1 Scrum Guide By Ken Schwaber, May, 2009 Scrum has been used to develop complex products since the early 1990s. This paper describes how to use Scrum to build products. Scrum is not a process or a technique for building products; rather, it is a framework within which you can employ various processes and techniques. The role of Scrum is to surface the relative efficacy of your development practices so that you can improve upon them while providing a framework within which complex products can be developed. Scrum Theory Scrum, which is grounded in empirical process control theory, employs an iterative, incremental approach to optimize predictability and control risk. Three pillars uphold every implementation of empirical process control. The first leg is transparency Transparency ensures that aspects of the process that affect the outcome must be visible to those managing the outcomes. Not only must these aspects be transparent, but also what is being seen must be known. That is, when someone inspecting a process believes that something is done, it must be equivalent to their definition of done.
2 The second leg is inspection The various aspects of the process must be inspected frequently enough so that unacceptable variances in the process can be detected. The frequency of inspection has to take into consideration that all processes are changed by the act of inspection. A conundrum occurs when the required frequency of inspection exceeds the tolerance to inspection of the process. Fortunately, this doesn t seem to be true of software development. The other factor is the skill and diligence of the people inspecting the work results. The third leg is adaptation. If the inspector determines from the inspection that one or more aspects of the process are outside acceptable limits, and that the resulting product will be unacceptable, the inspector must adjust the process or the material being processed. The adjustment must be made as quickly as possible to minimize further deviation. There are three points for inspection and adaptation in Scrum. The Daily Scrum meeting is used to inspect progress toward the Sprint goal, and to make adaptations that optimize the value of the next work day. In addition, the Sprint Review and Planning meetings are used to inspect progress toward the Release Goal and to make adaptations that optimize the value of the next Sprint. Finally, the Sprint Retrospective is used to review the past Sprint and determine what adaptations will make the next Sprint more productive, fulfilling, and enjoyable. Scrum Content The Scrum framework consists of a set of Scrum Teams and their associated roles; Time-Boxes, Artifacts, and Rules. Scrum Teams are designed to optimize flexibility and productivity; to this end, they
3 are self-organizing, they are cross-functional, and they work in iterations. Each Team has three roles: 1) the ScrumMaster, who is responsible for ensuring the process is understood and followed; 2) the Product Owner, who is responsible for maximizing the value of the work that the Team does; and 3) the Scrum Team, which does the work. The Team consists of developers with all the skills to turn the Product Owner s requirements into a potentially releasable piece of the product by the end of the Sprint. Scrum employs time boxes to create regularity. Elements of Scrum that are timeboxed include the Release Planning Meeting, the Sprint Planning Meeting, the Sprint, the Daily Scrum, the Sprint Review, and the Sprint Retrospective. The heart of Scrum is a Sprint, which is an iteration of one month or less that is of consistent length throughout a development effort. All Sprints use the same Scrum framework, and all Sprints deliver an increment of the final product that is potentially releasable. One Sprint starts immediately after the other. Scrum employs four principal artifacts. The Product Backlog is a prioritized list of everything that might be needed in the product. The Sprint Backlog is a list of tasks to turn the Product Backlog for one Sprint into an increment of potentially shippable product. A burndown is a measure of remaining backlog over time. A Release Burndown measures remaining Product Backlog across the time of a release plan. A Sprint Burndown measures remaining Sprint Backlog items across the time of a Sprint. Rules bind together Scrum s time-boxes, roles, and artifacts. Its rules are described throughout the body of this document. For example, it is a Scrum rule that only Team members - the people committed to turning the Product Backlog into an increment can talk during a Daily Scrum. Ways of implementing Scrum that are not rules but rather are suggestions are described in s boxes. When rules are not stated, the users of Scrum are expected to figure out what to do. Don t try to figure out a perfect solution, because the problem usually changes quickly. Instead, try something and see how it works. The inspect-and-adapt mechanisms of Scrum s empirical nature will guide you.
4 Scrum Roles The Scrum Team consists of the ScrumMaster, the Product Owner, and the Team. Scrum Team members are called pigs. Everyone else is a chicken. Chickens cannot tell pigs how to do their work. Chickens and pigs come from the story, A chicken and a pig are together when the chicken says, "Let's start a restaurant!" The pig thinks it over and says, "What would we call this restaurant?" The chicken says, "Ham n' Eggs!" The pig says, "No thanks, I'd be committed, but you'd only be involved!" The ScrumMaster works with the customers and management to identify and instantiate a Product Owner. The ScrumMaster teaches the Product Owner how to do his or her job. Product Owners are expected to know how to manage to optimize value using Scrum. If they don t, we hold the ScrumMaster accountable. The ScrumMaster The ScrumMaster is responsible for ensuring that the Team adheres to Scrum values, practices, and rules. The ScrumMaster helps the Scrum Team and the organization adopt Scrum. The ScrumMaster teaches the Team by coaching and by leading it to be more productive and produce higher quality products. The ScrumMaster helps the Team understand and use self-management and cross-functionality. However, the ScrumMaster does not manage the Team; the Team is self-managing. The ScrumMaster may be a member of the Team; for example, a developer performing Sprint tasks. However, this often leads to conflicts when the ScrumMaster has to choose between removing impediments and performing tasks. The ScrumMaster should never be the Product Owner.
