1 FY 2017 CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET JUSTIFICATION EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION Community Service Employment for Older Americans
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3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Appropriation Language... 1 Explanation of Language Change... 2 Amounts Available for Obligation... 4 Summary of Changes... 5 Summary Budget Authority and FTE by Activity... 6 Budget Authority by Object Class... 7 Appropriation History... 8 Budget Activities... 9 Community Service Employment for Older Americans... 9
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5 APPROPRIATION LANGUAGE To carry out title V of the Older Americans Act of 1965 (referred to in this Act as "OAA"), $434,371,000, which shall be available for the period [July]April 1, 2017 through June 30, 2018, and may be recaptured and reobligated in accordance with section 517(c) of the OAA. Provided, That for new participants during such period in lieu of the requirements contained in section 518 (a)(3)(a) of the OAA, an eligible individual shall be an individual age 55 or older whose income is not more than 133 percent of the poverty line (excluding earned income described in section 1612(b)(3)(B) of the Social Security Act, or who is receiving supplemental security income benefits under title XVI of the Social Security Act, supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits under the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008, or benefits under the Veterans pension benefit programs administered by the Department of Veterans Affairs: Provided further, That section 506(a)(1) of the OAA shall be applied by substituting "10 percent" for "1.5 percent". Provided further, That subclause (I) of section 502(c)(6)(C)(i) of the OAA shall be applied by substituting "50 percent" for "65 percent" and subclause (III) of such section shall be applied by substituting "25 percent" for "10 percent": Provided further, That notwithstanding section 513(d)(3)(B)(iii) of the OAA, the funds distributed under section 506(e) of the OAA shall be awarded on a competitive basis by a State among State agencies and other public and nonprofit private agency organizations if the Secretary of Labor determines the State is a low-performing State, and the Secretary of Labor shall provide technical assistance to the State related to the competition and to subsequent service delivery. (Department of Labor Appropriations Act, 2016.) CSEOA - 1
6 EXPLANATION OF LANGUAGE CHANGE The Administration proposes several changes for FY 2017 to the appropriations language under the Community Services Employment for Older Americans (CSEOA) heading from the language that was enacted in FY One proposal is to change the period of availability to begin on April 1, 2017 rather than July 1, This promotes seamless service delivery to grantees and program participants. The current obligation period that starts July 1 coincides with the beginning of the grantees performance period for these programs often causing a break in service due to the fact that funds are not available to the grantees at the start of their program year. With this change, the Department will be able to make funding available before the first day of the grantees performance period on July 1, Also, the changes contain four new provisos that are designed to better target the program, make the eligibility determination process simpler, and improve employment outcomes. The first proviso changes the eligibility requirements for new participants in the program in FY Participants would have to be age 55 or older and either have an income of not more than 133 percent of the poverty line (excluding $30 of earned income for each calendar quarter as is provided in the eligibility provisions relating to the supplemental security income (SSI) program), or be receiving SSI benefits, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits, or benefits under the veterans pension programs administered by the Department of Veterans Affairs. These requirements would replace the current law eligibility requirements under section 518(a)(3)(A) of the Older Americans Act (OAA). Under that provision, to be eligible, individuals age 55 or older must have an income that does not exceed 125 percent of the poverty line, excluding unemployment compensation, Veterans assistance, supplemental income security benefits, and 25 percent of Social Security benefits or Supplemental Security Disability Income (SSDI). This change is intended to better target the SCSEP program to those seniors who most need it, simplify eligibility determinations