Board supports the Change Manager, a role within SMO, in the assessment, prioritization and scheduling of changes. The CAB includes representatives from business, IT and supplier organizations. Business is typically represented by Key Users. Key Roles in Service Management Head of Services Service Owner Service Manager (generic role name, typically the lowest level of service ownership) Service Integration Manager Service Desk Agent Steering Functions in Service Management Service Portfolio Steering Change Advisory Board (CAB) Service Management Office (SMO) Service Desk (SD) Service Management Functions Service Management is divided into distinct functions, each of which is composed of specific processes and tasks. The figure below, Five Elements of Service Management, presents the logical relationship between different Service Management functions. The upper layer, Service Portfolio, follows the overall service lifecycle and has control over both the development and operation sides of Service Management. Service Integration constantly manages and monitors the performance of services over multiple Service Providers, while at the same time ensuring that the service development initiatives introduced by Service Development and Design are compliant with operations standards. The bottom layer, Self-Service and Automation, enables the management of services and related transactions for all functions of Service Management. PAGE 104

105 6.1 Service Management Overview Figure The Five Elements of Service Management. Service Management consists of the following seven functions: Service Portfolio Management (Enterprise Development) Enterprise Information Management (Enterprise Development) Service Development and Design Service Integration and Quality Service Transition and Operational Readiness Service Operation and Support Self-Service and Automation PAGE 105

106 6.2 Service Management Service Portfolio Management 6.2 Service Portfolio Management Service Portfolio defines a model of how services are managed throughout their lifecycle. The Service Portfolio includes all services at any phase of their lifecycle. Service Portfolio Management is discussed in more detail in Chapter 2, Enterprise Development. PAGE 106

107 6.3 Service Management Enterprise Information Management 6.3 Enterprise Information Management Comprehensive and continuous Enterprise Information Management ensures usability and the integrity of essential data for the company s processes, operations and reporting. The goal is a procedure to keep information up-to-date and valuable for the business. Enterprise Information Management is discussed in more detail in Chapter 2, Enterprise Development. PAGE 107

108 6.4 Service Management Service Development and Design 6.4 Service Development and Design Service Development is responsible for introducing new services and service development initiatives for the Business. It takes impulses from business projects, concept development, key users and service integration, and carries out the development efforts either as projects or changes. Figure Model for Service Development. PAGE 108

109 6.4 Service Management Service Development and Design Service Design is defined with the help of the Service Architecture. It is composed of four elements: Service Catalog Service Roadmap Service Delivery Model Service Structure The Service Architecture should be as clear and simple as possible. Together with professional sourcing of services and a business-value driven implementation of a unified Service Roadmap, Service Architecture helps achieve an optimal service structure. Figure Service Architecture. PAGE 109

110 6.4 Service Management Service Development and Design Service Architecture has a significant role in aligning processes and systems as well as in enabling purposeful service development and lifecycle management. Key Service Providers should be committed to and included in the development of the Service Architecture. The Service Architecture (SA) is managed by Service Owners. Each Service Owner is responsible for a Service Domain or a specific service. Typically organizations have five to ten Service Domains such as the following: Sales and Marketing Solutions Production and Supply Chain Solutions R&D and Engineering Solutions Business Support Solutions End User Services, i.e. Workstation and Collaboration Services Infrastructure Services, i.e. Capacity and Connectivity Services The Service Catalog is a definition of services provided by company IT. It makes IT services more understandable and concrete, and is in fact the basis for developing, organizing, delivering and improving IT management. In addition, it creates a link between business and IT by explaining which services are available, and what components each of these services encompass. The Service catalog helps demonstrate the service focus of IT and the produced value for business. The Service Delivery model is defined in cooperation with Sourcing. Possible delivery models for continuous services include near or offshoring and cloud services. The service delivery model should decide if, and which, services are sourced, and which Service Providers are preferred. It should also define whether services are purchased as end-to-end services, as separate service components, or by building so-called service towers (stack of services) that utilize the most suitable supplier for each service area. The size and operational model of a company will, to a large extent, define the best delivery model. The Service Roadmap is a plan for developing a service or Service Domain with information on the scope, schedule, costs and business benefits of each of the initiatives. Each development initiative is carried out as a project, service release or change. The Service Structure includes definitions of the logical structure of the service, service relations and responsibilities. Service Structure defines the highest-level elements of the Configuration Management Database (CMDB). PAGE 110

