Introduction. Video conferencing. Equipment. Systems. Multipoint Conferences. Group Meetings

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1 Video conferencing Introduction Standards Products Internet telephony Computer Telephony Integration (CTI) Introduction Video conferencing can be used for + Audio-visual communication + Sharing of documents, tables, pictures, etc. Several benefits + Traveling costs + Response time + Better understanding (body language) Petri Vuorimaa 1 Petri Vuorimaa 2 Systems Equipment Two main types: + Video conferencing rooms + Video conferencing software Video conferencing rooms are for group meetings + Organization either has it own premises or rents them from operator Video conferencing software is for personal use Video/audio capture Modem, ISDN or LAN Communication network Audio card Petri Vuorimaa 3 Petri Vuorimaa 4 Group Meetings Two types of video conferences: + Point-to-point conferences (video telephony) + Multipoint conferences (group meetings) In group meetings, there are two ways to share turns (i.e., floor control): + Automatic selection (e.g., based on audio) + Chairman Multipoint Conferences Communications network Multipoint server Petri Vuorimaa 5 Petri Vuorimaa 6 1

2 Standard Families Standard families (cont.) Integrated Services Digital Network - ISDN (H.320) Networks supporting QoS (H.310, H.321, and H.322) Local area networks - LAN (H.323) Plain old telephone systems - POTS (H.324) Shared workspaces (T.120) Petri Vuorimaa 7 Petri Vuorimaa 8 H.320 Petri Vuorimaa 10 Video Two resolutions: + Quarter Common Intermediate Format (QCIF): 176 x Common Intermediate Format (CIF): 352 x 288 Frame rates 7.5, 10, 15, or 30 frames per second Motion estimation can be used, but is not necessary Audio codecs Three different audio codecs: + G Kbps narrow band + G Kbps wide band + G Kbps narrow band Petri Vuorimaa 11 Petri Vuorimaa 12 2

3 Different classes H.324 Petri Vuorimaa 13 Petri Vuorimaa 14 H.324 Meant for Plain Old Telephone Systems (POTS) H.263 can be used for below 64 Kbps video coding + sub-qcif (128 x 96), QCIF (176 x 144), CIF (352 x 288), 4CIF (702 x 576), and 16CIF (1408 x 1152) G audio codec transmits at 5.3 or 6.3 Kbps H.324 (cont.) Can use even 28.8 and 33.3 Kbps modems (V.34) Codecs are better, but quality is worse than H H.320 has much more bandwidth than H.324 Petri Vuorimaa 15 Petri Vuorimaa 16 H.323 H.323 LANs (Internet & Intranet) without QoS support Clients, multipoint servers, gateways and gatekeepers Real-time transport protocol (RTP) New audio codec G.729 (8 Kbps) Petri Vuorimaa 17 Petri Vuorimaa 18 3

4 Gateway The gateway allows the integration of H.323 networks with other networks Tasks: + transformations between media formats + transformations between communication protocols + transformations between audio and video codecs + connection setup and tear-down Petri Vuorimaa 19 Gatekeeper Gatekeeper takes care of resource reservations The amount of simultaneous users can be limited Transforms connection requests from outside to internal addresses and vice versa Multipoint Server Required when three or more clients participate the conference Is composed of two parts: + Multipoint Controller takes care of connections + Multipoint Processor(s) transform(s) media streams Processors can also combine streams: + Mixing + Switching Petri Vuorimaa 21 Petri Vuorimaa 22 Multipoint Server (cont.) Different alternatives Videoconferences can be set up in three different ways: + unicast, multicast, and broadcast Three ways of practical implementation: + centralized, distributed, and hybrid In practice H.323 is implemented on top of IP etc. protocols Petri Vuorimaa 23 Petri Vuorimaa 24 4