by removing the need to determine income eligibility for individuals already receiving means-tested benefits, and harmonize income eligibility requirements across Federal means-tested programs. The second proviso increases the percentage of funds the Secretary of Labor may reserve under section 506(a)(1) of the OAA to carry out pilot, demonstration, evaluation and technical assistance projects from not more than 1.5 percent to not more than 10 percent of the appropriation. The intent is for the Secretary of Labor to use the additional reserve amounts to carry out projects that include on-the-job training (OJT) in private sector employment positions, with the goal of more effectively facilitating the transition into unsubsidized employment. The third proviso increases the percentage of funds that a grantee may request under section 502(c)(6)(C)(i) of the OAA to be used for training (to include a more robust training component such as industry credentialing to increase employability skills) from 10 percent to 25 percent, with a corresponding reduction in the required percentage used for wages and benefits for community service projects from 75 percent to 60 percent. This proviso would provide more flexibility to grantees to provide private sector training activities designed to assist participants in obtaining unsubsidized employment. The Department has found that participants who receive CSEOA - 2
7 skills training and are provided work experience aligned with that training tend to earn higher salaries in subsequent unsubsidized employment. The fourth proviso requires States receiving allotments under section 506(e) of the OAA that the Secretary of Labor determines are low performing based on their performance against criteria established in their grant agreement (such as not meeting national average performance measures) to conduct a competition among State agencies and other public and nonprofit organizations to carry out the CSEOA program in the State. In addition, the proviso would require the Secretary of Labor to provide technical assistance to those States relating to the conduct of the competition and to subsequent service delivery. Under section 513(d)(3)(B)(iii) of the OAA, States are only required to conduct a competition for funds if they fail to meet expected levels of performance for 3 consecutive years. This change will allow greater flexibility to the Secretary of Labor to require competition to enhance the quality of services provided under the SCSEP program. CSEOA - 3
8 AMOUNTS AVAILABLE FOR OBLIGATION (Dollars in Thousands) FY 2015 FY 2016 FY 2017 Request FTE Amount FTE Amount FTE Amount A. Appropriation 0 $434,371 0 $434,371 0 $434,371 Transfer Pursuant to P.L ($1,086) 0 $0 0 $0 Subtotal Appropriation 0 $434,371 0 $434,371 0 $434,371 B. Gross Budget Authority 0 $433,285 0 $434,371 0 $434,371 Transfer Pursuant to P.L $1,086 0 $0 0 $0 Offsetting Collections: Subtotal Transfers 0 +$1,086 0 $0 0 $0 C. Budget Authority 0 $434,371 0 $434,371 0 $434,371 Before Committee 0 $434,371 0 $434,371 0 $434,371 Transfer Pursuant to P.L $1,086 0 $0 0 $0 Subtotal Transfers 0 -$1,086 0 $0 0 $0 D. Total Budgetary Resources 0 $433,285 0 $434,371 0 $434,371 Unobligated Balance End-of-Year 0-53,757 0 $0 0 $0 E. Total, Estimated Obligations 0 $379,528 0 $434,371 0 $434,371 CSEOA - 4
9 SUMMARY OF CHANGES (Dollars in Thousands) FY 2016 FY 2017 Request Net Change Budget Authority General Funds $434,371 $434,371 $0 Total $434,371 $434,371 $0 Full Time Equivalents General Funds Total FY 2017 Change Increases: Explanation of Change FY 2016 Base Trust Funds General Funds Total FTE Amount FTE Amount FTE Amount FTE Amount A. Built-Ins: To Provide For: Costs of pay adjustments 0 $0 0 $0 0 $0 0 $0 Grants, subsidies, and contributions 0 $434,371 0 $0 0 $0 0 $0 Built-Ins Subtotal 0 +$434,371 0 $0 0 $0 0 $0 B. Programs: Programs Subtotal 0 $0 0 $0 0 $0 Total Increase 0 +$434,371 0 $0 0 $0 0 $0 Decreases: A. Built-Ins: To Provide For: Built-Ins Subtotal 0 $0 0 $0 0 $0 0 $0 B. Programs: Programs Subtotal 0 $0 0 $0 0 $0 Total Decrease 0 $0 0 $0 0 $0 0 $0 Total Change 0 +$434,371 0 $0 0 $0 0 $0 CSEOA - 5
10 SUMMARY BUDGET AUTHORITY AND FTE BY ACTIVITY (Dollars in Thousands) FY 2015 FY 2016 FY 2017 Request Diff. FY17 Request / FY16 FTE Amount FTE Amount FTE Amount FTE Amount Community Service Employment for Older Americans 0 434, , , General Funds 0 434, , , Total 0 434, , , General Funds 0 434, , , CSEOA - 6
11 BUDGET AUTHORITY BY OBJECT CLASS (Dollars in Thousands) FY 2015 FY 2016 FY 2017 Request Diff. FY17 Request / FY16 Full-Time Equivalent Total Grants, subsidies, and contributions 434, , ,371 0 Total 434, , ,371 0 CSEOA - 7