5 The Product Owner The Product Owner is the one and only person responsible for managing the Product Backlog and ensuring the value of the work the Team performs. This person maintains the Product Backlog and ensures that it is visible to everyone. Everyone knows what items have the highest priority, so everyone knows what will be worked on. The Product Owner is one person, not a committee. Committees may exist that advise or influence this person, but people who want to change an item s priority have to convince the Product Owner. Companies that adopt Scrum may find it influences their methods for setting priorities and requirements over time. For commercial development, the Product Owner may be the product manager. For in-house development efforts, the Product Owner could be the manager of the business function that is being automated. For the Product Owner to succeed, everyone in the organization has to respect his or her decisions. No one is allowed to tell the Scrum Teams to work from a different set of priorities, and Teams aren t allowed to listen to anyone who says otherwise. The Product Owner s decisions are visible in the content and prioritization of the Product Backlog. This visibility requires the Product Owner to do his or her best, and it makes the role of Product Owner both a demanding and a rewarding one. The Product Owner can be a Team member, also doing development work. This additional responsibility may cut into the Product Owner s ability to work with stakeholders. However, the Product Owner can never be the ScrumMaster. The Team Teams of developers turn Product Backlog into increments of potentially shippable functionality every Sprint. Scrum Teams are also cross-functional; Team members must
6 have all of the skills necessary to create an increment of work. Team members often have specialized skills, such as programming, quality control, business analysis, architecture, user interface design, or data base design. However, the skills that Team member share that is, the skill of addressing a requirement and turning it into a usable product tend to be more important than the ones that they do not. People who refuse to code because they are architects or designers are not good fits for Scrum Teams. Everyone chips in, even if that requires learning new skills or remembering old ones. There are no titles on Scrum Teams, and there are no exceptions to this rule. Scrum Teams do not contain sub-teams dedicated to particular domains like testing or business analysis, either. Scrum Teams are also self-organizing. No one not even the ScrumMaster -- tells the Team how to turn Product Backlog into increments of shippable functionality. The Team figures this out on its own. Each Team member applies his or her expertise to all of the problems. The synergy that results improves the entire Team s overall efficiency and effectiveness. The optimal size for a Scrum Team is seven people, plus or minus two. When there are fewer than five Team members, there is less interaction and as a result less productivity gain. What s more, the Team may encounter skill constraints during parts of the Sprint and be unable to deliver a releasable piece of the product. If there are more than nine members, there is simply too much coordination required. Large Teams generate too much complexity for an empirical processs to manage. However, we have encountered some successful Teams that have exceeded the upper and lower bounds of this size range. The Product Owner and ScrumMaster roles are not included in this count unless they are also pigs. Team composition may change at the end of a Sprint. Every time Team membership is changed, the productivity gained from self-organization is diminished. Care should be taken when changing Team composition.
7 Time-Boxes The Time-Boxes in Scrum are the Release Planning Meeting, the Sprint, the Sprint Planning Meeting, the Sprint Review, the Sprint Retrospective, and the Daily Scrum. Release Planning Meeting The purpose of release planning is to establish a plan and goals that the Scrum Teams and the rest of the organizations can understand and communicate. Release planning answers the questions, How can we turn the vision into a winning product in best possible way? How can we meet or exceed the desired customer satisfaction and Return on Investment? The release plan establishes the goal of the release, the highest priority Product Backlog, the major risks, and the overall features and functionality that the release will contain. It also establishes a probable delivery date and cost that should hold if nothing changes. The organization can then inspect progress and make changes to this release plan on a Sprint-by-Sprint basis. Products are built iteratively using Scrum, wherein each Sprint creates an increment of the product, starting with the most valuable and riskiest. More and more Sprints create additional increments of the product. Each increment is a potentially shippable slice of the entire product. When enough increments have been created for the Product to be of value, of use to its investors, the product is released. Most organizations already have a release planning process, and in most of these processes most of the planning is done at the beginning of the release and left unchanged as time passes. In Scrum release planning, an overall goal and probable outcomes are defined. This release planning usually requires no more than 15-20% of the time an organization consumed to build a traditional release plan. However, a Scrum release performs just-in-time planning every Sprint Review and Sprint Planning meeting, as well as daily just-in-time planning at every Daily Scrum meeting. Overall, Scrum release efforts probably consume slightly more effort than tradition release planning efforts. Release planning requires estimating and prioritizing the Product Backlog for the Release. There are many techniques for doing so that lie outside the purview of Scrum but are nonetheless useful when used with it.
