1970 s Year 1998 Geological heritage in Finland as an example of sustainable use of geosites

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1 1970 s Year 1998 Geological heritage in Finland as an example of sustainable use of geosites Keijo Nenonen and Olli Breilin Geological Survey of Finland 1

2 Carta Marina 1539 Bishop Olaus Magnus 2

3 Zacharius Topelius 1873 "Most noticeable are the effects of this, partly still unexplained, phenomenon. The land rises from the sea, the sea flees, shores are exposed, and the slope is moving forward. Where in days of old ships were sailing, now hardly a ship can travel; where once the fisherman cast his net, now his cows go grazing on the coastal meadow. Banks and rocks appear out of the water, of which no sea chart has had knowledge before; banks expand into islets, these grow together and connect with the mainland. Beaches expand; harbours dry up, seaports must move after the fleeing sea. Every generation of men, new arable land rises from the sea, every century grants Finland a kingdom. 3

4 Kvarken Archipelago / High coast Sweden Finland /Kvarken Archipelago /High Coast Kvarken Archipelago (Finland), nominated 2006, is a extension for the High Coast (Sweden) World Heritage property that was nominated year 2000 and is thus transboundary serial property of both Finland and Sweden with name Kvarken Archipelago / High Coast. 4

5 Criteria (i) (2002 i 2005 viii) to be outstanding examples representing major stages of earth's history, including the record of life, significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features; 5

6 Justification for Inscription for High Coast: The site is one of the places in the world that is experiencing isostatic uplift as a result of deglaciation. Isostatic rebound is wellillustrated and the distinctiveness of the site is the extent of the total isostatic uplift which, at 294m, exceeds others. The site is the type area for research on isostacy, the phenomenon having been first recognised and studied there. Highest shore line at Sweden after deglaciation (285 m mpy) 6

7 Justification for Inscription for Kvarken Archipelago: The Kvarken Archipelago, with its 5600 islands and surrounding sea, is of exceptional geological value for two main reasons. 1) It is an area of rapid glacio isostatic uplift with rates that are among the highest in the world. The uplift has been ongoing for thousands of years and is associated with major changes in the water bodies in post glacial times. The Kvarken, along with the existing High Coast, its Swedish equivalent on the west coast of the Gulf of Bothnia, are key areas for the understanding of the processes of crustal response to the melting of the continental ice sheet. 2) The Kvarken area possesses a distinctive array of glacial depositional landforms, such as De Greer moraines, which add to the variety of glacial landscapes features in the region and reinforce the previous validity of the High Coast inscription. IUCN considers that thenominated property meets this criterion 7

8 Kvarken Archipelago with numbers Area ha, 85 % sea area Coast line 2416 km Number of islands and islets 5600 Inhabitants 2500 Water depth m, deepest course 25 metres near Holmö Island (Sweden) Brackish water, salt content 4-5 Ice covered days per year Water flow m 3 per second (from NE to SW) The total size of the KA/HC transboundary serial property is 336,900 hectares. 8

9 Ahtisaari avasi portin Merenkurkun maailman luonnonperintöalueelle Merenkurkun maailman luonnonperintöalue vihittiin lauantaina Björkön Svedjehamnissa. Kultareunuksen tilaisuuteen loi presidentti Martti Ahtisaari. Ympäristöministeri Paula Lehtomäki lupasi, että ainokaisesta pidetään hyvä huoli: lisäbudjetissa tulee rahaa 1,7 miljoonaa euroa. Pohjalainen

10 Ministeri lupasi pitää ainokaisestaan huolta Ympäristöministeri Paula Lehtomäki lupasi, että Suomen ainokaisesta pidetään hyvää huolta. Tuskin Suomeen kovin pian saadaan toista maailman luonnonperintöaluetta Merenkurkun saariston lisäksi. Pohjalainen

11 Future trans boundary WH initiative: Saimaa- Pielinen- Ladoga lake area owing outstanding universal nature values, both biological and geological?? 11

12 Deglaciation - The history of the Baltic Sea Baltic Ice Lake (early) Baltic Ice Lake (late) Yoldia Sea Ancylus Lake Litorina Sea M. Saarnisto (2003), drawings O. Sallasmaa 12