5 Protocol stack T.120 Implements the extra services: + conformance + image transfer + shared workspaces + file transfer + multipoint conferences Petri Vuorimaa 25 Petri Vuorimaa 26 T.120 (cont.) Transport layer T.120 is composed of three layers: + transport layer + protocol layer + application layer Transport layer is divided into three levels: + transport protocol + multipoint conference + conference control Petri Vuorimaa 27 Petri Vuorimaa 28 T.120 (cont.) Protocol layer is composed of + image transfer (T.126) + binary file transfer (T.127) + share application transfer (T.Share) + resource reservation (T.RES) New standard family T.130 is under development Products Video conference bridges Video networks Video conference rooms Workstations Gatekeepers Gateways Petri Vuorimaa 29 Petri Vuorimaa 30 5

6 Video conference bridges Support primarily H.320 and T.120 standard families Allow multipoint video conferencing Support few tens of users Participants either call to the bridge or the bridge setups the connections itself Video networks Best possible image quality Intended primarily for conferences Uses either ISDN or ATM network Petri Vuorimaa 31 Petri Vuorimaa 32 Video conference rooms Intended for video conferencing Maintained by companies or operators Based on H.320 (ISDN) standard family H.323 (Internet) standard family is coming Workstations LAN, ISDN, or modem card Audio and video cards Software (e.g., Microsoft Netmeeting, Picturetel, Intel) H.320 most common, but H.323 is coming (client software is available) Petri Vuorimaa 33 Petri Vuorimaa 34 Gatekeepers Required by H.323 standard family For example, Intel LANDesk Conferencing Manager + automatic gate keeper + zone management + outbound route management + incoming call routing Petri Vuorimaa 35 Gateways Intel LiveGateway + bi-directional connection between H.323 and H.320 systems + format transform between H.323 and H.320 systems + supports also H.320 multipoint server + four gates in on PC + either local or gate keeper based administration Both Intel LANDesk Conferencing and LiveGateway are Windows NT based Petri Vuorimaa 36 6

7 Internet telephony Internet telephony (cont.) With suitable hardware and software computers connected to Internet can be used for telephony No extra charges, but the quality is not very good Gateways to ordinary telephone network also available Petri Vuorimaa 37 Petri Vuorimaa 38 Internet telephony (cont.) Calls within organization Some long distance operators use Internet connections for telephony Allows the use of compression For example, 64 Kbps -> 2.4 Kbps Petri Vuorimaa 39 Petri Vuorimaa 40 Public Internet calls Internet telephony products Microsoft Netmeeting supports H.323 and T.120 standard families Includes H.263 video codec Compatible with Intel and PictureTel products Utilizes Intel Pentium MMX technology Other products include White Pine Software CU- SeeMe, IBM Internet Connection Phone, VDOnet VDOPhone Petri Vuorimaa 41 Petri Vuorimaa 42 7

8 CTI CTI block diagram Computer Telephony Integration (CTI) integrated computers and telephones Brings savings and increases efficiency (invest return time usually under year) Several different implementations Petri Vuorimaa 43 Petri Vuorimaa 44 CTI applications Voice mail (answering service) Automatic call transfer Intelligent call routing and distribution (call centers) Voice text (timetable, etc.) Fax requests (information delivered via fax) CTI applications (cont.) Interactive telephone services (reservations, orders, etc.) Call records (automatic recognition of customers) Gateways (video conference with standard telephone) Call management (automatic dialing) Petri Vuorimaa 45 Petri Vuorimaa 46 CTI implementations Call Center CTI can be based on separate server Another alternative is to join telephone directly to workstation Video conference, Internet telephony, and CTI systems can be integrated Petri Vuorimaa 47 Petri Vuorimaa 48 8

9 Integrated system CTI standards Multi-Vendor Integration Protocol (MVIP) System Computing System Architecture (SCSA) Both are buses connecting different PC cards Buses are used for call traffic within PC Petri Vuorimaa 49 Petri Vuorimaa 50 PC cards CTI APIs Microsoft Telephony Application Programming Interface = TAPI (-93) + Windows applications Novell Telephony Service API = TSAPI (-93) + Novell servers IBM CTI API + Switches and their interfaces Petri Vuorimaa 51 Petri Vuorimaa 52 CTI APIs (cont.) SCSA framework Sun Java Telephony API = JTAPI + Java-framework + utilizes above mentioned API definitions Petri Vuorimaa 53 9

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