8 The Sprint A Sprint is an iteration. Sprints are time-boxed. During the Sprint, the ScrumMaster ensures that no changes are made that would affect the Sprint Goal. Both Team composition and quality goals remain constant throughout the Sprint. Sprints contain and consist of the Sprint Planning meeting, the development work, the Sprint Review, and the Sprint Retrospective. Sprints occur one after another, with no time in between Sprints. A project is used to accomplish something; in software development, it is used to build a product or system. Every project consists of a definition of what is to be built, a plan to build it, the work done according to the plan, and the resultant product. Every project has a horizon, which is to say the time frame for which the plan is good. If the horizon is too long, the definition may have changed, too many variables may have entered in, the risk may be too great, etc. Scum is a framework for a project whose horizon is no more than one month long, where there is enough complexity that a longer horizon is too risky. The predictability of the project has to be controlled at least each month, and the risk that the project may go out of control or become unpredictable is contained at least each month. If the Team senses that it has overcommitted, it meets with the Product Owner to remove or reduce the scope of Product Backlog selected for the Sprint. If the Team senses that it may have extra time, it can work with the Product Owner to select additional Product Backlog. When a Team begins Scrum, two-week Sprints allow it to learn without wallowing in uncertainty. Sprints of this length can be synchronized with other Teams by adding two increments together. Sprints can be cancelled before the Sprint time box is over. Only the Product Owner has the authority to cancel the Sprint, although he or she may do so under influence from the stakeholders, the Team, or the ScrumMaster. Under what kind of circumstances might a Sprint need to be cancelled? Management may need to cancel a Sprint if the Sprint Goal becomes obsolete. This could occur if the company changes direction or if market or technology conditions change. In general, a Sprint should be cancelled if it no longer makes sense given the circumstances. However, because of the short duration of Sprints,
9 it rarely makes sense to do so. When a Sprint is cancelled, any completed and done Product Backlog items are reviewed. They are accepted if they represent a potentially shippable increment. All other Product Backlog items are put back on the Product Backlog with their initial estimates. Any work done on them is assumed to be lost. Sprint terminations consume resources, since everyone has to regroup in another Sprint planning meeting to start another Sprint. Sprint terminations are often traumatic to the Scrum Team, and they are very uncommon. Sprint Planning Meeting The Sprint Planning meeting is when the iteration is planned. It is time-boxed to eight hours for a one month Sprint. For shorter Sprints, allocate approximately 5% of the total Sprint length to this meeting and consists of two parts. The first part, a four hour timebox, is when what will be done in the Sprint is decided upon. The second part, another four-hour time box, is when the Team figures out how it is going to build this functionality into a product increment during the Sprint. There are two parts to the Sprint Planning Meeting: the What? part and the How? part. Some Scrum Teams combine the two. In the first part, the Team addresses the question of What? Here, the Product Owner presents the top priority Product Backlog to the Team. They work together to figure out what functionality is to be developed during the next Sprint. The input to this meeting is the Product Backlog, the latest increment of product, the capacity of the Team, and past performance of the Team. The amount of backlog the Team selects is solely up to the Team. Only the Team can assess what it can accomplish over the upcoming Sprint. Having selected the Product Backlog, a Sprint Goal is crafted. The Sprint Goal is an objective that will be met through the implementation of the Product Backlog. This is a statement that provides guidance to the Team on why it is building the increment. The Sprint Goal is a subset of the release goal. The reason for having a Sprint Goal is to give the Team some wiggle room regarding the functionality. For example, the goal for the above Sprint could also be: Automate the client account modification functionality through a secure, recoverable transaction middleware capability. As the Team works, it keeps this goal in mind. In order to satisfy
10 the goal, it implements the functionality and technology. If the work turns out to be harder than the Team had expected, then the Team collaborates with the Product Owner and only partially implement the functionality. In the second part of the Sprint Planning Meeting, the Team addresses the question of How? During the second four hours of the Sprint Planning Meeting, the Team figures out how it will turn the Product Backlog selected during Sprint Planning Meeting (What) into a done increment. The Team usually starts by designing the work. While designing, the Team identifies tasks. These tasks are the detailed pieces of work needed to convert the Product Backlog into working software. Tasks should have decomposed so they can be done in less than one day. This task list is called the Sprint Backlog. The Team selforganizes to assign and undertake the work in the Sprint Backlog, either during the Sprint Planning meeting or just-in-time during the Sprint. Usually, only 60-70% of the total Sprint Backlog will be devised in the Sprint Planning meeting. The rest are stubbed out for later detailing, or given large estimates that will be decomposed later in the Sprint. The Product Owner is present during the second part of the Sprint Planning Meeting to clarify the Product Backlog and to help make trade-offs. If the Team determines that it has too much or too little work, it may renegotiate the Product Backlog with the Product Owner. The Team may also invite other people to attend in order to provide technical or domain advice. A new Team often first realizes that it will either sink or swim as a Team, not individually, in this meeting. The Team realizes that it must rely on itself. As it realizes this, it starts to self-organize to take on the characteristics and behavior of a real Team. Sprint Review At the end of the Sprint, a Sprint Review meeting is held. This is a four hour timeboxed meeting for one month Sprints. For Sprints of lesser duration, this meeting must not consume more than 5% of the total Sprint. During the Sprint Review, the Scrum Team and stakeholders collaborate about what was just done. Based on that and changes
11 to the Product Backlog during the Sprint, they collaborate about what are the next things that could be done. This is an informal meeting, with the presentation of the functionality intended to foster collaboration about what to do next. The meeting includes at least the following elements. The Product Owner identifies what has been done and what hasn t been done. The Team discusses what went well during the Sprint and what problems it ran into, and how it solved these problems. The Team then demonstrates the work that is done and answers questions. The Product Owner then discusses the Product Backlog as it stands. He or she projects likely completion dates with various velocity assumptions. The entire group then collaborates about what it has seen and what this means regarding what to do next. The Sprint Review provides valuable input to subsequent Sprint Planning meeting. Sprint Retrospective After the Sprint Review and prior to the next Sprint Planning meeting, the Scrum Team has a Sprint Retrospective meeting. At this three hour, time-boxed meeting the ScrumMaster encourages the Team to revise, within the Scrum process framework and practices, their development process to make it more effective and enjoyable for the next Sprint. Many books document techniques that are helpful to use in Retrospectives. The purpose of the Retrospective is to inspect how the last Sprint went in regards to people, relationships, process and tools. The inspection should identify and prioritize the major items that went well, and those items that-if done differently-could make things even better. These include Team composition, meeting arrangements, tools, definition of done, methods of communication, and processes for turning Product Backlog items into something done. By the end of the Sprint Retrospective, the Scrum Team should have identified actionable improvement measures that it implements in the next Sprint. These changes become the adaptation to the empirical inspection.