12 2007 Budget Estimates to Congress APPROPRIATION HISTORY (Dollars in Thousands) House Allowance Senate Allowance Appropriations FTE Base Appropriation $432,311 $436,678 $436,678 $483,611 0 Legislative Proposal -$44,000 $0 $0 $ Base Appropriation...1/ $350,000 $388,311 $388,311 $521, Base Appropriation...2/3/ $350,000 $530,900 $483,611 $571, Base Appropriation $575,425 $0 $571,925 $825, Base Appropriation $600,425 $615,425 $575,425 $449, Base Appropriation...4/5/ $0 $0 $0 $448, Base Appropriation...5/ $0 $0 $0 $424, Base Appropriation...5/ $0 $0 $0 $434, Base Appropriation...5/ $0 $0 $0 $434, Base Appropriation $434,371 $434,371 $400,000 $434, Base Appropriation $434,371 $0 $0 $434, / This bill was only reported out of Subcommittee and was not passed by the Full House. 2/ $120,000,000 in Recovery Act funds were provided pursuant to P.L / Reflects a 0.2% across-the-board rescission pursuant to P.L / Reflects a 0.189% across-the-board rescission pursuant to P.L / The Budgets for proposed to transfer the program to the Department of Health and Human Services. CSEOA - 8
13 BUDGET AUTHORITY BEFORE THE COMMITTEE (Dollars in Thousands) Diff. FY17 Request / FY16 FY 2015 FY 2016 FY 2017 Request Activity Appropriation 434, , ,371 0 FTE Introduction The Community Service Employment for Older Americans (CSEOA) program, also known as the Senior Community Service Employment Program (SCSEP), supports the self-sufficiency and employment of older workers by providing part-time, paid community service positions and work-based training for unemployed, low-income individuals, age 55 and older. SCSEP grantees served more than 67,000 participants in the most recent 12-month period. The average age of participants upon enrollment was 62. SCSEP, as authorized by Title V of the Older Americans Act (OAA), has a dual purpose: to foster individual economic self-sufficiency and to increase the number of participants placed in unsubsidized employment in the public and private sectors, while maintaining the community service focus of the program. SCSEP grantees currently include 56 units of state and territorial government and 15 competitively-selected national grantees. SCSEP-funded services are available in nearly all 3,000 U.S. counties and territories. SCSEP funds are distributed by a statutorily-prescribed formula that considers the number of low-income seniors residing in each state and county. Five-Year Budget Activity History Fiscal Year Funding (Dollars in Thousands) FTE Funding Mechanism 2012 $448, $424, $434, $434, $434,371 0 WIOA programs operate on a Program Year (PY) calendar. In FY 2017, the Department is proposing a legislative change to this budget to move the obligation period from July 1, 2017 through June 30, 2018 to April 1, 2017 through June 30, Therefore, PY 2017 funds appropriated in FY 2017 will be available from April 1, 2017 through June 30, In general, the formula allocates funds to every state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico based on U.S. Census data on the number of individuals in that jurisdiction who have low per-capita income and are 55 and older. Under current law, prior to determining the amount available to be CSEOA - 9
14 allocated to the states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, funds are reserved for the following: 1) up to 1.5 percent of the total authorization as determined by the Secretary of Labor for pilots, demonstration, and evaluation projects; 2) a fixed percentage of 0.75 percent of the total allocation to the territories of Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; and 3) a portion determined by the Secretary of Labor for national public or non-profit agencies to serve eligible American Indian and Pacific Island/Asian American individuals. After the reserve amounts are specified and the funding proportion for each state is determined by the formula, funds are allocated to and administered through grants to all state governors, Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, and four territories as well as national non-profit agencies. Approximately 22 percent of formula funds are awarded to the governors, with 78 percent competitively-awarded to national non-profit agencies for services across the country. Under the OAA, these grants are renewed annually for four years, with an optional one-year extension. The last national competition was in Program Year (PY) 2012, when the Department funded 15 national grantees, including two organizations under the Indian and Pacific Islands/ Asian Americans set-asides. During FY 2016, the Department will conduct a new competition for national grantees. In general, under