111 6.5 Service Management Service Integration and Quality 6.5 Service Integration and Quality Service Integration and Quality is responsible for constantly managing and monitoring the performance of services. Service Integration and Management (SIAM) or, in short, Service Integration, is a framework designed to provide unified and integrated services and a harmonized user experience in a multi-sourced service environment. Service Integration is a process-driven function and is largely based on the globally adopted ITIL framework. SIAM processes are managed by Service Integration Managers. While Service Owners take care of the development, and have the overall responsibility of the services, Service Integration Managers are responsible for controlling service operations. Both Service Owners and Service Integration Managers cooperate with Service Delivery Managers, who are responsible for service delivery. As many services are often sourced, Service Delivery Managers can typically represent Service Providers. Most SIAM processes are typically taken care of by the SMO. These processes deal with the operative management of services and are split into six process areas: SIAM Compliance Catalog & SLA Management Core Process Management Security Assurance Continuity Management Change Management PAGE 111

112 6.5 Service Management Service Integration and Quality Figure 6.5 The Service Management Office (SMO) manages SIAM processes with the Service Desk. PAGE 112

113 6.6 Service Management Service Transition and Operational Readiness 6.6 Service Transition and Operational Readiness Service Transition builds the readiness for efficient service operation and for keeping the service promise. These capabilities consist of processes, expertise, systems, documentation and data. A controlled rollout of a service requires careful planning, efficient communications and training. The rollout of systems, services, and project deliverables should all be part of a controlled process to ensure information security and service continuity for the business. Service Transition needs to consider the different phases of the rollout for a service or a process as well as the possibility for automation. In case of unexpected situations, the possibility of rollback to a previous state must be ensured during all rollouts. PAGE 113

114 6.7 Service Management Service Operation and Support 6.7 Service Operation and Support Service Operation and Support organizes the delivery of services and adequate support for the service users. Service Providers are responsible for professional service delivery: they are also responsible for managing their service delivery so that all services form an integrated entity with shared Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). Overall service delivery is overseen by the Service Delivery Manager. Service delivery activities are managed by cross-functional operative and line roles, and executed by Specialists with different expertise areas. The Service Desk is responsible for day-to-day service requests and incident resolution. Service delivery and operations management are conducted according to their respective ITIL processes. The task of Service Operation is to ensure the efficient delivery of services without interruptions. The business and IT define the target service levels for each service by a Service Level Agreement (SLA), which is the reference for Service Operation. It is essential to understand the division of services into Business Solutions, End User Services and Infrastructure Services. Business Solutions include, for example, application services that enable business processes, such as ERP and financial management. End User Services include the concrete services provided for employees. These include at least the service desk, workstation services and collaboration tools. Infrastructure Services include, for example, data communication and capacity services. Outsourced service operations enable costefficient operations and effective management of business risks, but also set higher requirements on the company s IT management skills, documentation and communication. PAGE 114

115 6.8 Service Management Self Service and Automation 6.8 Self Service and Automation An enterprise should aim to automate IT services as widely as possible. Increased automation will spare resources and enable self-service independently of time and place. This can be done efficiently via a Service Management Platform. The Service Management Platform enables the management of services and related transactions. The platform enables process automation and the implementation of a self-service portal for end users. The Service Management Platform includes a Configuration Management Database (CMDB) as a repository for configuration items as well as their relations and attributes. The Service Management Platform binds together all the elements of Service Management. It includes management tools for Service Offering, Development Roadmaps, Projects and Resources, and contains the CMDB to manage the Service Architecture and its development. It includes the Service Portfolio and Dashboards for Service Portfolio Steering. It provides ITIL process support, Catalogs, Workflow Management and Integration to support all SIAM Processes. Large companies typically buy and customize their own IT Service Management (ITSM) systems, whereas small companies rely on standardized services from ITSM vendors and independent service providers. PAGE 115