12 Daily Scrum Each Scrum Team meets daily for a 15-minute status meeting called the Daily Scrum. The Daily Scrum is at the same time and same place throughout the Sprints. During the meeting, each Team member explains: What he or she has accomplished since the last meeting; what he or she is going to do before the next meeting; and what obstacles are in his or her way. Daily Scrums improve communications, eliminate other meetings, identify and remove impediments to development, highlight and promote quick decision-making, and improve everyone's level of project knowledge. The ScrumMaster ensures that the Team has the meeting. The Team is responsible for conducting the Daily Scrum. The ScrumMaster teaches the Team to keep the Daily Scrum short by enforcing the rules and making sure that people speak briefly. The ScrumMaster also enforces the rule that chickens are not allowed to talk or in anyway interfere with the Daily Scrum. The Daily Scrum is not a status meeting. It is not for anyone but the people transforming the Product Backlog items into an increment (the Team). The Team has committed to a Sprint Goal, and to these Product Backlog items. The Daily Scrum is an inspection of the progress toward that Sprint Goal (the three questions). Follow-on meetings usually occur to make adaptations to the upcoming work in the Sprint. The intent is to optimize the probability that the Team will meet its Goal. This is a key inspect and adapt meeting in the Scrum empirical process. Scrum Artifacts Scrum Artifacts include the Product Backlog, the Release Burndown, the Sprint Backlog, and the Sprint Burndown.
13 Product Backlog and Release Burndown The requirements for the product that the Scrum Team(s) is developing are listed in the Product Backlog. The Product Owner is responsible for the Product Backlog, its contents, its availability, and its prioritization. Product Backlog is never complete. The initial cut at developing it only lays out the initially known and best-understood requirements. The Product Backlog evolves as the product and the environment in which it will be used evolves. The Backlog is dynamic in that it constantly changes to identify what the product needs to be appropriate, competitive, and useful. As long as a product exists, Product Backlog also exists. The Product Backlog represents everything necessary to develop and launch a successful product. It is a list of all features, functions, technologies, enhancements, and bug fixes that constitute the changes that will be made to the product for future releases. Product Backlog items have the attributes of a description, priority, and estimate. Priority is driven by risk, value, and necessity. There are many techniques for assessing these attributes. Product Backlog items are usually stated as User Stories. Use Cases are appropriate as well, but they are better for use in developing life- or mission-critical software. Product Backlog is sorted in order of priority. Top priority Product Backlog drives immediate development activities. The higher the priority, the more urgent it is, the more it has been thought about, and the more consensus there is regarding its value. Higher priority backlog is clearer and has more detailed information than lower priority backlog. Better estimates are made based on the greater clarity and increased detail. The lower the priority, the less the detail, until you can barely make out the item. As a product is used, as its value increases, and as the marketplace provides feedback, the product s backlog emerges into a larger and more exhaustive list. Requirements never stop changing. Product Backlog is a living document. Changes in business requirements, market conditions, technology, and staffing cause changes in the Product Backlog. To minimize rework, only the highest priority items need to be detailed out. The Product Backlog items that will occupy the Scrum Teams for the upcoming several Sprints are fine-grained, having been decomposed so that any one item can be done within the duration of the Sprint.
14 Scrum Teams often spend 10% of each Sprint grooming the product backlog to meet the above definition of the Product Backlog. When groomed to this level of granularity, the Product Backlog items at the top of the Product Backlog (highest priority, greatest value) are decomposed so they fit within one Sprint. They have been analyzed and thought through during the grooming process. When the Sprint Planning meeting occurs, these top priority Product Backlog items are well understood and easily selected. Multiple Scrum Teams often work together on the same product. One Product Backlog is used to describe the upcoming work on the Product. A Product Backlog attribute that groups items is then employed. Grouping can occur by feature set, technology, or architecture, and it is often used as a way to organize work by Scrum Team. Acceptance tests are often used as another Product Backlog item attribute. They can often supplant more detailed text descriptions with a testable description of what the Product Backlog item must do when completed. The Release Burndown graph records the sum of remaining Product Backlog estimated effort across time. The estimated effort is in whatever unit of work the Scrum Team and organization have decided upon. The units of time are usually Sprints. Product Backlog item estimates are calculated initially during Release Planning, and thereafter as they are created. During Product Backlog grooming they are reviewed and revised. However, they can be updated at any time. The Team is responsible for all estimates. The Product Owner may influence the Team by helping understand and select trade-offs, but the final estimate is made by the Team. The Product Owner keeps an updated Product Backlog list Release Backlog Burndown posted at all times. A trend line can be drawn based on the change in remaining work. In some organizations, more work is added to the backlog than is completed. This may create a trend line that is flat or even slopes upwards. To compensate for this and retain transparency, a new floor may be created when work is added or subtracted. The floor should add or remove only significant changes and should be well documented. The trend line may be unreliable for the first two to three Sprints of a release unless the