current law, 75 percent of Federal funds must be spent on wages and benefits to participants, with the remaining funds for other participant costs, with an option to use up to 10 percent of these funds for training. The OAA sets a 13.5 percent cap on administrative expenses. The Federal funds provided to each of the grantees can be no more than 90 percent of the total project amount, with the non-federal matching requirement to be provided either in cash or in kind. FY 2017 The Department is requesting $434,371,000 in FY 2017 (PY 2017) for the period April 1, 2017 through June 30, 2018, the same level requested in FY 2016 (PY 2016). The PY 2017 obligation period reflects a proposed change from July 1, 2017 through June 30, 2018 to April 1, 2017 through June 30, This obligation period mirrors that of the YouthBuild, Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act Youth, and the Indian and Native American youth program funds. This proposal promotes seamless service delivery to grantees and program participants. The current obligation period that starts July 1 coincides with the beginning of the grantees performance period for these programs often causing a break in service due to the fact that funds are not available to the grantees at the start of their program year. With this change, the Department will be able to make funding available before the first day of the grantees performance period on July 1, The Budget request reforms and improves the program by continuing to propose adjusting and simplifying income eligibility to serve those most in need, allowing for employment in for-profit organizations which offer seniors better long-term unsubsidized employment prospects, and allowing the Secretary to require competition in cases of low performance. The FY 2017 grants CSEOA - 10
15 will also implement evidence-based workforce solutions as described in the report What Works in Job Training: A Synthesis of the Evidence, 1 the recommendations from the Aging Worker Initiative, and learnings from previous demonstration grants regarding employer engagement. In FY 2017, the Department proposes to increase the Secretary s Reserve from not more than 1.5 percent, to not more than 10 percent, and use the additional funding to award demonstration grants to support on-the-job training rotations (called on-the-job experience or OJE in the SCSEP regulations) with private employers. This will enhance engagement between the grantees and private sector employers, and allow grantees to develop OJE models and employer engagement promising practices that can be replicated across the system. It will also allow SCSEP participants to gain additional work experience that better prepares them for unsubsidized employment. OJE is currently an available option for SCSEP grantees under the SCSEP regulations, but is not widely used. The Department also proposes to allow existing grantees additional flexibility in developing OJE models by allowing grantees to use up to 10 percent of grant funds for OJE models. There is strong evidence that work-based, on-the-job training is a successful model for individuals to obtain unsubsidized employment, and these proposals will encourage and expand the use of this successful employment strategy. The Department has found that participants who receive skills training and are provided work experience aligned with that training tend to earn higher salaries in subsequent unsubsidized employment. To further strengthen the private sector training opportunities available to participants, the Department proposes to increase the percentage of funds that a grantee may request be used for training (to include a more robust training component such as industry credentialing to increase employability skills) from 10 percent to 25 percent, with a corresponding reduction in the required percentage used for wages and benefits for community service projects from 75 percent to 60 percent. The intent is to provide additional resources and more flexibility to grantees to provide in-demand industry recognized training and credentialing opportunities to increase the participants employability, skills, obtain unsubsidized employment. The Department proposes to focus the FY 2017 grants on expanding eligibility by reducing the current income eligibility exclusions of the SCSEP program and increasing the poverty threshold to 133 percent. In addition, the proposal will simplify eligibility determination by allowing individuals who receive supplemental security income benefits, supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits, or benefits under the Veterans pension programs administered by the