116 6.8 Service Management Self Service and Automation Figure 6.8 Self-Service and automation are enabled by Service Management. PAGE 116

117 6.9 Service Management Focus Areas 6.9 Focus Areas Service Management Focus areas In recent years, the methods and tools for Service Management have progressed dramatically. Whereas the development has so far been mainly from the standpoint of IT and driven by IT, future efforts will increasingly focus on the development of Service Management from the standpoint of Business, which is the customer. This trend will allow IT and Business to operate in closer cooperation, enabling better identification of solutions that support Business and shorten the response time of IT. The continuously changing external operating environment, cost pressure and personnel turnover create challenges for Service Management in all companies regardless of their size or line of business. Although every company is unique, companies of equal size generally face similar problems. Typical Focus Areas in Companies of Different Sizes Small Companies Net sales category 10 M, operating locally IT in small companies is generally operated by only a few people. This requires focus on documenting the operating environment and applications, and on facilitating knowledge sharing. In order to avoid excessive dependency on a few individuals, small companies can buy basic IT as a service. Medium-sized Companies Net sales category 100 M, decentralized operations A geographically decentralized company must implement a clearly defined Service Management model that defines roles, responsibilities and processes across business operations. As the basic corporate infrastructure of companies of this size is usually partly outsourced, effective service production and planning of services is impossible without uniform operating models. The need for systematic and well-organized vendor management, monitoring of service levels and effective incident control increases as the operating environment becomes more complex. PAGE 117

118 6.9 Service Management Focus Areas Large Companies Net sales category M, operating internationally Large companies must make a conscious decision whether to centralize or decentralize their service operation. A successful requirement assessment and the mobilization of services together with business operations are only possible when using productized services. The service requirement assessment and rollout must consider the laws and practices of different countries while also taking into account the multi-vendor environment. In addition, the importance of service ownership increases: a single person cannot assume the responsibility for the entire service portfolio of a large company. The implementation of the SIAM concept enables efficient operations in a multi-vendor environment. Very Large Companies Net sales category M, operates globally Globally operating companies must be able to manage acquisitions and divestments as well as the shift of operations to low-cost countries. While the centralized management of applications enables cost savings, it also creates challenges in terms of resourcing, communication and user support. Moreover, operating with global service and hardware vendors creates additional requirements for Sourcing. The implementation of the SIAM concept enables efficient operations in a multi-vendor environment. PAGE 118

119 6.9 Service Management Focus Areas Figure 6.9 The focus of Service Management changes with the size and complexity of the company. The primary objective of Service Management is to ensure uninterrupted business operations. IT cooperates with internal and/or eternal services providers to provide the Business with services in accordance with service contracts. Sustainable planning and development of services enables IT to ensure continuity when business needs change. PAGE 119

120 PAGE 120

121 7.1 Tools & Standards IT Standard Deployment 7.1 IT Standard Deployment IT Standard can be implemented in various ways depending on the company s maturity and level of competence needed to deploy the work according to the guidelines. A company can take full advantage of IT Standard to run their business, however, they first need to have an understanding of the wanted changes and the focus areas for improvement. The deployment of IT Standard consists of several steps that are described in this figure. Figure 7.1 Deployment Plan Maturity Analysis IT Standard maturity analysis is a way to assess the current state of a company s IT operations and to determine the areas that need improvement. It consists of performing assessments based on the CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) scale for each IT function within the company. PAGE 121

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