15 Scrum Teams have worked together before, know the product well, and understand the underlying technology. Sprint Backlog and Sprint Burndown The Sprint Backlog consists of the tasks the Team performs to turn Product Backlog items into a done increment. Many are developed during the Sprint Planning Meeting. It is all of the work that the Team identifies as necessary to meet the Sprint goal. Sprint Backlog items must be decomposed. The decomposition is enough so changes in progress can be understood in the Daily Scrum. The Team modifies Sprint Backlog throughout the Sprint, as well as Sprint Backlog emerging during the Sprint. As it gets into individual tasks, it may find out that more or fewer tasks are needed, or that a given task will take more or less time than had been expected. As new work is required, the Team adds it to the Sprint Backlog. As tasks are worked on or completed, the hours of estimated remaining work for each task is updated. When tasks are deemed unnecessary, they are removed. Only the Team can change its Sprint Backlog during a Sprint. Only the Team can change the contents or the estimates. The Sprint Backlog is a highly visible, real time picture of the work that the Team plans to accomplish during the Sprint, and it belongs solely to the Team. Sprint Backlog Burndown is a graph of the amount of Sprint Backlog work remaining in a Sprint across time in the Sprint. To create this graph, determine how much work remains by summing the backlog estimates every day of the Sprint. The amount of work remaining for a Sprint is the sum of the work remaining for all of Sprint Backlog. Keep track of these sums by day and use them to create a graph that shows the work remaining over time. By drawing a line through the points on the graph, the Team can manage its progress in completing a Sprint s work. Duration is not considered in Scrum. Work remaining and date are the only variables of interest. Whenever possible, hand draw the burndown chart on a big sheet of paper displayed in the Team's work area. Teams are more likely to see a big, visible chart than they are to look at Sprint burndown chart in Excel or a tool.
16 One of Scrum's rules pertains to the purpose of each Sprint, which is to deliver increments of potentially shippable functionality that adheres to a working definition of done. Done Scrum requires Teams to build an increment of product functionality every Sprint. This increment must be potentially shippable, for Product Owner may choose to immediately implement the functionality. To do so, the increment must be a complete slice of the product. It must be done. Each increment should be additive to all prior increments and thoroughly tested, ensuring that all increments work together. In product development, asserting that functionality is done might lead someone to assume that it is at least cleanly coded, refactored, unit tested, built, and acceptance tested. Someone else might assume only that the code has been built. If everyone doesn t know what the definition of done is, the other two legs of empirical process control don t work. When someone describes something as done, everyone must understand what done means. Done defines what the Team means when it commits to doing a Product Backlog item in a Sprint. Some products do not contain documentation, so the definition of done does not include documentation. A completely done increment includes all of the analysis, design, refactoring, programming, documentation and testing for the increment and all Product Backlog items in the increment. Testing includes unit, system, user, and regression testing, as well as non-functional tests such as performance, stability, security, and integration. Done includes any internationalization. Some Teams aren t yet able to include everything required for implementation in their definition of done. This must be clear to the Product Owner. This remaining work will have to be done before the product can be implemented and used. TIP Undone work is often accumulated in a Product Backlog item called Undone Work or Implementation Work. As this work accumulates, the Product Backlog burndown remains more accurate than if it weren t accumulated.
17 TIP Some organizations are incapable of building a complete increment within one Sprint. They may not yet have the automated testing infrastructure to complete all of the testing. In this case, two categories are created for each increment: the done work and the undone work. The undone work is the portion of each increment that will have to be completed at a later time. The Product Owner knows exactly what he or she is inspecting at the end of the Sprint because the increment meets the definition of done and the Product Owner understands the definition. Undone work is added to a Product Backlog item named undone work so it accumulates and correctly reflects on the Release Burndown graph. This technique creates transparency in progress toward a release. The inspect and adapt in the Sprint Review is as accurate as this transparency. For instance, if a Team is not able to do performance, regression, stability, security, and integration testing for each Product Backlog item, the proportion of this work to the work that can be done (analysis, design, refactoring, programming, documentation, unit and user testing) is calculated. Let s say that this proportion is six pieces of done and four pieces on undone. If the Team finishes a Product Backlog item of six units of work (the Team is estimating based on what it knows how to do ), four is added to the undone work Product Backlog item when they are finished. Sprint by Sprint, the undone work of each increment is accumulated and must be addressed prior to releasing the product. This work is accumulated linearly although it actually has some sort of exponential accumulation that is dependent on each organization s characteristics. Release Sprints are added to the end of any release to complete this undone work. The number of Sprints is unpredictable to the degree that the accumulation of undone work is not linear. Some helpful techniques for conducting a Scrum Retrospective are contained in Agile Retrospectives: Making Good Teams Great, Esther Derby and Diana Larsen, Pragmatic Bookshelf, User Stories Applied: For Agile Software Development, Mike Cohn, Addison-Wesley, Writing Effective Use Cases, Alistair Cockburn, Addison-Wesley, 2000.