Department of Veterans Affairs to be deemed eligible for SCSEP income requirements. This kind of fast track income eligibility reduces paperwork burdens for seniors and program administrators. These changes will better target the SCSEP program to those seniors who most need it, simplify eligibility determinations, and harmonize income eligibility requirements across Federal means-tested programs. The Department is also proposing to allow the Secretary to require States that are deemed to be low-performing, based on their performance against criteria established in their grant agreement (such as not meeting national average performance measures), and are receiving formula allotments to carry out competitions among State agencies and other public and 1 What Works In Job Training: A Synthesis of the Evidence, CSEOA - 11
16 nonprofit organizations to administer the CSEOA program in that State. DOL would also provide technical assistance to those States relating to the competition and subsequent service delivery. In FY 2017, the workforce system will have made significant progress in implementing the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA); SCSEP remains a mandatory partner in the American Job Center network under WIOA, and the WIOA statute describes responsibilities of one-stop partner programs in coordinating and aligning programs to better serve jobseeker and business customers. SCSEP participants, for whom a stated goal is to transition to unsubsidized jobs in their communities, will benefit from this coordination, as it will give them more ready access to the other services provided at the American Job Centers. FY 2016 In FY 2016 (PY 2016) the enacted budget is $434,371,000 for the period July 1, 2016 through June 30, 2017, the same level enacted in FY 2015 (PY 2015). The Department will hold a competition for PY 2016 grant funds for SCSEP national grantees in early 2016, and in PY 2016 will support the seamless transition for participants among grantees for any grantee changes. In its program management in PY 2016, the Department will focus on guidance and technical assistance for SCSEP grantees to help them provide high quality training to participants that prepare them for self-sustaining employment. These efforts will include sharing best practices from recent demonstration grants that aimed to increase work-based learning models such as OJE. PY 2016 is the second year of implementation of the Workforce Opportunity and Innovation Act (WIOA). SCSEP state grantees will submit SCSEP State Plans for PY States have the option to submit Combined State Plans, which incorporate SCSEP into the state strategic plan for WIOA core programs. The state planning process provides an opportunity for states to further promote the integration of SCSEP into the American Job Center network. FY 2015 In FY 2015 (PY 2015) the enacted budget was $434,371,000 to fund SCSEP, for the period of July 1, 2015 through June 30, In PY 2015, the Department administered grants to the national grantees that won the PY 2012 national competition and the 56 states and territories, and published the PY 2016 grant competition. SCSEP participants provided valuable community services throughout the country, acted as mentors and role models for younger workers, and gained valuable work experience that prepared them for unsubsidized employment. In the first year of WIOA implementation, the Department provided all workforce partners information and technical assistance about the law and the importance of partner integration in American Job Centers. CSEOA - 12
17 Community Service Employment for Older Americans Strategic Goal 1 - Prepare workers for better jobs COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT FOR OLDER DETAILED WORKLOAD AND PERFORMANCE PY 2014 PY 2015 PY 2016 PY 2017 Request Target Result Target Result Target Target Strategic Objective Advance employment opportunities for US workers in 21st century demand sectors and occupations using proven training models and through increased employer engagement and partnerships ETA- SCSEP-01 ETA- SCSEP-02 ETA- SCSEP-03 ETA- SCSEP-04 Entered Employment Rate (Senior Community Service Employment Program) 43.90% 46.40%[r] 45.00% TBD TBD TBD Employment Retention Rate (Senior Community Service Employment Program) 73.40% 73.70% 73.00% TBD TBD TBD Six Months Average Earnings (Senior Community Service Employment Program) $7,564 $7,475 $7,500 TBD TBD TBD Number of Participants Served (Senior Community Service Employment Program) 68,528 67,356 67,185 TBD 67,185 [p] 67,185 [p] Cost per Participant $6, $6, $6, TBD $6,465.30[p] $6,465.30[p] Authorized Positions (slots) 44,790 44,790 44,790 TBD 44,790[p] 44,790[p] Turnover Rate TBD 1.50[p] 1.50[p] Legend: (r) Revised (e) Estimate (base) Baseline -- Not Applicable TBD - To Be Determined [p] - Projection CSEOA - 13