13 Glacial isostatic land uplift Isobase mm/year Year 4000 Picture Hanna Virkki (GTK) High coast Kvarken Archipelago Botnian Bay High Caost Botnian Sea Gulf of Bothnia Kvarken Archipelago Processing Markku Poutanen Finnish Geodetic Institute Baltic Sea The main ongoing geological process changes the shoreline and scenery in a span of human life time. 13

14 Land is arising from the sea, Gåsgrund 1978 ja 2006 Metsähallitus, Photo Seppo Lammi

15 Geodiversity on glaciated terrain Geologic formations and features created by continental ice sheet Drumlins Flutings Ribbed - moraines De Geer - moraines Hummocky moraine Boulder field Deep water sediments, clay/silt Continental ice sheet Drawings Harri Kutvonen (GTK) 15

16 Geology of central area of the Kvarken Archiplago Based on 1: mapping of Quaternary deposits and formations Glacial till Glacial formations, De Geer-moraines Glacial formations, Ribbed-moraines Deep water sediments, silt and clay Glaciofluvial formations, sand and gravel (esker) Littoral deposits, sand and gravel Bedrock outcrops N 10 km 16

17 Schematic drawings of formation of the De Geer moraines in the Kvarken Archipelago A) Ice push and squeeze of diamicton B) Deepwater sedimentation C) Land uplift and isolation of water bodies Keijo Nenonen, drawings Harri Kutvonen (GTK) 17

18 Svedjehamn De Geer moraine field - Interpretation of the De Geer moraines at shallow sea area (digital airphotos) ICE FLOW DIRECTION Svedjehamn Aerial photo Maanmittauslaitos Interpretation Riikka Koskinen (GTK) 18

19 Glacial landforms De Geer moraines on the sea floor, Replot A) Echo sounding B) Aquistic reflektion sounding Interpretation Anu Reijonen

20 De Geer moraine field, Svedjehamn, Björkö Metsähallitus, Photo Seppo Lammi

21 De Geer moraine field, Svedjehamn, Björkö Metsähallitus, Photo Seppo Lammi

22 De Geer moraine field, Svedjehamn, Björkö Metsähallitus, Photo Seppo Lammi

23 De Geer moraine, Svedjehamn Photo Jukka-Pekka Palmu, GTK

24 Narrow and stony water way, Svedjehamn, Björkö Photo Olli Breilin, GTK

25 Flada-klu lagoon-lake series, Lappören Metsähallitus, Photo Seppo Lammi

26 Ribbed - moraines, Björkögrunden-islands Rogen like moraines at Björkögrunden. ICE FLOW DIRECTION Maanmittauslaitos 13/MYY/06 Picture Jukka Ojalainen 26

27 Ribbed moraines, Valassaaret-islands Picture Metsähallitus 27

28 Land uplift phenomena has many exiciting attracts for tourists. Uplifted rockbridge at Valsörarna from 19 th century. Photo Olli Breilin (GTK) 28

29 IUCN inspection in primitive forest of Mickelsörarna - islands Photo Olli Breilin (GTK) 29

30 Boulder field, Bergö Gaddarna - islands Photo Jukka Ojalainen, GTK 30

31 Geological mapping on recently uplifted outcrop of peneplated crystalline bedrock surface Photo Olli Breilin (GTK) 31

32 Complex flow pattern of the continental ice sheet Age Relation of the Striations Undefined age relation The Youngest Local Direction Older Local Direction The Oldest Local Direction Picture Jukka Ojalainen 32

33 Complex flow pattern of the continental ice sheet Hundreds observations of striations Normally 2, often 3 and even 5 different directions 45º 355º N 310º Picture and interpretation Jukka Ojalainen, GTK 33

34 Littoral deposits Raised beaches and on going littoral processes. Photos Olli Breilin (upper) ja Jukka Ojalainen (lower), Drawings Harri Kutvonen Märäskäret Norrskär 34

35 Old remains of human activity on ancient shingle fields Field-labyrinth. Photos Jukka Ojalainen Editing Harri Kutvonen A shelter for seal hunters and fishermans 35

36 Nordic cooperation Geonat-project geoexcursion at Umeå area Photo Olli Breilin (GTK) 36

37 Nomination and research partners Ympäristöministeriö Länsi-Suomen ympäristökeskus K. H. Renlunds stiftelse Korsholms kommun Mustasaaren kunta Vaasan kaupunki Vasa stad INTERREG IIIA Kvarken- MittSkandia program 37

38 Thank you for your attention Sampling at Norra Djupörbådan Photo Hannu Kujala;GTK

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