February 2010 Scrum: Developed and sustained by Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland Acknowledgements General Scrum is based on industry-accepted best practices, used and proven for decades. It is then set
The Scrum Guide The Definitive Guide to Scrum: The Rules of the Game July 2013 Developed and sustained by Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland Table of Contents Purpose of the Scrum Guide... 3 Definition of
Certified ScrumMaster (CSM) Content Outline and Learning Objectives January 2012 The following pages present the CSM taxonomy as validated through the 2011 Scrum Alliance Validation Study. Each percentage
Certified ScrumMaster (CSM) Content Outline and Learning Objectives January 2012 The following pages present the CSM taxonomy as validated through the 2011 Scrum Alliance Validation Study. Total questions
D25-2 Agile and Scrum Introduction How to Use this Download This download is an overview of a discussion Intertech has with clients on Agile/Scrum This download has an overview of Agile, an overview of
CSPO Learning Objectives Preamble This document contains topics for the Certified Scrum Product Owner (CSPO) training course. The purpose of this document is to describe the minimum set of concepts and
Agile Software Development Lecturer: Raman Ramsin Lecture 4 Scrum: Current Framework 1 Scrum: New Process Framework 1. A people-centric framework based on a set of values, principles, and practices that
Agile Software Development with Scrum Jeff Sutherland Gabrielle Benefield Agenda Introduction Overview of Methodologies Exercise; empirical learning Agile Manifesto Agile Values History of Scrum Exercise:
Nexus Guide The Definitive Guide to Nexus: The exoskeleton of scaled Scrum development Developed and sustained by Ken Schwaber and Scrum.org August 2015 Table of Contents Nexus Overview... 2 Purpose of
A S P E S D L C Tr a i n i n g ScrumMaster Certification Workshop: Preparatory Reading A WHITE PAPER PROVIDED BY ASPE ScrumMaster Certification Workshop: Preparatory Reading Greetings, Potential Certified
Agile Software Project Management with Scrum Viljan Mahnic, Slavko Drnovscek University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Computer and Information Science Trzaska 25, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia firstname.lastname@example.org,
What is Scrum? From http://www.scrumalliance.org/pages/what_is_scrum A lean approach to software development Scrum is an agile software development framework. Work is structured in cycles of work called
The Agile Manifesto is based on 12 principles: Customer satisfaction by rapid delivery of a useful product solution Welcome changing requirements, even late in development Working products are delivered
Scrum SE Presentation by Anurag Dodeja Spring 2010 What is Scrum? Scrum is an agile software development framework. Work is structured in cycles of work called sprints, iterations of work that are typically
Introduction to Agile Scrum by Julia M. Lobur Penn State Harrisburg CMPSC 487W Fall 2015 Introduction to Scrum Learning Goals Relationship of Scrum to other Agile methods Scrum Framework Scrum Roles Scrum
Certified ScrumMaster Workshop Learn, understand, and execute on the three overarching principles behind Scrum: iterative development, self-management, and visibility. Even projects that have solid, well-defined
Learn, understand, and execute on the three overarching principles behind Scrum: iterative development, selfmanagement, and visibility. Even projects that have solid, well-defined project plans encounter
Using Scrum to Streamline Web Applications Development and Improve Transparency Michelle Frisque September 2010 OVERVIEW! Background! The problem! The proposed solutions:! Creation of Web Committee! Implementing
Agile Scrum Workshop What is agile and scrum? Agile meaning: Able to move quickly and easily. Scrum meaning: a Rugby play Agile Scrum: It is an iterative and incremental agile software development framework
The Basics of Scrum An introduction to the framework Introduction Scrum, the most widely practiced Agile process, has been successfully used in software development for the last 20 years. While Scrum has
Capstone Agile Model (CAM) Capstone Agile Model (CAM) Approach Everything we do within the Capstone Agile Model promotes a disciplined project leadership process that encourages frequent inspection and
An Example Checklist for ScrumMasters Michael James (email@example.com) 14 September 2007 (Revised 24 July 2012) A Full Time Facilitator? An adequate ScrumMaster can handle two or three teams at a time.
SCRUM AT RIIS A Standish study found that only 20% of features in a typical system were used often or always and 45% of features were never used at all. The ability to embrace change is critical to reducing
Getting Agile with Scrum Mike Cohn Mountain Goat Software firstname.lastname@example.org 1 Mike Cohn - background 2 We re losing the relay race The relay race approach to product development may conflict
Agile Project Management By Mark C. Layton Agile project management focuses on continuous improvement, scope flexibility, team input, and delivering essential quality products. Agile project management
Scrum and Testing The end of the test role Bryan Bakker 20 maart 2012 voordracht georganiseerd door Discussiegroep Software Testing met de steun van Ingenieurshuis, Antwerpen Scrum and Testing... The end
AGILE HANDBOOK OVERVIEW WHAT IS THIS? This handbook is meant to be a quick-starter guide to Agile Project Management. It is meant for the following people: Someone who is looking for a quick overview on
SESSION 303 Wednesday, March 25, 3:00 PM - 4:00 PM Track: Support Center Optimization Secrets of a Scrum Master: Agile Practices for the Service Desk Donna Knapp Curriculum Development Manager, ITSM Academy