18 Workload and Performance Narrative SCSEP uses six measures to track performance outcomes and determine if the program is meeting the proposed targets: Entered Employment Rate, Six Months Average Earnings, Authorized Positions, Turnover Rate, Participants Served and Cost per Participant. Six Months Average Earnings indicates the average earnings in the second and third quarters after exit for those individuals who exit the program into unsubsidized employment. The number of authorized positions, turnover rate, participants served and cost per participant are all directly related to the allowance level. The number of authorized positions is calculated by dividing the total allowance by cost per position. The cost per position is determined by a formula in the SCSEP legislation. The national average unit cost includes all costs of administration, other participant costs, and participant wage and benefit costs as defined in Section 506(g) of the OAA. As previously noted, the cost per participant (shown in the above chart) is lower than the cost per position due to the turnover rate. Participant data are derived by using quarterly report estimates. SCSEP also measures entered employment and employment retention in order to support progress toward the goal of helping workers who are in low-wage jobs or out of the labor market find a path to middle class jobs. In addition to these common performance measures, SCSEP is statutorily required to measure a series of additional outcomes, such as the aggregate hours of community service employment, the number of most-in-need individuals served, and retention in unsubsidized employment for one year. An annual customer satisfaction survey of participants, host agencies and employers is also required. Performance targets are set for the program based on grantees actual performance and adjusted grantee-by-grantee to the degree that they are affected by levels of poverty, unemployment, and participant barriers to employment in their local service areas. The targets for entered employment, retention, and average earnings are based on a methodology for setting national performance targets using regression analysis. This regression uses program results from the prior year, current labor market conditions, and individual characteristics to correct for the effects of the business cycle and labor market conditions on the outcomes of employment and training programs, producing targets that objectively reflect the impact of the economic environment on program performance. Where final data, rather than estimates, have been used to derive targets, the source of this data is the SCSEP quarterly progress reports generated by the SCSEP Performance and Results Quarterly Progress Report (SPARQ) system, an online data collection and performance reporting system. To gauge grantee progress toward the above targets, the Department tracks and monitors grantee outputs through intensive and ongoing program monitoring and oversight activities. Aggregate and grantee-level data from the SPARQ system is used to generate quarterly reports on performance. This information aids Federal Project Officers during on-site and desk reviews, as well as national office staff members who track the performance on a regular basis. The Department aims to improve grantee performance through the technical assistance strategies CSEOA - 14
19 used to support grantees, including webinars, desk aids, conferences, and regular conference calls and other communication with grantees. The annual customer satisfaction survey is conducted and reviewed by stakeholders, including the Department, grantees and employers. The survey provides insight on strengths and weaknesses of the program to aid in continuous program improvement efforts. The Department is examining options for reporting the relevant WIOA performance indicators (Employment, Employment Retention, and Median Earnings) alongside the established SCSEP measures, once WIOA performance measures are implemented. However, under current law the Department would only hold SCSEP grantees accountable for performance measures in the OAA. CSEOA - 15
20 CHANGES IN FY 2017 (Dollars in Thousands) Activity Changes Built-In To Provide For: Costs of pay adjustments $0 Grants, subsidies, and contributions 0 Built-Ins Subtotal $0 Net Program $0 Direct FTE 0 Estimate FTE Base $434,371 0 Program Increase $0 0 Program Decrease $0 0 CSEOA - 16
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