Scrum, User Stories, and More! CSCI 5828: Foundations of Software Engineering Lecture 22 11/06/2014 1 Goals Cover Material from our User Stories Book Chapter 15: Using Stories With Scrum Chapter 16: Additional
Scrum Guidelines v.2 2011 W W W. S C R U M D E S K. C O M WHY Agile Ceremonies Agile project is developed in repeatable ceremonies that give rhythm to delivery. Product Strategy Once per year Release Planning
Scrum and Kanban 101 www.bebetterleader.com @jfiodorova What are your expectations What are the differences between Agile and Traditional? What do you know about Agile Two approaches to control any process:
Scrum In A Nutshell Scrum is about Teams producing Results in an agile way. Scrum Teams achieve results anyway they can by using a simple set of rules to guide effort. We will describe scrum as a simple
Chapter 6. Iteration 0: Preparing for the First Iteration People only see what they are prepared to see. Ralph Waldo Emerson There are no secrets to success. It is the result of preparation, hard work,
SATORI CONSULTING LEAN AGILE POCKET GUIDE Software Product Development Methodology Reference Guide PURPOSE This pocket guide serves as a reference to a family of lean agile software development methodologies
Presented by Jennifer Bleen, PMP Project Services Practice of Cardinal Solutions Group, Inc. Contact: Agile Manifesto We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others
SCRUM 1. Upon what type of process control is Scrum based? a. Empirical b. Hybrid c. Defined d. Complex 2. The three pillars of empirical process control are: a. Respect for People, Kaizen, Eliminating
Versions 2.0 Version Date Remarks 1.0 12/4/2012 Initial version 2.0 3/8/2008 REVISION HISTORY Updated knowledge areas Added questions examples Updated suggested readings section Page 2 of 15 Version 2.0
Agile Software Development Use case for Agile Software Development Methodology in an Oil and Gas Exploration environment. White Paper Introduction No matter what business you are in, there are critical
Agile Software Development Stefan Balbo / Patrick Dolemieux Agile Software Development Stefan Balbo / Patrick Dolemieux Content Why go Agile? Introduction to Scrum - Process - Roles Agile Estimating and
Agile Metrics It s Not All That Complicated Welcome About your Trainer, Katia Sullivan VersionOne Product Trainer and Agile Coach Certified Scrum Master Certified Scrum Product Owner Led teams/org s to
What Does a Business Analyst Do on an Agile Project? By Kent J. McDonald Senior Instructor, B2T Training As the use of agile approaches increases, business analysts struggle to determine how their role
Frank Cervone Vice Chancellor for Information Services and Chief Information Officer Purdue University Calumet January 17, 2012 CARLI Anatomy of a Digital Project webinar series An overview and background
Rally Software Development Corporation Whitepaper Mastering the Iteration: An Agile White Paper Dean Leffingwell Abstract: The heartbeat of Agile development is the iteration the ability of the team to
Firebrand s training to prepare you for Scrum.org s Professional Scrum Master Certification Courseware Slides & Notes Version 2.3 www.firebrandtraining.com Scrum Master Foundations Theory, Practice & Assessment
1 Goal Professional Services Pty Ltd 2 Renewtek Pty Ltd Integrating PRINCE2 and Scrum for successful new product development Rankins G J 1 and Kearns M 2 This paper was presented at the Australian Institute
Agile Notetaker & Scrum Reference Designed by Axosoft, the creators of OnTime the #1 selling scrum software. Scrum Diagram: Team Roles: roduct Owner: Is responsible for what goes into the product backlog
Neglecting Agile Principles and Practices: A Case Study Patrícia Vilain Departament de Informatics and Statistics (INE) Federal University of Santa Catarina Florianópolis, Brazil email@example.com Alexandre
Waterfall to Agile DFI Case Study By Nick Van, PMP DFI Case Study Waterfall Agile DFI and Waterfall Choosing Agile Managing Change Lessons Learned, Sprints Summary Q and A Waterfall Waterfall Waterfall
Adapting Agile Software Development to Regulated Industry Paul Buckley Section 706 Section Event June 16, 2015 Agenda FDA s expectations for Software Development What is Agile development? Aligning Agile
Introduction to for Managers and Executives goodagile> Certified Training and Consulting in India and Asia www.goodagile.com The Problems Many Companies Face Time-to-market for products is too long Project
USCIS/SPAS: Product Backlog Items and User Stories 4/16/2015 Dr. Patrick McConnell July 9, 2015 1 First, an old joke.. I can t identify an original source for this cartoon. As best as I can tell, the art
A Viable Systems Engineering Approach Presented by: Dick Carlson (firstname.lastname@example.org) Philip Matuzic (email@example.com) i i Introduction This presentation ti addresses systems engineering
Agile & Scrum: What are these methodologies and how will they impact QA/testing roles? Marina Gil Santamaria Summer 2007 The idea behind the Agile approach is that instead of building a release that is
ScrumMaster or Armchair Psychologist Scrum Fundamentals Webinar Q&A March 9, 2016 As a ScrumMaster, one of your responsibilities is "Causing change that increases the productivity of the Scrum Team." What
Scrum In 10 Slides Inspect & Adapt Why Scrum? 52.7% projects cost 189% of their original estimates 60% of functionality delivered is rarely or never used 80% of the value comes from 20% of the functionality
What does it mean to be Agile Marek Majchrzak, Andrzej Bednarz Wrocław, 11.10.2011 2 Traditional methods Assumptions: The customer knows what he wants The developers know how to build it Nothing will change
SCRUM A Tool from the Software World Can Improve Analytical Project Outcomes By KyMBER WALTMUNSON When jurisdictions undertake analytical work such as audits, budget analysis, program evaluation, and special
Course Title: Planning and Managing Agile Projects Course ID: BA15 Credits: 21 PDUs Course Duration: 3 days (Live in person class only) Course Level: Basic/Intermediate Course Description: This 3-day course
Agile Systems Engineering: What is it and What Have We Learned? March 2012 Dr. Suzette S. Johnson Agile Engineering Northrop Grumman Suzette.Johnson@ngc.com Getting To Know You! Dr. Suzette Johnson Northrop
FREE ONLINE EDITION (non-printable free online version) If you like the book, please support the author & InfoQ by purchasing the printed version: www.sprint-it.de/scrum-checklists (only 19,90 euro) Brought
Getting Agile with Scrum Mike Cohn November 11, 2008 1 Mike Cohn - background 2 Agenda Overview of Scrum Product backlogs Sprints and sprint backlog Tracking progress Scrum meetings 3 The Agile Manifesto
Secrets of a Scrum Master: Agile Practices for the Service Desk #askitsm @ITSMAcademy @ITSM_Lisa @ITSM_Donna ITSM Academy About ITSM Academy NextGen ITSM Education: Certified Process Design Engineer (CPDE)
Product Development with Scrum XP San Diego January 6, 2005 By Paul Hodgetts, Agile Logic www.agilelogic.com Introductions Solutions for Delivering Your Projects: Agile Process Adoption Solutions Coaching,
Agile Project Management with Scrum Resource links http://www.agilealliance.org/ http://www.agilemanifesto.org/ http://www.scrum-master.com/ 1 Manifesto for Agile Software Development Individuals and interactions
Getting Agile with Scrum Mike Cohn 6 June 2014 1 We re losing the relay race The relay race approach to product development may conflict with the goals of maximum speed and flexibility. Instead a holistic
B E S T P R A C T I C E S W H I T E P A P E R 10 Keys to Successful Scrum Adoption Jenny Stuart, Vice President of Consulting, Construx Software Version 2, November 2011 Contributors Earl Beede, Senior
THE SCRUM PRIMER Pete Deemer Scrum Training Institute (ScrumTI.com) Gabrielle Benefield Scrum Training Institute (ScrumTI.com) Craig Larman craiglarman.com Bas Vodde Odd-e.com version 1.2 A note to readers:
Issues in Internet Design and Development Course of Instructions on Issues in Internet Design and Development Week-2 Agile Methods Saad Bin Saleem PhD Candidate (Software Engineering) Users.mct.open.ac.uk/sbs85
AGILE - QUICK GUIDE http://www.tutorialspoint.com/agile/agile_quick_guide.htm Copyright tutorialspoint.com AGILE - PRIMER Agile is a software development methodology to build a software incrementally using
Introduction to Scrum Recorded by Michael James [Existing slide with MJ] Welcome to Module 1 of CollabNet s Scrum Training Series: Introduction to Scrum. This is a brief introduction to topics that are
EXIN Agile Scrum Foundation Sample Exam Edition June 2016 Copyright 2016 EXIN All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be published, reproduced, copied or stored in a data processing system
AGILE FOUNDATION CERTIFICATE SAMPLE FOUNDATION QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS This document is a set of sample questions, in the style of the Agile Foundation Certificate Examination, which is a 60 question, 1
Jukka Mannila KEY PERFORFORMANCE INDICATORS IN AGILE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT Information Technology 2013 KEY PERFORFORMANCE INDICATORS IN AGILE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT Mannila, Jukka Satakunnan ammattikorkeakoulu,
Scrum Discussion Questions For the Facilitator These questions and subsequent discussion points are designed to help you and your Team more efficiently implement Scrum. The following are discussion points
ISSN:2320-0790 Applying Lean on Agile Scrum Development Methodology SurendRaj Dharmapal, Dr. K. Thirunadana Sikamani Department of Computer Science, St. Peter University St. Peter s College of Engineering
How Silk Central brings flexibility to agile development The name agile development is perhaps slightly misleading as it is by its very nature, a carefully structured environment of rigorous procedures.
Agile Software Development in the Large Jutta Eckstein 1 Large Large in... Scope Time People Money Risks We concentrate on Large Teams Large is relative 1, 2, 10, 100, 2000 People 2 Principles behind Agile
Rally Software Development Corporation Whitepaper 5 Levels of Agile Planning: From Enterprise Product Vision to Team Stand-up Hubert Smits Agile Coach and Certified ScrumMaster Trainer firstname.lastname@example.org
Managing a Project Using an Agile Approach and the PMBOK Guide Kathy Schwalbe, Ph.D. email@example.com Augsburg College Minneapolis, Minnesota September 25, 2012 Abstract This paper includes excerpts
Hi, To assist people that we work with in Scrum/Agile courses and coaching assignments, I have developed some Scrum study-questions. The questions can be used to further improve your understanding of what
Scrum with XP By Kane Mar, Ken Schwaber. Introduction Scrum and extreme programming (XP) are both Agile methodologies. We've heard controversy regarding the value of each, with people familiar with each
So l u t i o n s Blending Agile and Lean Thinking for More Efficient IT Development By Harry Kenworthy Agile development and Lean management can lead to more cost-effective, timely production of information
Pragmatic Agile Development (PAD) Conceptual Framework This document describes the Pragmatic Agile Development framework, a Scrum based development process. SmartBear Software 3/10/2010 Pragmatic Agile
Scrum and CMMI: A High level assessment of compatibility Srinivas Chillara 1 and Pete Deemer 2 Abstract: This article s purpose is to assess the compatibility of Scrum with CMMI and also provide a base